International Refugee Assistance Project v. Trump

Filing 297

OPINION ATTACHMENT. [17-1351] (JSN)

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The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 1 of 51 Contact Library Library Publications Center for the Study of Intelligence Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room Kent Center Occasional Papers Intelligence Literature Reports Related Links Video Center Pleaseselect a a country view Please select country to to view COUNTRY COMPARISON :: POPULATION 017 4/2 5/2 Population compares estimates from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. RANK COUNTRY w vie 0 ed POPULATION DATE OF INFORMATION CHINA 2 INDIA 3 EUROPEAN UNION 4 UNITED STATES 5 INDONESIA 6 BRAZIL 7 PAKISTAN 8 NIGERIA 9 BANGLADESH 10 RUSSIA 11 JAPAN 12 MEXICO 13 PHILIPPINES 14 ETHIOPIA 15 VIETNAM 17. No 51, 13 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] 1,373,541,278 JULY 2016 EST. 1,266,883,598 JULY 2016 EST. 513,949,445 JULY 2016 EST. 323,995,528 JULY 2016 EST. 258,316,051 JULY 2016 EST. 205,823,665 JULY 2016 EST. 201,995,540 JULY 2016 EST. 186,053,386 JULY 2016 EST. 156,186,882 JULY 2016 EST. 142,355,415 JULY 2016 EST. 126,702,133 JULY 2016 EST. 123,166,749 JULY 2016 EST. 102,624,209 JULY 2016 EST. 102,374,044 JULY 2016 EST. 95,261,021 JULY 2016 EST. 94,666,993 1 JULY 2016 EST. The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 16 17 IRAN 18 CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE 19 GERMANY 20 TURKEY 21 THAILAND 22 FRANCE 23 UNITED KINGDOM 24 ITALY 25 BURMA 26 SOUTH AFRICA 27 TANZANIA 28 KOREA, SOUTH 29 SPAIN 30 COLOMBIA 31 KENYA 32 UKRAINE 33 ARGENTINA 34 ALGERIA 35 POLAND 36 UGANDA 37 IRAQ 38 SUDAN 39 CANADA 40 MOROCCO 41 AFGHANISTAN 42 MALAYSIA 43 VENEZUELA 44 PERU 45 Pg: 2 of 51 EGYPT UZBEKISTAN 82,801,633 81,331,050 JULY 2016 EST. 66,836,154 JULY 2016 EST. 64,430,428 JULY 2016 EST. 62,007,540 JULY 2016 EST. 56,890,418 JULY 2016 EST. 54,300,704 JULY 2016 EST. 52,482,726 JULY 2016 EST. 50,924,172 JULY 2016 EST. 48,563,476 JULY 2016 EST. 47,220,856 JULY 2016 EST. 46,790,758 JULY 2016 EST. 44,209,733 JULY 2016 EST. 43,886,748 JULY 2016 EST. 40,263,711 JULY 2016 EST. 38,523,261 JULY 2016 EST. 38,319,241 JULY 2016 EST. 38,146,025 JULY 2016 EST. 36,729,501 JULY 2016 EST. 35,362,905 JULY 2016 EST. 33,655,786 JULY 2016 EST. 33,332,025 JULY 2016 EST. 30,949,962 JULY 2016 EST. 30,912,302 JULY 2016 EST. 30,741,062 JULY 2016 EST. 29,473,614 JULY 2016 EST. 29,033,914 JULY 2016 EST. 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No JULY 2016 EST. 68,200,824 e JULY 2016 EST. 80,274,604 , vi 351 JULY 2016 EST. 80,722,792 d we JULY 2016 EST. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 46 47 YEMEN 49 GHANA 50 MOZAMBIQUE 51 KOREA, NORTH 52 MADAGASCAR 53 CAMEROON 54 COTE D'IVOIRE 55 TAIWAN 56 AUSTRALIA 57 SRI LANKA 58 ROMANIA 59 ANGOLA 60 BURKINA FASO 61 NIGER 62 MALAWI 63 KAZAKHSTAN 64 CHILE 65 MALI 66 SYRIA 67 NETHERLANDS 68 ECUADOR 69 CAMBODIA 70 ZAMBIA 71 GUATEMALA 72 ZIMBABWE 73 SENEGAL 74 RWANDA 75 Pg: 3 of 51 SAUDI ARABIA 48 Filed: 05/25/2017 NEPAL SOUTH SUDAN 28,160,273 27,392,779 26,908,262 JULY 2016 EST. 24,360,803 JULY 2016 EST. 23,740,424 JULY 2016 EST. 23,464,787 JULY 2016 EST. 22,992,654 JULY 2016 EST. 22,235,000 JULY 2016 EST. 21,599,736 JULY 2016 EST. 20,172,332 JULY 2016 EST. 19,512,533 JULY 2016 EST. 18,638,600 JULY 2016 EST. 18,570,321 JULY 2016 EST. 18,360,353 JULY 2016 EST. 17,650,114 JULY 2016 EST. 17,467,108 JULY 2016 EST. 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No JULY 2016 EST. 24,430,325 e JULY 2016 EST. 25,115,311 , vi 351 JULY 2016 EST. 25,930,150 d we JULY 2016 EST. 17,185,170 JULY 2016 EST. 16,080,778 JULY 2016 EST. 15,957,223 JULY 2016 EST. 15,510,711 JULY 2016 EST. 15,189,958 JULY 2016 EST. 14,546,961 JULY 2016 EST. 14,320,055 JULY 2016 EST. 12,988,423 JULY 2016 EST. 12,530,717 JULY 2016 EST. 12,093,349 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] 17,016,967 JULY 2016 EST. The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 76 77 BELGIUM 79 CUBA 80 TUNISIA 81 BURUNDI 82 BOLIVIA 83 PORTUGAL 84 SOMALIA 85 GREECE 86 BENIN 87 CZECHIA 88 DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 89 HAITI 90 SWEDEN 91 HUNGARY 92 AZERBAIJAN 93 BELARUS 94 HONDURAS 95 AUSTRIA 96 TAJIKISTAN 97 JORDAN 98 SWITZERLAND 99 ISRAEL 100 TOGO 101 HONG KONG 102 BULGARIA 103 SERBIA 104 LAOS 105 Pg: 4 of 51 CHAD 78 Filed: 05/25/2017 GUINEA PARAGUAY 11,852,462 11,409,077 JULY 2016 EST. 10,969,649 JULY 2016 EST. 10,833,816 JULY 2016 EST. 10,817,354 JULY 2016 EST. 10,773,253 JULY 2016 EST. 10,741,458 JULY 2016 EST. 10,644,842 JULY 2016 EST. 10,606,865 JULY 2016 EST. 10,485,800 JULY 2016 EST. 9,880,604 JULY 2016 EST. 9,874,784 JULY 2016 EST. 9,872,765 JULY 2016 EST. 9,570,376 JULY 2016 EST. 8,893,259 JULY 2016 EST. 8,711,770 JULY 2016 EST. 8,330,946 JULY 2016 EST. 8,185,384 JULY 2016 EST. 8,179,294 JULY 2016 EST. 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No JULY 2016 EST. 11,099,298 e JULY 2016 EST. 11,134,588 , vi 351 JULY 2016 EST. 11,179,995 d we JULY 2016 EST. 8,174,527 JULY 2016 EST. 7,167,403 JULY 2016 EST. 7,144,653 JULY 2016 EST. 7,143,921 JULY 2016 EST. 7,019,073 JULY 2016 EST. 6,862,812 JULY 2016 EST. 6,791,317 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] 7,756,937 JULY 2016 EST. The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 106 107 LEBANON 109 EL SALVADOR 110 SIERRA LEONE 111 NICARAGUA 112 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 113 ERITREA 114 SINGAPORE 115 KYRGYZSTAN 116 DENMARK 117 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 118 FINLAND 119 SLOVAKIA 120 TURKMENISTAN 121 NORWAY 122 IRELAND 123 GEORGIA 124 COSTA RICA 125 CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE 126 NEW ZEALAND 127 CROATIA 128 LIBERIA 129 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 130 PANAMA 131 MAURITANIA 132 PUERTO RICO 133 MOLDOVA 134 OMAN 135 Pg: 5 of 51 LIBYA 108 Filed: 05/25/2017 PAPUA NEW GUINEA URUGUAY 6,541,948 JULY 2016 EST. 6,237,738 JULY 2016 EST. 6,156,670 JULY 2016 EST. 6,018,888 JULY 2016 EST. 5,966,798 JULY 2016 EST. 5,927,482 5,869,869 5,781,728 JULY 2016 EST. 5,498,211 JULY 2016 EST. 5,445,802 JULY 2016 EST. 5,291,317 JULY 2016 EST. 5,265,158 JULY 2016 EST. 4,952,473 JULY 2016 EST. 4,928,052 JULY 2016 EST. 4,872,543 JULY 2016 EST. 4,852,412 JULY 2016 EST. 4,474,549 JULY 2016 EST. 4,313,707 JULY 2016 EST. 4,299,944 JULY 2016 EST. 3,861,912 JULY 2016 EST. 3,705,246 JULY 2016 EST. 3,677,293 JULY 2016 EST. 3,578,056 JULY 2016 EST. 3,510,485 JULY 2016 EST. 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No JULY 2016 EST. 5,507,257 e JULY 2016 EST. 5,593,785 , vi 351 JULY 2016 EST. 5,727,553 d we JULY 2016 EST. 3,355,262 JULY 2016 EST. 3,051,250 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] 3,351,016 JULY 2016 EST. The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 136 137 MONGOLIA 139 JAMAICA 140 LITHUANIA 141 KUWAIT 142 WEST BANK 143 NAMIBIA 144 QATAR 145 BOTSWANA 146 MACEDONIA 147 GAMBIA, THE 148 SLOVENIA 149 LATVIA 150 LESOTHO 151 KOSOVO 152 GUINEA-BISSAU 153 GAZA STRIP 154 GABON 155 SWAZILAND 156 BAHRAIN 157 MAURITIUS 158 TIMOR-LESTE 159 ESTONIA 160 TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO 161 CYPRUS 162 FIJI 163 DJIBOUTI 164 COMOROS 165 Pg: 6 of 51 ALBANIA 138 Filed: 05/25/2017 ARMENIA EQUATORIAL GUINEA 3,038,594 JULY 2016 EST. 3,031,330 JULY 2016 EST. 2,970,340 JULY 2016 EST. 2,854,235 JULY 2016 EST. 2,832,776 2,697,687 2,436,469 2,258,283 JULY 2016 EST. 1,978,029 JULY 2016 EST. 1,965,686 JULY 2016 EST. 1,953,070 JULY 2016 EST. 1,883,018 JULY 2016 EST. 1,759,159 JULY 2016 EST. 1,753,327 JULY 2016 EST. 1,738,541 JULY 2016 EST. 1,451,428 JULY 2016 EST. 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No JULY 2016 EST. 2,009,648 e JULY 2016 EST. 2,100,025 , vi 351 JULY 2016 EST. 2,209,208 d we JULY 2016 EST. 1,378,904 JULY 2016 EST. 1,261,072 JULY 2016 EST. 1,258,545 JULY 2016 EST. 1,220,479 JULY 2016 EST. 1,205,575 JULY 2016 EST. 915,303 JULY 2016 EST. 846,687 JULY 2016 EST. 794,678 JULY 2016 EST. 759,451 JULY 2016 EST. 750,125 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] 1,348,242 JULY 2016 EST. The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 166 167 GUYANA 168 MONTENEGRO 169 SOLOMON ISLANDS 170 MACAU 171 WESTERN SAHARA 172 SURINAME 173 LUXEMBOURG 174 CABO VERDE 175 BRUNEI 176 MALTA 177 MALDIVES 178 BELIZE 179 ICELAND 180 BAHAMAS, THE 181 BARBADOS 182 FRENCH POLYNESIA 183 VANUATU 184 NEW CALEDONIA 185 SAMOA 186 SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE 187 SAINT LUCIA 188 GUAM 189 CURACAO 190 ARUBA 191 GRENADA 192 KIRIBATI 193 TONGA 194 MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF 195 Pg: 7 of 51 BHUTAN VIRGIN ISLANDS 735,909 644,578 JULY 2016 EST. 585,824 JULY 2016 EST. 582,291 JULY 2016 EST. 553,432 JULY 2016 EST. 436,620 JULY 2016 EST. 415,196 JULY 2016 EST. 392,960 JULY 2016 EST. 353,858 JULY 2016 EST. 335,878 JULY 2016 EST. 327,316 JULY 2016 EST. 291,495 JULY 2016 EST. 285,321 JULY 2016 EST. 277,554 JULY 2016 EST. 275,355 JULY 2016 EST. 198,926 JULY 2016 EST. 197,541 JULY 2016 EST. 164,464 JULY 2016 EST. 162,742 JULY 2016 EST. 149,035 JULY 2016 EST. 113,648 JULY 2016 EST. 111,219 JULY 2016 EST. 106,925 JULY 2016 EST. 106,513 JULY 2016 EST. 104,719 JULY 2016 EST. 102,951 JULY 2016 EST. 102,350 JULY 2016 EST. 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No JULY 2016 EST. 587,020 e JULY 2016 EST. 597,425 , vi 351 JULY 2016 EST. 635,027 d we JULY 2016 EST. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 196 197 JERSEY 198 ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA 199 SEYCHELLES 200 ISLE OF MAN 201 ANDORRA 202 DOMINICA 203 MARSHALL ISLANDS 204 BERMUDA 205 GUERNSEY 206 GREENLAND 207 CAYMAN ISLANDS 208 AMERICAN SAMOA 209 NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS 210 SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS 211 TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS 212 FAROE ISLANDS 213 SINT MAARTEN 214 LIECHTENSTEIN 215 BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS 216 SAN MARINO 217 SAINT MARTIN 218 MONACO 219 GIBRALTAR 220 PALAU 221 ANGUILLA 222 WALLIS AND FUTUNA 223 TUVALU 224 NAURU 225 Pg: 8 of 51 SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES COOK ISLANDS 98,069 93,581 JULY 2016 EST. 73,757 JULY 2016 EST. 73,376 JULY 2016 EST. 70,537 JULY 2016 EST. 66,297 JULY 2016 EST. 57,728 JULY 2016 EST. 57,268 JULY 2016 EST. 54,194 JULY 2016 EST. 53,467 JULY 2016 EST. 52,329 JULY 2016 EST. 51,430 JULY 2016 EST. 50,456 JULY 2016 EST. 41,486 2015 EST. 37,937 JULY 2016 EST. 34,232 JULY 2016 EST. 33,285 JULY 2016 EST. 31,949 JULY 2016 EST. 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No JULY 2016 EST. 85,660 e JULY 2016 EST. 88,195 , vi 351 JULY 2016 EST. 93,186 d we JULY 2016 EST. 30,581 29,328 JULY 2016 EST. 21,347 JULY 2016 EST. 16,752 JULY 2016 EST. 15,664 JULY 2016 EST. 10,959 JULY 2016 EST. 9,591 JULY 2016 EST. 9,556 7,795 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] JULY 2016 EST. The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 9 of 51 226 SAINT HELENA, ASCENSION, AND TRISTAN DA CUNHA 227 SAINT BARTHELEMY 228 SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON 229 MONTSERRAT 230 FALKLAND ISLANDS (ISLAS MALVINAS) 231 NORFOLK ISLAND 232 CHRISTMAS ISLAND 233 SVALBARD 234 TOKELAU 235 NIUE 236 HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY) 237 COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS 238 PITCAIRN ISLANDS 7,209 5,595 JULY 2016 EST. 2,931 2014 EST. 2,210 JULY 2014 EST. 2,205 JULY 2016 EST. 1,872 JULY 2014 EST. 1,337 JULY 2014 EST. 1,190 JULY 2014 EST. 1,000 2015 EST. 596 Privacy Copyright Site Policies USA.gov d we e , vi 351 FOIA DNI.gov NoFEAR Act 017 4/2 5/2 0 Inspector General . No JULY 2016 EST. 5,267 Contact CIA JULY 2016 EST. 1 17- Site Map https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html[5/24/2017 3:15:30 PM] JULY 2014 EST. 54 JULY 2016 EST. The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 10 of 51 Contact Library Library Publications Center for the Study of Intelligence Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room Kent Center Occasional Papers Intelligence Literature Reports Related Links Video Center Pleaseselect a a country view Please select country to to view FIELD LISTING :: CITIZENSHIP COUNTRY Afghanistan 017 4/2 5/2 PIPELINES citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must have been born in - and continuously lived in - Afghanistan dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years e d we , vi 351 0 Albania citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Albania dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Algeria citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Algeria dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years American Samoa see United States Andorra citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the mother must be an Andorran citizen or the father must have been born in Andorra and both parents maintain permanent residence in Andorra dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years Angola citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Angola dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Anguilla see United Kingdom Antigua and Barbuda citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Argentina citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes 1 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 11 of 51 dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years Armenia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Armenia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years Aruba see the Netherlands Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australia see Australia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Australia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years Austria citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Azerbaijan citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Bahamas, The citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of The Bahamas dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 6-9 years Bahrain citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bahrain dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years; 15 years for Arab nationals Bangladesh citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bangladesh dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Barbados citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Belarus citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Belarus dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Belgium citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Belgium dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Belize citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Benin citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Benin dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 12 of 51 Bermuda citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the UK dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Bhutan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bhutan dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Bolivia citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years Bosnia and Herzegovina citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina dual citizenship recognized: yes, provided there is a bilateral agreement with the other state residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years Botswana citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Brazil citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years 017 4/2 5/2 British Virgin Islands see United Kingdom Brunei citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Brunei dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 12 years e d we , vi 351 0 1 17. No Bulgaria citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Bulgaria dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Burkina Faso citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Burkina Faso dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Burma citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Burma dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: none note: an applicant for naturalization must be the child or spouse of a citizen Burundi citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Burundi dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Cabo Verde citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cabo Verde dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Cambodia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cambodia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 13 of 51 Cameroon citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cameroon dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Canada citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years Cayman Islands see United Kingdom Central African Republic citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of the Central African Republic dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 35 years Chad citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years Chile citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years China citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen of China dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: while naturalization is theoretically possible, in practical terms it is extremely difficult; residency is required but not specified Christmas Island see Australia Cocos (Keeling) Islands see Australia Colombia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: least one parent must be a citizen or permanent resident of Colombia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Comoros citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Comoros dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Congo, Democratic Republic of the citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Democratic Republic of the Congo dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Congo, Republic of the citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Republic of the Congo dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Coral Sea Islands see Australia Costa Rica citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Cote d'Ivoire citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cote d'Ivoire e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 14 of 51 dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Croatia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Cuba citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: unknown Curacao see the Netherlands Cyprus citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cyprus dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Czechia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Czech Republic dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Denmark citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Denmark dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Djibouti Dominica 017 4/2 5/2 citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the mother must be a citizen of Djibouti dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years e d we , vi 351 0 citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years 1 17. No Dominican Republic citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Dominican Republic dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years Ecuador citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years Egypt citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: if the father was born in Egypt dual citizenship recognized: only with prior permission from the government residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years El Salvador citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Equatorial Guinea citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Equatorial Guinea dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Eritrea citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Eritrea dual citizenship recognized: no https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 15 of 51 residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years Estonia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Estonia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Ethiopia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ethiopia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Faroe Islands see United Kingdom see Denmark Fiji citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Fiji dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Finland citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years France citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of France dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years French Polynesia French Southern and Antarctic Lands Gabon see France see France e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Gabon dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years 1 17. No Gambia, The citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Georgia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Germany citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a German citizen or a resident alien who has lived in Germany at least 8 years dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from government residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years Ghana citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Gibraltar see United Kingdom Greece citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Greece dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 16 of 51 Greenland see Denmark Grenada citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years for persons from a non-Caribbean state and 4 years for a person from a Caribbean state Guam see United States Guatemala citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years with no absences of six consecutive months or longer or absences totaling more than a year Guernsey see United Kingdom Guinea-Bissau citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Guinea citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Guinea dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: na Guyana citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: na Haiti citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Haiti dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No Holy See (Vatican City) citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent: no dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: not applicable note: in the Holy See, citizenship is acquired by law, ex iure, or by adminstrative decision; in the first instance citizenship is a function of holding office within the Holy See as in the case of cardinals resident in Vatican City or diplomats of the Holy See; in the second instance, citizenship may be requested in a limited set of circumstances for those who reside within Vatican City under papal authorization, as a function of their office or service, or as the spouses and children of current citizens; citizenship is lost once an individual no longer permanently resides in Vatican City, normally reverting to the citizenship previously held Honduras citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 1 to 3 years Hong Kong see China Hungary citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Hungary dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years Iceland citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iceland dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3 to 7 years India https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 17 of 51 citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of India dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Indonesia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years Iran citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Iran dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Iraq citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Iraq dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Ireland citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 4 of the previous 8 years Isle of Man see United Kingdom Israel citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Israel dual citizenship recognized: yes, but naturalized citizens are not allowed to maintain dual citizenship residency requirement for naturalization: 3 out of the 5 years preceding the application for naturalization note: Israeli law (Law of Return, 5 July 1950) provides for the granting of citizenship to any Jew defined as a person being born to a Jewish mother or having converted to Judaism while renouncing any other religion - who immigrates to and expresses a desire to settle in Israel on the basis of the Right of aliyah; the 1970 amendment of this act extended the right to family members including the spouse of a Jew, any child or grandchild, and the spouses of children and grandchildren e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No Italy citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Italy dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years for EU nationals, 5 years for refugees and specified exceptions, 10 years for all others Jamaica citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 5 years Japan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Japan dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Jersey see United Kingdom Jordan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years Kazakhstan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kazakhstan dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 18 of 51 Kenya citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kenya dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years Kiribati citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Kiribati dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Korea, North citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of North Korea dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: unknown Korea, South citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Korea dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Kosovo citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kosovo dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Kuwait citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kuwait dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: not specified Kyrgyzstan Laos 017 4/2 5/2 citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years e d we , vi 351 0 citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Laos dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years 1 17. No Latvia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Latvia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Lebanon citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Lebanon dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: unknown Lesotho citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Liberia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Liberia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years Libya citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Libya dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: varies from 3 to 5 years Liechtenstein citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Liechtenstein; in the case of a child https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 19 of 51 born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Lithuania citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Lithuania dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Luxembourg citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Macau see China Macedonia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Macedonia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years Madagascar citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Madagascar; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: unknown Malawi citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malawi dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 Malaysia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malaysia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 out 12 years preceding application Maldives citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Maldives dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: unknown Mali citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mali dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Malta citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Malta dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Marshall Islands citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Marshall Islands dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Mauritania citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mauritania dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Mauritius citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes 1 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 20 of 51 residency requirement for naturalization: 5 out of the previous 7 years including the last 12 months Mexico citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: not specified residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Micronesia, Federated States of citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of FSM dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Midway Islands see United States Moldova citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Monaco citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Monaco; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen and father unknown dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Mongolia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Mongolia; one parent if born within Mongolia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Montenegro d we 017 4/2 5/2 0 citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Montenegro dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years e , vi 351 1 Montserrat see United Kingdom Morocco citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Morocco; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Mozambique citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Namibia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Namibia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Nepal citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years Netherlands citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Netherlands dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years New Caledonia see France New Zealand citizenship by birth: no 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 21 of 51 citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of New Zealand dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years Nicaragua citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no, except in cases where bilateral agreements exist residency requirement for naturalization: 4 years Nigeria citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Nigeria dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years Niger citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: unknown Norfolk Island see Australia Northern Mariana Islands see United States Norway citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Norway dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Oman citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Oman dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: unknown Pakistan citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Pakistan dual citizenship recognized: yes, but limited to select countries residency requirement for naturalization: 4 out of the previous 7 years and including the 12 months preceding application e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No Palau citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Palau dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: note - no procedure for naturalization Panama citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Papua New Guinea citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Papua New Guinea dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years Paraguay citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a native-born citizen of Paraguay dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years Peru citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years Philippines citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Philippines dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 22 of 51 Pitcairn Islands see United Kingdom Poland citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Poland dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Portugal citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese speaking country Puerto Rico see United States Qatar citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Qatar dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 20 years; 15 years if an Arab national Romania citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Russia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Russia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years Rwanda citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Rwanda; if the father is stateless or unknown, the mother must be a citizen dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Saint Barthelemy Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis e d we , vi 351 see France 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No see United Kingdom citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 14 years Saint Lucia citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Saint Lucia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years Saint Martin see France Saint Pierre and Miquelon see France Saint Vincent and the Grenadines citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: at least one parent must be a citizen of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Samoa citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Samoa dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years San Marino citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 23 of 51 Sao Tome and Principe citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Sao Tome and Principe dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Saudi Arabia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Saudi Arabia; a child born out of wedlock in Saudi Arabia to a Saudi mother and unknown father dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Senegal citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Serbia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Serbia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years Seychelles citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Seychelles dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Sierra Leone citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Sierra Leone dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Singapore citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Singapore dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No Sint Maarten see the Netherlands Slovakia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovakia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Slovenia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Slovenia; both parents if the child is born outside of Slovenia dual citizenship recognized: yes, for select cases residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years, the last 5 of which have been continuous Solomon Islands citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Solomon Islands dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Somalia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Somalia dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years South Africa citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Africa dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission of the government residency requirement for naturalization: 1 year South Sudan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of South Sudan https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 24 of 51 dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Spain citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Spain dual citizenship recognized: only with select Latin American countries residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years for persons with no ties to Spain Sri Lanka citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Sri Lanka dual citizenship recognized: no, except in cases where the government rules it is to the benefit of Sri Lanka residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Sudan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sudan dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Suriname citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Suriname dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Svalbard see Norway Swaziland citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Swaziland dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Sweden 017 4/2 5/2 citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years e d we , vi 351 0 1 Switzerland citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Switzerland dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 12 years including at least 3 of the last 5 years prior to application Syria citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Syria; if the father is unknown or stateless, the mother must be a citizen of Syria dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Taiwan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Taiwan dual citizenship recognized: yes, except that citizens of Taiwan are not recognized as dual citizens of the People's Republic of China residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Tajikistan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application Tanzania citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tanzania; if a child is born abroad, the father must be a citizen of Tanzania dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 25 of 51 Thailand citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Thailand dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Timor-Leste citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Timor-Leste dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Togo citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Togo dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Tokelau see New Zealand Tonga citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Tonga; if a child is born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Tonga dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Trinidad and Tobago citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 8 years Tunisia citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tunisia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Turkey citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkey dual citizenship recognized: yes, but requires prior permission from the government residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Turkmenistan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Turkmenistan dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years Turks and Caicos Islands see United Kingdom Tuvalu citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes; for a child born abroad, at least one parent must be a citizen of Tuvalu dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: na Uganda citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a native-born citizen of Uganda dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: an aggregate of 20 years and continuously for the last 2 years prior to applying for citizenship Ukraine citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Ukraine dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years United Arab Emirates citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of the United Arab Emirates; if the father is unknown, the mother must be a citizen dual citizenship recognized: no e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 26 of 51 residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years United Kingdom citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the United Kingdom dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years United States citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no, but the US government acknowledges such situtations exist; US citizens are not encouraged to seek dual citizenship since it limits protection by the US residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Uruguay citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 3-5 years Uzbekistan citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Vanuatu citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Vanuatu; in the case of only one parent, it must be the father who is a citizen dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Venezuela citizenship by birth: yes citizenship by descent: yes dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 Vietnam citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Vietnam dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years Virgin Islands see United States Wake Island see United States Wallis and Futuna see France Yemen citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Yemen; if the father is unknown, the mother must be a citizen dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years Zambia citizenship by birth: only if at least one parent is a citizen of Zambia citizenship by descent: yes, if at least one parent was a citizen of Zambia dual citizenship recognized: yes residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years for those with an ancestor who was a citizen of Zambia, otherwise 10 years residency is required Zimbabwe citizenship by birth: no citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Zimbabwe; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen dual citizenship recognized: no residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years 1 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 27 of 51 Privacy Copyright Site Policies USA.gov FOIA DNI.gov NoFEAR Act Inspector General Contact CIA Site Map e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2263.html[5/24/2017 3:19:34 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 28 of 51 Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Get Email Updates Contact Us Comunicarse con Nosotros For Employees Search U.S. Customs and Border Protection About CBP Newsroom Travel Trade Border Security Careers HOME >> TRAVEL >> FOR INTERNATIONAL VISITORS >> VISA WAIVER PROGRAM >> VISA WAIVER PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT AND TERRORIST TRAVEL PREVENTION ACT FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Travel For U.S. Citizens/Lawful Permanent Residents For Canadian Citizens and Mexican Nationals For International Visitors Electronic System for Travel Authorization Electronic Visa Update System (EVUS) Visa Waiver Program Know Before You Visit Admission Forms Visa Waiver Program Check or Improvement and update your 17 0ESTA Terrorist Travel 4/2 application 2 Prevention Act 05/ e Frequently Askedd ew Questions1, vi 5 -13 17 .What is the Visa Waiver No Program (VWP)? The VWP permits citizens of 38 countries to travel to the United States for business or tourism for stays of up to 90 days without a visa. In return, those 38 countries must permit U.S. citizens and nationals to travel to their countries for a similar length of time without a visa for business or tourism purposes. Since its inception in 1986, the VWP has evolved into a comprehensive security partnership with many of America’s closest allies. The VWP, administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 I-94 Instructions Trusted Traveler Programs Advisories and Wait Times Pleasure Boats and Private Flyers For Travel Industry Personnel Clearing CBP CBP Search Authority Customer Service Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 29 of 51 in consultation with the State Department, utilizes a risk-based, multi-layered approach to detect and prevent terrorists, serious criminals, and other mala fide actors from traveling to the United States. This approach incorporates regular, national-level risk assessments concerning the impact of each program country’s participation in the VWP on U.S. national security and law enforcement interests. It also includes comprehensive vetting of individual VWP travelers prior to their departure for the United States, upon arrival at U.S. ports of entry, and during any subsequent air travel within the United States, among other things. d we 017 4/2 5/2 0 How does VWP travel work? What is the Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA)? e , vi 351 1 17. No All prospective VWP travelers must obtain pre-travel authorization via U.S. Customs and Border Protection’s (CBP) ESTA system prior to boarding a plane or ship bound for the United States.  ESTA applications are available on CBP’s website: https://esta.cbp.dhs.gov/esta/.  ESTA is used to determine eligibility to travel without a visa to the United States under the VWP.  Travelers who do not receive an approved ESTA must apply for a visa at the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate prior to travel to the United States.  Although an approved ESTA is generally valid for a period of two years, travelers should check their ESTA status on CBP’s website prior to travel. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 30 of 51 What is the Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act of 2015? Why is it necessary to once again expand the amount of ESTA information being collected from VWP travelers? DHS remains concerned about the risks posed by the situation in Syria and Iraq, where instability has attracted thousands of foreign fighters, including many from VWP countries. Such individuals could travel to the United States for operational purposes on their own or at the behest of violent extremist groups. 017 The U.S. Congress shares this concern, and / 42 2 on December 18, 2015, the President5 0 / d signed into law the Consolidated we e Appropriations Act 2016, which includes , vi 1 the Visa135 Program Improvement Waiver and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act of 17. No 2015 (the Act). The Act, among other things, establishes new eligibility requirements for travel under the VWP. These new eligibility requirements do not bar travel to the United States. Instead, a traveler who does not meet the requirements must obtain a visa for travel to the United States, which generally includes an in-person interview at a U.S. Embassy or Consulate. DHS has updated the ESTA application with additional questions to address the new eligibility requirements under the Act. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 31 of 51 What are the new eligibility requirements for VWP travel? Under the Act, travelers in the following categories are no longer eligible to travel or be admitted to the United States under the VWP: Nationals of VWP countries who have been present in Iraq, Syria, or countries listed under specified designation lists (currently including Iran and Sudan) at any time on or after March 1, 2011 (with limited government/military exceptions). Nationals of VWP countries who have been present in Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, at any time on or after March 1, 2011 (with limited government/military exceptions). 017 4/2 5/2 0 ed VWP These restrictions do not apply to w vie travelers whose presence in Iraq, Syria, 51, Somalia, or Yemen was Iran, Sudan, Libya, -13 service in the armed perform military .to17of a program country, or in order to No forces carry out official duties as a full-time employee of the government of a program country. We recommend those who have traveled to the seven countries listed above for military/official purposes bring with them appropriate documentation when traveling through a U.S. port of entry. The vast majority of VWP-eligible travelers will not be affected by the new Act. New countries may be added to this list at the discretion of the Secretary of Homeland Security. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 32 of 51 Are there any exceptions to the new eligibility requirements? Yes, the Act provides for limited exceptions to the restriction relating to prior travel to/physical presence in Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, or Yemen.  If you have traveled to Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, or Yemen to represent your program country on official military orders or official government business, you may fall within an established exception to the new eligibility requirements. 017 4/2 5/2 I am a scientist or researcher who has traveled to one of the restricted countries listed here as a part of my official work, what do I do? e d we , vi 351 0 1 17. No Based on the circumstances surrounding your travel, you may fall within an established exception to the new eligibility requirements if you were a representative of an international organization, working on behalf of a humanitarian NGO, performed official work as a government employee of a Visa Waiver Program country, have traveled to Iran for legitimate business-related purposes, or your work was related to other official reasons for travel.  You must carefully review the options available in the ESTA application to determine which situation applies to you and then select the appropriate information to be considered for a waiver. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 33 of 51 What do I do if I fall under one of the VWP travel restrictions under the new Act? The restrictions do not bar travel to the United States, but they do require a traveler covered by the restrictions in the law to obtain a visa from a U.S. Embassy or Consulate.  Most U.S. Embassies and Consulates in VWP partner countries and worldwide have short wait times for visa interviews.  Please visit travel.state.gov for general visa information or usembassy.gov to find the website of the Embassy that has jurisdiction over your residence. 017 4/2 5/2 If you are applying for a nonimmigrant visa after ESTA denial or revocation as a result of the new Act, and have imminent business, medical, or humanitarian travel to the United States you may request an expedited visa appointment. e d we , vi 351 0 1 17. No Visas have some advantages over the ESTA, including validity for up to 10 years versus a general two years for ESTA, and the option to stay in the Unites States for up to six months at a time, as opposed to up to 90 days under the VWP.  Visa travelers generally may also extend their stay beyond six months or seek to change to a different visa class while in the United States, neither of which is allowed under the VWP. What additional questions were added to the ESTA application in February 2016? https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 34 of 51 The additional/modified questions were: Have you traveled to, or been present in, Iraq, Syria, Iran, or Sudan on or after March 1, 2011? Have you ever been issued a passport (or national identity card for travel) by any other country? Are you now a citizen or national of any other country? Have you ever been a citizen or national of any other country? Based on responses to the above questions, ESTA applicants may be directed to answer additional questions concerning travel to Iraq, Syria, Iran, and Sudan and potential dual nationality. d we 017 4/2 5/2 0 e , vi eligibility What are the new 351 requirements for Visa Waiver 7-1 Program (VWP) travel that will 1added to the ESTA . No be application in June 2016? Under the Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act of 2015 (the Act), and DHS’s implementation of it, nationals of VWP countries who have traveled to, or been present in, Libya, Somalia, or Yemen on or after March 1, 2011, are no longer eligible for travel or admission to the United States under the VWP. This restriction does not apply to VWP travelers whose presence in Libya, Somalia, or Yemen was to perform military service in the armed forces of a program https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 35 of 51 country, or in order to carry out official duties as a full-time employee of the government of a program country.  We recommend those who have traveled to the three countries listed above for military/official purposes bring with them appropriate documentation when traveling through a U.S. port of entry. The vast majority of VWP-eligible travelers will not be affected by these additional restrictions made under the Act.  What are the additional questions being added to the ESTA application in June 2016? 017 /2 The additional/modified questions are: /24 05 dpresent in, Have you traveled to, or been e ew Somalia, Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, vi , after March 1, 2011? or Yemen 51 on or 13 -Global Entry program number, if CBP . 17 No applicable. Are there other countries that I have traveled to that might impact VWP travel? Yes, on February 18, 2016, DHS announced that it is continuing its implementation of the Act  with the addition of Libya, Somalia, and Yemen as three countries of concern, limiting VWP travel for certain individuals who have traveled to these countries. DHS continues to consult with the Department of State and the Office of the Director of National https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 36 of 51 Intelligence to determine whether other countries would be added to this list. Do I have to answer the new questions if the provisions of the new Act do not apply to me? Yes, all ESTA applicants must complete the entire ESTA application. Is there a mechanism to inform all current ESTA holders (not just those who have previously indicated holding dual nationality) of the new requirements to prevent misunderstandings and complications? d we 017 4/2 5/2 0 vie ,engage with the CBP continues 1 35 to and Commerce in 1 Departments of State 17. CBP and the Department of State No outreach. new information and frequently also post asked questions on their websites, www.cbp.gov and travel.state.gov. We strongly urge all travelers to acquire an ESTA authorization or a valid U.S. visa prior to making travel reservations. If you are concerned about your ESTA status, please go to https://esta.cbp.dhs.gov to verify.  All travelers should verify their ESTA status prior to traveling. Are there any waivers to the new eligibility requirements? https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 37 of 51 Yes, under the new Act, the Secretary of Homeland Security may waive these new travel-related VWP restrictions if he determines that such a waiver is in the law enforcement or national security interests of the United States.  Such waivers will be granted only on a case-by-case basis.  As a general matter, categories of travelers who may be eligible for a waiver include: Individuals who have traveled to Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, on behalf of international organizations, regional organizations, or sub-national governments on official duty; Individuals who have traveled to Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, on behalf of a humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGO); Individuals who have traveled to Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, as a for reporting purposes; Individuals who traveled to Iran for legitimate business-related purposes following the conclusion of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (July 14, 2015); Individuals who have traveled to Iraq for legitimate business-related purposes; and Individuals who have traveled to Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, or Yemen who maintain current Global Entry program membership. e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No How do I obtain a waiver if I think I am eligible for one? How do I obtain a waiver if my ESTA is denied or revoked? https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 38 of 51 You do not apply separately for a waiver.  Travelers can apply for an ESTA and whether they are eligible for a waiver will be determined on a case-by-case basis as part of the ESTA process, consistent with the terms of the law.    If you wish to travel to the United States and if your ESTA is denied or revoked, you must apply for a nonimmigrant visa at a U.S. Embassy or Consulate to travel to the United States.  If you are applying for a nonimmigrant visa after ESTA denial or revocation as a result of the new Act, and have imminent business, medical, or humanitarian travel to the United States you may request an expedited visa appointment. We suggest that you retain a copy of any ESTA denial or revocation; it may be requested in order to schedule an expedited appointment. e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No How will the public be notified of ESTA changes? All changes to the ESTA process will be announced on CBP’s website, www.cbp.gov.  Please keep up to date via the website for all ESTA changes.  Travelers whose ESTA status has changed as a result of these new eligibility requirements will be notified via the email addressed provided in the applicant’s ESTA application.  We strongly encourage all travelers to verify their ESTA status and update appropriate contact information prior to traveling to the United States. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 39 of 51 Additionally, all changes to the ESTA form go through notice (in the Federal Register) and public comment under the Paperwork Reduction Act and are available on reginfo.gov under OMB Control Number 1651-0111. The public is invited to provide CBP with feedback during the public comment periods that accompany each change to the form. Will everyone—including those with no ties to Iraq, Syria, Iran, or Sudan, or no prior travel to Libya, Somalia, or Yemen—have to reapply and update their ESTA applications? 017 2 No.  If you are not covered by the new 24/ / eligibility requirements of the Act 05you and d have not had your ESTA we revoked, you do e not have to reapply for a new ESTA , vi 1 3 until authorization5 your current one 1 expires.  CBP recommends that you check 17. No the status of your ESTA authorization prior to making a reservation to travel to the United States and prior to your actual travel. However, if you have traveled to one of the seven countries covered by the new eligibility requirements on or after March 1, 2011, CBP recommends that you do apply for a new ESTA authorization to help facilitate your travel to the United States, or apply for a visa. How is “dual citizen” or “dual national” defined? What if I was https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 40 of 51 born in a country, but never lived there and do not consider myself a national or citizen? We will make nationality determinations in accordance with U.S. legal standards and practices, not merely by reference to the laws and practices of foreign governments.  If an individual believes that he or she is eligible for an ESTA travel authorization, the individual should apply for an ESTA, answer all questions truthfully and accurately, and that individual’s eligibility for an ESTA authorization will be determined in accordance with U.S. law. If you have any questions, please contact CBP at 1-202-344-3710. 017 4/2 5/2 0 ed What qualifies as a w subnational ie government/entity? 1, v 5 -13governments are state, 17 .Subnationalprovincial counties, territories, No regional or and other intermediate levels of government. How is “international (multilateral or intergovernmental)” organization or “regional (multilateral or intergovernmental)” organization defined? An international (multilateral or intergovernmental) organization is an organization formed pursuant to a multilateral act, such as a treaty, the https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 41 of 51 membership of which is composed primarily of sovereign or member states or other intergovernmental organizations.  An international organization can be global or regional in nature.  Examples of such organizations in this context include the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Monetary Fund, and the European Union.  How is a government official defined? 017 4/2 5/2 A government official is an individual performing official duties or services for the government of a VWP country. e d we , vi 351 0 1 17. No Will guidance be provided as to what documents are necessary to prove an individual falls under an exception (military/official) from the new Act? During the admissions process, CBP will review any documents presented at a port of entry that demonstrate a VWP traveler meets the official government or military exceptions under the new Act.  Travelers are recommended to bring certain documentation with them when they travel to the United States, including but not limited to, travel orders, official or diplomatic visas, or an official letter from a VWP country government entity, if available.  Travelers may also be asked https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 42 of 51 questions about their travel during the admissions process. What is the Global Entry Program? Global Entry is a U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) program (separate from ESTA) that allows expedited clearance for pre-approved, low-risk travelers upon arrival in the United States. Members enter the United States through automatic kiosks at select airports. Travelers can apply for Global Entry at www.cbp.gov/travel/trusted-travelerprograms/global-entry. d we 017 4/2 5/2 0 e , vi How will CBP use my Global 351 1 Entry-information? 17 . No Travelers who are members of CBP’s Global Entry program have been extensively vetted by CBP.  If an applicant is a Global Entry member, he/she has already voluntarily given CBP additional information including their fingerprints, photograph, travel history, as well as had an interview by a CBP Officer.  That additional information may be helpful in adjudicating their application for an ESTA.   Will the ESTA fee increase with https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 43 of 51 these changes to the application? There is no plan to increase the ESTA fee when the changes take effect.  However, travelers who apply for a new ESTA through the enhanced system will be charged the standard ESTA fee. Will there be fee waivers for those whose ESTAs were denied/revoked and now have to apply for a nonimmigrant visa? No.  DHS does not have the legal authority to waive the ESTA fee.  The fee is a processing fee per application.  Travelers who apply for visas will be required to pay the associated visa processing fee. e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No How will the new information collected be used? DHS will handle the new information in the same manner as other information collected through ESTA and will document these procedures in the System of Record Notice (SORN) and Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA).  As before, DHS will screen intending VWP travelers to determine their eligibility to travel to the United States under the VWP.  The additional questions will be used to help DHS determine whether applicants are eligible for travel and admission to the United States under the VWP. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 44 of 51 Will DHS share the new ESTA information outside of DHS? The information collected by and maintained in ESTA may be used by other components of DHS on a strictly need-toknow basis consistent with the component's mission. Under current agreements between DHS and DOS, information submitted during an ESTA application may be shared with consular officers of DOS to assist them in determining whether a visa should be issued to an applicant after an ESTA travel authorization application has been denied. 017 4/2 5/2 Information may be shared with appropriate federal, state, local, tribal, and foreign governmental agencies or multilateral governmental organizations responsible for investigating or prosecuting the violations of, or for enforcing or implementing, a statute, rule, regulation, order or license, or where DHS believes information would assist enforcement of civil or criminal laws. e d we , vi 351 0 1 17. No Additionally, information may be shared when DHS reasonably believes such use will assist in anti-terrorism efforts or intelligence gathering related to national or international security or transnational crime.  All sharing, including the sharing mentioned above, will remain consistent with the Privacy Act’s SORN, which was published in the Federal Register on February 23, 2016 and is available on the DHS web site, www.dhs.gov. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 45 of 51 Although carriers will not receive the ESTA application information that travelers provide to DHS, they will receive confirmation of a passenger's ESTA status via the Advance Passenger Information System indicating whether an ESTA is required and whether authorization has been granted. How long will DHS retain the data generated from these additional ESTA questions? The data retention period remains unchanged.  ESTA application data remains active for the period of time that the approved ESTA is valid, which is generally two years, or until the traveler’s passport expires, whichever comes first.  DHS then maintains this information for an additional year after which it is archived for 12 years—with further limited access— to allow retrieval of the information for law enforcement, national security, or investigatory purposes.  These policies are consistent with both CBP’s search authority and with the border security mission mandated for CBP by Congress.  Data linked to active law enforcement lookout records, CBP matches to enforcement activities, and/or investigations or cases, including applications for ESTAs that are denied, will remain accessible for the life of the law enforcement activities to which they are related. e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 46 of 51 How will the new information collected be safeguarded? DHS will handle the new information in the same manner as other information collected through ESTA and will document these procedures in the SORN and PIA.  Information submitted by applicants through the ESTA website will continue to be subject to the same strict privacy provisions, use limitations, and access controls that are currently in place for ESTA, and consistent with similar traveler screening programs. 017 Why is DHS taking action under 4/2 a Paperwork Reduction Act 5/2 (PRA) notice and not a d 0 e regulation? ew , vi 351 The relevant regulatory provision does not 1 17list the specific data elements that VWP . No travelers must provide in order to obtain an ESTA.  Instead, the regulation states that “ESTA will collect such information as the Secretary [of Homeland Security] deems necessary to issue a travel authorization, as reflected by the I-94W Nonimmigrant Alien Arrival/Departure Form (I-94W).”  Since there are no data elements listed in the regulation, there is no need to update the regulation.  The revisions to the ESTA data elements fall under the PRA since DHS is amending an information collection (Form I-94W) and not amending a regulation. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 47 of 51 Will this change to the ESTA application discourage legitimate foreign national travelers? No.  The new VWP eligibility requirements do not bar legitimate travel to the United States.  If a traveler is not granted an ESTA, the traveler will need to obtain a U.S. visa from a U.S. Embassy or Consulate.  DHS is committed to facilitating legitimate trade and travel while maintaining the highest standards of security and border protection.  Requirements for travel to the United States have increased, especially since September 11, 2001, to enhance security at U.S. borders; however, the flow of goods and visitors into the United States continues to grow each year. e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No By adding these additional questions, will the ESTA now be the equivalent of an electronic visa? No.  The requirements for a nonimmigrant visitor (B1/B2) visa are different under U.S. law and more complex than the requirements for an ESTA.   Applicants for a B1/B2 visa must complete an online visa application (DS-160) and, with limited exception, appear for an interview with a U.S. consular officer.  Part of the visa application process requires that applicants submit their biometric information in advance of travel, and provide additional biographic information as required. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 48 of 51 Even with these additional ESTA questions, does the VWP represent a security vulnerability? No.  Countries that participate in the VWP are required to have a high degree of security cooperation with the United States; sign and implement information sharing agreements regarding known, suspected or potential terrorists and serious criminals; report lost and stolen passport data to the United States or other means approved by the United States; and issue International Civil Aviation Organizationcompliant electronic passports.  VWP countries are also subject to biennial eligibility reviews, which provide DHS with the opportunity to conduct broad and consequential inspections of foreign security standards and operations, and verify the level of law enforcement and counterterrorism cooperation with the United States.  The Director of National Intelligence is required to complete an intelligence assessment to support each eligibility review conducted by DHS. e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No VWP travelers must obtain approval through the ESTA process prior to commencing VWP travel to the United States.  ESTA continuously vets applicants’ biographic information against the Terrorist Screening Database; lost and stolen passport records (including INTERPOL’s Stolen and Lost Travel Documents database); visa revocations; previous VWP refusals; expedited https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 49 of 51 removals; and Public Health records, e.g., records from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for persons who have a communicable disease constituting a public health threat. Is VWP travel at the land border affected by the Act? The new eligibility requirements apply to all VWP applicants regardless of mode of entry.  If you do not meet one of the new eligibility requirements established by the Act, you are ineligible for travel and admission to the United States under the VWP.  You will be required to obtain a nonimmigrant visa. Waivers for a respondent’s travel history will not be adjudicated at the border through the I94W. e d we , vi 351 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No Are there new passport requirements for travel to the United States under the VWP? Yes, effective April 1, 2016, all VWP country nationals must possess an electronic passport to travel to the United States under the VWP.  If not in possession of an electronic passport, a valid nonimmigrant visa is required to travel to the United States. https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 Pg: 50 of 51 Last published: November 28, 2016 Tags:  Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA), Travel, Travel Industry Personnel Contact Us DHS Component Websites Regulations.gov DHS.gov USA.gov NEWSROOM TRAVEL TRADE Environmental Stewardship Fact Sheets International Visitors ACE and Automated Systems Pleasure Boats and Private Flyers Frontline Digital Media Releases Mission o. 1 N BORDER SECURITY Along U.S. Borders e , vi Trusted Traveler 351 Programs 7-1 News Organization Travel Industry Personnel Ports 017 /2 Basic Importing 24 and Exporting5 0 / At Ports of Entry d we Issues From Air and Sea Priority Forms How to Do Business with CBP Rulings and Legal Decisions U.S. Citizens and Lawful Permanent Residents OIG WhiteHouse.gov ABOUT History EEO CAREERS Join CBP Outreach Programs Human Trafficking International Initiatives Stakeholder Engagement Protecting Agriculture SITE POLICIES Accessibility FOIA No FEAR Act Open Government Privacy Policy Get Adobe Reader | Get Adobe Flash® Player | Get Microsoft Word Viewer https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM] Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act Frequently Asked Questions | U.S. Customs and Border Protection Appeal: 17-1351 Doc: 297-2 Filed: 05/25/2017 d we e , vi 351 Pg: 51 of 51 017 4/2 5/2 0 1 17. No https://www.cbp.gov/...l/international-visitors/visa-waiver-program/visa-waiver-program-improvement-and-terrorist-travel-prevention-act-faq[5/24/2017 3:21:57 PM]

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