USA v. State of Arizona, et al

Filing 101

Submitted (ECF) Amicus brief for review and filed Motion to become amicus curiae. Submitted by American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA). Date of service: 09/30/2010. [7493417] (VB)

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USA v. State of Arizona, et al Doc. 101 Att. 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 VIKRAM BADRINATH, P.C. 100 North Stone Avenue, Suite 302 Tucson, AZ 85701-1514 (520) 620-6000 (520) 620-6797 (FACSIMILE) VIKRAM K. BADRINATH #016360 D.C. BAR NO. #458260 IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ) ) ) Plaintiffs-Appellee, ) ) vs. ) ) STATE OF ARIZONA; and Janice K. ) BREWER, Governor of the State of ) Arizona, in her official capacity. ) ) Defendants-Appellants. ) ) ___________________________________) Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Arizona Arizona No.: Date: No. 10-16645 09/30/10 D.C. No.: CIV-10-1061-SRB NOW COMES, Amicus Curiae named below, by and through undersigned counsel, and hereby requests leave of this Court to submit a brief in support of the Plaintiff's cause of action in the above-entitled matter. I. STATEMENT OF INTEREST OF AMICUS The American Immigration Lawyers Association ("AILA") is a national association of over 12,000 attorneys and law school professors who practice and teach in the field of immigration law. AILA's objectives are to advance the administration of law pertaining to immigration, nationality, naturalization; to promote reforms in the laws; to facilitate the administration of justice; and to elevate the standard of integrity, honor, and courtesy of those appearing in a Page -1- Dockets.Justia.com 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 representative capacity in immigration, nationality and nationality matters. AILA's members practice regularly before the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, the Executive Office for Immigration Review, as well as, the United States District Courts, Circuit Courts of Appeals, and the Supreme Court of the United States. The issue presented herein is one of exceptional importance for the numerous individuals living in Arizona and the United States. The Arizona Senate law Bill in 1070 impacts and the implementation the country. of Its federal scope, immigration Arizona across application, and interpretation directly implicate the efficient and orderly administration of the nation's immigration laws. AILA's special expertise on immigration law may be helpful to the court in resolving the issues before it. Accordingly, Amicus requests leave to submit a brief in support of Plaintiffs cause of action. II. STATEMENT OF PURPOSE As more fully set forth in the accompanying brief, Amicus Curiae, respectfully submits that the Arizona legislation Senate Bill 1070 ("SB 1070") attempt to create Arizona-specific laws and enforcement mechanisms relating to immigration is an impermissible attempt to regulate immigration. also fundamentally Moreover, SB 1070's legal immigration regime with federal immigration law and conflicts legislates in fields already occupied by such law. The federal government has exclusive power over immigration matters. The U.S. Page -2- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Constitution grants the federal government the power to "establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization," U.S. Const. art. I, 8, cl. 4, and to "regulate Commerce with foreign Nations," U.S. Const. art. I, 8, cl. 3. In addition, the Supreme Court has held that the Federal government's power to control immigration is inherent in the nation's sovereignty. Moreover, The U.S. Congress has created a comprehensive system of federal laws regulating and enforcing immigration in the INA. See 8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq. This extensive statutory scheme leaves no room for supplemental state laws. SB 1070, as amended, compels police officers to make immigration status determinations and to detain individuals based on a "reasonable suspicion" standard that is unworkable and cannot be applied by state and local officers; that requires impermissible reliance on race, national origin, appearance, and language; and that impermissibly burdens and interferes with the rights of lawful permanent resident immigrants and citizens in the state of Arizona. Section 2 of SB 1070 imposes a standard that is unworkable and preempted by federal law. The law requires state or local officers to attempt to determine immigration status, which must be determined through a federal administrative system applying complex federal statutes and regulations, and which is based upon historical facts about an individual that are not observable by an officer in the field. This is especially problematic insofar as determining whether or not a person is a citizen of the United States can be a complex and counterintuitive process. U.S. citizens are not required to carry documentary proof of their citizenship. There is no national database that contains information on every U.S. citizen. Some people are Page -3- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 actually unaware of their U.S. citizenship because they may have acquired U.S. citizenship at birth by operation of law due to their parents' citizenship, despite not being born in the United States. See, e.g., INA 322, 8 U.S.C. 1433. Others automatically obtained citizenship when their parents became naturalized U.S. citizens. See, e.g., INA 320, 8 U.S.C. 1431. Significantly, SB 1070, section 2 impermissibly vests in police officers unbridled discretion to base their "reasonable suspicion" that a "person is an alien and is unlawfully present" on the content of the person's expressive conduct. Nothing in Section 2 forbids a police officer from developing a "reasonable suspicion" that a person "is an alien" and/or "is unlawfully present" based solely on that person' s gestures, language, accent, clothing, English-word selection, failure to communicate in English, and/or other expressive conduct--all of which is pure speech protected by the First Amendment. In this regard, SB 1070, section 2 permits a police officer to decide a person is "an alien" because the person "acts" foreign or fails to "act" American--or to decide that a person is "unlawfully present" because the person "acts" as if from a country the officer believes Accordingly, SB to be a source of "unlawfully present" immigrants. 1070 permits warrantless seizures of individuals without probable cause that they have committed crimes. III. Because the Arizona CONCLUSION Legislature has ignored applicable 26 precedential decisions of the Supreme Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals 27 28 Page -4- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 for the Ninth Circuit, its sister circuits, and the protections guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution, Amicus Curiae suggests respectfully request that the Court grant leave to appear in this matter. Because the case involves a question of exceptional importance due to the potential impact on thousands of persons present in the state of Arizona, including U.S. citizens, lawful residents, and undocumented individuals, who could be improperly and unlawfully stopped and seized, because the Arizona law permits impermissible "racial profiling," and whereas the Arizona law conflicts with Congress' plenary power over immigration and is pre-empted by the federal scheme under the Immigration & Nationality Act, Amicus Curiae further requests participation in this action. Finally, Amicus expresses no position as to the merits of the individual claims; amicus' interest lies rather with the legal issues involved. Respectfully submitted, /s/ Vikram K. Badrinath, Esq. VIKRAM BADRINATH, P.C. Co-Counsel for Amicus Curiae American Immigration Lawyers Assoc. Vikram K. Badrinath, Esq. VIKRAM BADRINATH, P.C. 100 North Stone Ave., Suite 302 Tucson, AZ 85701-1514 (520) 620-6000 vbadrinath@aol.com Stephen W. Manning, Esq. IMMIGRANT LAW GROUP, P.C. P.O. Box 40103 Portland, OR 97240 (503) 241-0035 smanning@ilgrp.com Russel R. Abutryn, Esq. MARSHAL E. HYMAN & ASSOCIATES 3250 West Big Beaver, Ste.529 Troy, MI 48084 (248) 643-0642, Ext. 15 rabrutyn@marshallhyman.com Deborah S. Smith, Esq. LAW OFFICE OF DEBORAH S. SMITH 7 West Sixth Avenue, Suite 4M Helena, MT 59601 (406) 457-5345 deb@debsmithlaw.com Page -5- 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Page -6Dated: September 30, 2010. Cynthia A. Aziz, Esq. AZIZ LAW FIRM 1804 East Boulevard Charlotte, NC 28203 (704) 347-1808 cynthia@azizimmigrationlaw.com Maria E. Andrade, Esq. ANDRADE LEGAL, INC. P.O. Box 2109 Boise, Idaho 83701 (208) 342-5100 mandrade@andradelegal.com Attorneys for Amicus Curiae American Immigration Lawyers Association 1 2 3 4 5 6 VIKRAM BADRINATH, P.C. 100 North Stone Avenue, Suite 302 Tucson, AZ 85701-1514 (520) 620-6000 (520) 620-6797 (FACSIMILE) VIKRAM K. BADRINATH #016360 D.C. BAR NO. #458260 IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ) ) ) Plaintiffs-Appellee, ) ) vs. ) ) STATE OF ARIZONA; and Janice K. ) BREWER, Governor of the State of ) Arizona, in her official capacity. ) ) ) Defendants-Appellants. ) ___________________________________) Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Arizona Arizona 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 No.: Date: No. 10-16645 09/30/10 D.C. No.: CIV-10-1061-SRB I am a citizen of the United States over the age of 18 years, a resident of Pima county and not a party to the instant action. My business address is: 100 North Stone Avenue, Suite 302, Tucson, Arizona 85701-1514. On September 30, 2010, I served a copy of the following: MOTION FOR LEAVE TO FILE AMICUS CURIAE BRIEF by electronically filing the foregoing with the Clerk of the Court for the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit by using the appellate CM/ECF System. I certify that all participants in the case are registered CM/ECF users and that service will be accomplished by the appellate CM/ECF system. See Attached Service List Respectfully submitted, /s/ Vikram K. Badrinath, Esq. VIKRAM BADRINATH, P.C. Co-Counsel for Amicus Curiae American Immigration Lawyers Assoc. Dated: September 30, 2010 26 27 28 Page -7- 1 SERVICE LIST 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Daniel Tenny, Attorney Direct: 202-514-1838 DOJ - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division Page -8Mark B. Stern U.S. Department of Justice Civil Division - Appellate 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20530 Edwin Smiley Kneedler Direct: 202-514-3261 DOJ - U.S. Department of Justice Civil Division - Appellate Staff Room 5139 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20530 Varu Chilakamarri Direct: 202-616-8489 DOJ - US DEPT JUSTICE 20 Massachusetts Ave. NW Washington, DC 20530 Thomas Mark Bondy, Esquire, Attorney Direct: 202-514-4825 U.S. Department of Justice Civil Division - Appellate Room 7264 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20530 Michael P. Abate, Attorney Direct: 202-616-8209 U.S. Department of Justice Civil Division - Appellate Suite 7318 950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20530 ATTORNEYS FOR UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Plaintiff - Appellee): Beth S. Brinkmann, Esquire Direct: 202-353-8679 DOJ - U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Room 3135 950 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20530-4403 1 2 3 4 5 6 Room 7215 950 Pennsylvania Ave., NW Washington, DC 20530 Joshua Wilkenfeld, Trial Attorney Direct: 202-305-7920 DOJ - US DEPT JUSTICE 20 Massachusetts Ave. NW Washington, DC 20530 ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF ARIZONA (Defendant - Appellant): 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ATTORNEYS FOR JANICE K. BREWER, Governor of the State of Arizona, in her official capacity (Defendant - Appellant) John Bouma, Attorney Direct: 602-382-6216 (see above) Joseph G. Adams Direct: 602-382-6000 (see above) Robert Arthur Henry, Attorney Page -9Robert Arthur Henry, Attorney Direct: 602-382-6148 Snell & Wilmer L.L.P. One Arizona Center 400 E. Van Buren Phoenix, AZ 85004-2202 Joseph Andrew Kanefield, General Counsel Direct: 602-542-1586 Office of the Governor 1700 West Washington Street Phoenix, AZ 85007 John Bouma, Attorney Direct: 602-382-6216 Snell & Wilmer L.L.P. One Arizona Center 400 E. Van Buren Phoenix, AZ 85004-2202 Joseph G. Adams Direct: 602-382-6000 Snell & Wilmer L.L.P. One Arizona Center 400 E. Van Buren Phoenix, AZ 85004-2202 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Direct: 602-382-6148 (see above) Joseph Andrew Kanefield, General Counsel Direct: 602-542-1586 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR DEREK SCHMIDT, Senate Majority Leader of the Kansas Legislature (Amicus Curiae) Jeffrey Ryan King, Attorney Direct: 620-331-2071 KING LAW OFFICES LLC 113 S. 8th Street Independence, KS 67301 ATTORNEYS FOR MICHAEL O'NEAL, House Speaker of the Kansas Legislature (Amicus Curiae) Jeffrey Ryan King, Attorney Direct: 620-331-2071 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR AMERICAN UNITY LEGAL DEFENSE FUND (Amicus Curiae) 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ATTORNEYS FOR MOUNTAIN STATES LEGAL FOUNDATION (Amicus Curiae) James Scott Detamore Direct: 303-292-2021 Mountain States Legal Foundation 2596 South Lewis Way Lakewood, CO 80227 Page -10ATTORNEYS FOR JUSTICE AND FREEDOM FUND (Amicus Curiae) James Leslie Hirsen, Chief Counsel Direct: 714-283-8880 SBD Group, Inc. 208 505 South Villa Real Drive Anaheim Hills, CA 92807 Barnaby W. Zall, Esquire Direct: 301-231-6943 WEINBERG & JACOBS Firm: 301-231-6943 11300 Rockville Pike Suite 1200 Rockville, MD 20852 1 ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF MICHIGAN (Amicus Curiae) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF LOUISIANA (Amicus Curiae) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire Page -11ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF IDAHO (Amicus Curiae) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF FLORIDA (Amicus Curiae) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF ALABAMA (Amicus Curiae) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL 525 W. Ottawa 670 Law Bldg. Lansing, MI 48913 Michael A. Cox, Esquire MICHIGAN ATTORNEY GENERAL P.O.Box 30212 Lansing, MI 48909 1 2 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF NEBRASKA (Amicus Curiae) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA (Amicus Curiae) 14 15 16 17 18 ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF SOUTH CAROLINA (Amicus Curiae) 19 20 21 22 23 ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF SOUTH DAKOTA (Amicus Curiae) 24 25 26 27 28 Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) Page -12Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS (Amicus Curiae) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) 1 ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF TEXAS (Amicus Curiae) 2 3 4 5 6 ATTORNEYS FOR STATE OF VIRGINIA (Amicus Curiae) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ATTORNEYS FOR THOMAS MORE LAW CENTER (Amicus Curiae) 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ATTORNEYS FOR CENTER FOR SECURITY POLICY (Amicus Curiae) 25 26 27 28 Page -13Robert Joseph Muise, Esquire, Attorney Direct: 734-827-2001 (see above) Robert Joseph Muise, Esquire, Attorney Direct: 734-827-2001 THOMAS MORE LAW CENTER D2100 24 Frank Lloyd Wright Drive Ann Arbor, MI 48106 David Yerushalmi, Esquire, Attorney Direct: 646-262-0500 Law Offices of David Yerushalmi, P.C. P.O.B. 6358 Chandler, AZ 85246 ATTORNEYS FOR MEMBERS OF CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES (Amicus Curiae) Jay Sekulow Direct: 757-226-2489 ATTORNEYS FOR AMERICAN CENTER FOR LAW AND JUSTICE 201 Maryland Avenue, N.E. Washington, DC 20002 Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) Michael A. Cox, Esquire (see above) Bernard Eric Restuccia, Assistant Attorney General Direct: 517-373-1124 (see above) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 David Yerushalmi, Esquire, Attorney Direct: 646-262-0500 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR SOCIETY OF AMERICANS FOR NATIONAL EXISTENCE (Amicus Curiae) Robert Joseph Muise, Esquire, Attorney Direct: 734-827-2001 (see above) David Yerushalmi, Esquire, Attorney Direct: 646-262-0500 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR STATE LEGISLATORS FOR LEGAL IMMIGRATION (Amicus Curiae) Geoffrey S. Kercsmar, Esquire, Counsel Direct: 480-421-1001 Kercsmar & Feltus PLLC Suite 320 6263 N. Scottsdale Road Scottsdale, AZ 85250 ATTORNEYS FOR WASHINGTON LEGAL FOUNDATION (Amicus Curiae) Richard Abbott Samp, Chief Counsel Direct: 202-588-0302 Washington Legal Foundation 2009 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 ATTORNEYS FOR DAN BURTON, U.S. Representative (Amicus Curiae) 20 21 22 23 24 25 (see above) 26 27 28 ATTORNEYS FOR TOM MCCLINTOCK, U.S. Representative (Amicus Curiae) Page -14ATTORNEYS FOR LYNN JENKINS, U.S. Representative (Amicus Curiae) Richard Abbott Samp, Chief Counsel Direct: 202-588-0302 Richard Abbott Samp, Chief Counsel Direct: 202-588-0302 (see above) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 John C. Eastman Direct: 714-628-2587 THE CLAREMONT INSTITUTE CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL JURISPRUDENCE c/o Chapman Univ. School of Law One University Drive Orange, CA 92866 Richard Abbott Samp, Chief Counsel Direct: 202-588-0302 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR JERRY MORAN, U.S. Representative (Amicus Curiae) 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ATTORNEYS FOR NATIONAL BORDER PATROL COUNCIL (Amicus Curiae) 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ATTORNEYS FOR LAMAR SMITH, Congressman (Amicus Curiae) 26 27 28 John C. Eastman Direct: 714-628-2587 Page -15ATTORNEYS FOR ED ROYCE, Congressman (Amicus Curiae) John C. Eastman Direct: 714-628-2587 (see above) Richard Abbott Samp, Chief Counsel Direct: 202-588-0302 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR CONCERNED CITIZENS AND FRIENDS OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION LAW ENFORCEMENT (Amicus Curiae) Richard Abbott Samp, Chief Counsel Direct: 202-588-0302 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR ALLIED EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION (Amicus Curiae) Richard Abbott Samp, Chief Counsel Direct: 202-588-0302 (see above) Richard Abbott Samp, Chief Counsel Direct: 202-588-0302 (see above) 1 2 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR TED POE, Congressman (Amicus Curiae) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ATTORNEYS FOR RUSSELL PEARCE (Amicus Curiae) 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 ATTORNEYS FOR JOSEPH M. ARPAIO, Maricopa County Sheriff (Amicus Curiae) Thomas Purcell Liddy Direct: 602-372-3859 Maricopa County Office of Special Litigation Services Page -16Paul Orfanedes, Esquire Direct: 202-646-5172 JUDICIAL WATCH INC Suite 800 425 Third Street, SW Washington, DC 20024 ATTORNEYS FOR LARRY A. DEVER, Cochise County Sheriff (Amicus Curiae) Brian Bergin, Esquire, Attorney Direct: 480-240-5634 Rose Law Group 200 Firm: 480-505-3936 6613 N. Scottsdale Road Scottsdale, AZ 85250 ATTORNEYS FOR INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS FOUNDATION (Amicus Curiae) John C. Eastman Direct: 714-628-2587 (see above) John C. Eastman Direct: 714-628-2587 (see above) ATTORNEYS FOR CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL JURISPRUDENCE (Amicus Curiae) John C. Eastman Direct: 714-628-2587 (see above) 1 2 3 Suite 4400 234 North Central Avenue Phoenix, AZ 85004 ATTORNEYS FOR RAY ELBERT PARKER (Amicus Curiae) 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Page -17ATTORNEYS FOR LANDMARK LEGAL FOUNDATION (Amicus Curiae) Peter Hutchison, Esquire, General Counsel Direct: 816-931-1175 Landmark Legal Foundation Suite 1210 3100 Broadway Kansas City, MO 64111 ATTORNEYS FOR FOUNDATION FOR THE PRESERVATION OF CONSTITUTIONALLY RESERVED RIGHTS (Amicus Curiae) Brian Garlitz, Attorney Direct: 214-736-7168 Garlitz Bell, LLP Suite 990 3010 LBJ Freeway Dallas, TX 75234 Ray Elbert Parker Firm: (703) 328-2366 P.O.Box 320636 Alexandria, VA 22320

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