Jackson v. Social Security Administration, Commissioner
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER DENYING 16 MOTION to Alter or Amend Judgment. Signed by Judge Virginia Emerson Hopkins on 6/19/2013. (JLC)
2013 Jun-19 PM 05:10
U.S. DISTRICT COURT
N.D. OF ALABAMA
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ALABAMA
CAROLYN W. COLVIN,
) Case No.: 7:11-CV-3733-VEH
MEMORANDUM OPINION AND ORDER
Before the court is a Motion to Amend or Alter Judgment Pursuant to Federal
Rule of Civil Procedure 59(e) (Doc. 16) filed by the Defendant Carolyn W. Colvin,
Acting Commissioner of the Social Security Administration ("Commissioner"). The
court has considered the arguments made in this document, as well as those made in
the Response (Doc. 18) filed by the Plaintiff, Fatima Jackson ("Ms. Jackson"). For the
following reasons, the Commissioner's Motion is DENIED.
I. Reconsideration is not appropriate.
As the Commissioner acknowledges, a party may not use a Rule 59 motion to
"relitigate old matters, raise arguments or present evidence that could have been
raised prior to the entry of judgment." Arthur v. King, 500 F.3d 1335, 1343 (11th Cir.
2007) (quoting Michael Linet, Inc. v. Village of Wellington, Fla., 408 F.3d 757, 763
(11th Cir.2005)). Rather, Rule 59 reserves such motions for instances of newlydiscovered evidence or manifest errors of law or fact. Id. (citing In re Kellogg, 197
F.3d 1116, 1119 (11th Cir.1999)). The Commissioner does not identify any such
evidence or errors. Instead, she seeks to make conventional legal arguments that she
had ample opportunity to make before the court issued its judgment. More
specifically, she justifies her earlier failure to address Walker v. Bowen, 826 F.2d 996
(11th Cir. 1987), and its precedential significance to this case by observing that Ms.
Jackson did not discuss the prior panel precedent rule in her original brief seeking
reversal of the ALJ's decision. Doc. 16 at 2.
While this observation is strictly accurate, it is irrelevant for Rule 59 purposes.
Ms. Jackson argued in her original brief that the ALJ had wrongly failed to
considered the aggregate effect of her various claimed impairments. Doc. 9 at 10-11.
She prominently cited Walker as support. Id. at 10. Although she did not reference
the prior panel precedent rule, her arguments gave adequate notice to the
Commissioner that the court would consider Walker in its resolution of the case. In
her Response to Ms. Jackson, filed twenty-eight days after Ms. Jackson’s brief, the
Commissioner simply did not mention Walker at all. See Doc. 11 at 17-19. Her failure
to dispute the decision's precedential effect before the court entered judgment was
II. Alternatively, the Commissioner’s arguments lack merit.
Even if the Commissioner were not procedurally barred from making her
arguments for reconsideration, the court nevertheless finds that she misinterprets
Eleventh Circuit precedent. In its judgment reversing and remanding the
Commissioner’s disability determination, the court cited Walker in holding that the
ALJ below failed to make "specific and well-articulated findings" on the combined
effect of Ms. Jackson's several impairments. Doc. 12 at 8-11. Although later panel
decisions appeared to deviate from Walker's rigorous requirements in this arena, see,
e.g., Wilson v. Barnhart, 284 F.3d 1219, 1221 (11th Cir. 2002), the court concluded
that it was bound by Walker under the prior panel precedent rule. Doc. 12 at 10-11.
In her Motion, the Commissioner maintains that (1) the court mistakenly relied
on Walker under the prior precedent rule, and (2) even if Walker were binding under
this rule, that decision is factually distinguishable from the present one. Doc. 16 at 2.
The Commissioner first argues that Jones v. Bowen, 810 F.2d 1001 (11th Cir. 1986),
and Wheeler v. Heckler, 784 F.2d 1073 (11th Cir. 1986), both of which predate
Walker, should instead bind the court's decision-making on this issue under the prior
panel precedent rule. Doc. 16 at 3-5. The court will put aside the issue of whether
these cases genuinely undercut Walker's holding on combined impairment effects
because it finds that question irrelevant.1 Walker unquestionably post-dates Jones and
Wheeler. But, as the Commissioner notes, the Walker court directly relied on Bowen
v. Heckler, 748 F.2d 629, 635 (11th Cir. 1984), in rendering its holding described
above. See Walker, 826 F.2d at 1001. In Bowen, the Eleventh Circuit determined that
the ALJ had wrongly viewed a claimant’s various impairments in isolation. 748 F.2d
at 634. The ALJ had avoided the “crucial issue” of the combined effect of these
impairments. Id. (quoting Strickland v. Harris, 615 F.2d 1103 (5th Cir. 1980)). The
[W]here, as here, a claimant has alleged a multitude of impairments, a claim for
social security benefits based on disability may lie even though none of the
impairments, considered individually, is disabling. In such instances, it is the
duty of the administrative law judge to make specific and well-articulated
findings as to the effect of the combination of impairments and to decide
whether the combined impairments cause the claimant to be disabled.
Id. at 635 (citing Reeves v. Heckler, 734 F.2d 519 (11th Cir. 1984); Wiggins v.
Schweiker, 679 F.2d 1387 (11th Cir. 1982))
The Commissioner does not cite any decision issued since Jones and Wheeler that
recognizes an incoherence between these decisions and Walker. The court’s research reveals that
many courts have recognized that Walker imposes a rigorous analytical duty on ALJ’s when they
encounter claimants with multiple impairments. See Williams v. Barnhart, 186 F. Supp. 2d 1192,
1199 (M.D. Ala. 2002) (identifying a distinct “progeny” of cases interpreting Walker as requiring
more than a mere conclusion by an ALJ that the claimant's impairments or combination of
impairments does not meet or equal a listing in the regulations)
Bowen predates all of the decisions listed above.2 Bowen addressed a factual
situation highly similar to the present one. And, as recognized in Walker, Bowen
clearly compels ALJ’s to (1) comparatively analyze a claimant's various impairments
and (2) address the cumulative effect those impairments have on his or her abilities.
The ALJ in this case considered several, but not all, of Ms. Jackson’s impairments
and did so only separately. See Doc. 9 at 10-11 (citing Tr. 20, 23-24). He devoted no
space in his opinion to analyzing her impairments’ interactive and/or aggregate effect
on her functional capacity, a point which the Commissioner does not dispute. Instead,
the ALJ perfunctorily concluded, “She does not have an impairment, or combination
of impairments, which meets or equals the criteria of an impairment listed in
Appendix, Subpart P, 20 C.F.R. Part 404.” Doc. 12 at 9 (citing Tr. 27).
This conclusory statement does not qualify as “specific and well-articulated
findings as to the effect of the combination of [Ms. Jackson’s] impairments.” Bowen,
748 F.2d at 635. Because this court is bound by Bowen under the prior panel
precedent rule, it would reverse the Commissioner’s disability determination here on
this ground alone and remand it to the ALJ to evaluate the matter under the
Further, Bowen relies on Strickland, which is a pre-split Fifth Circuit published opinion,
and is itself controlling precedent within this Circuit. See Bonner v. City of Prichard, Ala., 661
F.2d 1206, 1209 (11th Cir. 1981) (holding that decisions of the former Fifth Circuit handed down
prior to the close of business on September 30, 1981, are binding in the Eleventh Circuit).
appropriate legal standard. Whether Walker may be distinguished from the instant
case is thus immaterial. The Commissioner's motion thus fails on the merits as well.
The Commissioner has failed to meet the standard for reconsideration under
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 59(e). Alternatively, her motion fails under a meritsbased analysis. Accordingly, the motion is DENIED.
DONE and ORDERED this the 19th day of June, 2013.
VIRGINIA EMERSON HOPKINS
United States District Judge
Disclaimer: Justia Dockets & Filings provides public litigation records from the federal appellate and district courts. These filings and docket sheets should not be considered findings of fact or liability, nor do they necessarily reflect the view of Justia.
Why Is My Information Online?