Means v. The Arora Group, INC.

Filing 12

ORDER: Defendant's Motion to Dismiss (Dkt # 4 ) is granted in part and denied in part. Signed by Judge William Q. Hayes on 6/14/2017. (mdc)

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT 9 SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA 10 MARY MEANS, CASE NO. 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 11 Plaintiff, v. THE ARORA GROUP, INC., a corporation; and DOES 1 through 25, inclusive, ORDER 12 13 14 Defendants. 15 HAYES, Judge: 16 The matter before the Court is the Motion to Dismiss filed by Defendant The 17 Arora Group, Inc. (“Defendant”). (ECF No. 4). 18 I. Background 19 On September 26, 2016, Plaintiff Mary Means (“Plaintiff”) initiated this action 20 by filing a complaint in the Superior Court of California, County of San Diego. (ECF 21 Nos. 1 at 2; 1-2 at 4-13). The Complaint includes the following five causes of action: 22 (1) wrongful termination in violation of public policy; (2) failure to provide adequate 23 rest periods (premium wages); (3) failure to provide adequate meal periods (premium 24 wages); (4) failure to provide accurate itemized employee wage statements; and (5) 25 failure to pay timely wages after termination. (ECF No. 1-2 at ¶¶ 20-50). On 26 November 8, 2016, Defendant removed this action to federal district court pursuant to 27 28 U.S.C. §§ 1441, 1442, and 1446. (ECF No. 1 at 1-2). On November 10, 2016, 28 Defendant filed the Motion to Dismiss pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure -1- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 12(b)(6). (ECF No. 4). On December 20, 2016, Plaintiff filed a response in opposition 2 to the Motion to Dismiss. (ECF No. 10). On January 10, 2017, Defendant filed a reply 3 to the Motion to Dismiss. (ECF No. 11). 4 II. Allegations of the Complaint 5 Plaintiff was employed by Defendant at the Naval Medical Center San Diego as 6 an Obstetrics and Gynecology Medical Assistant. (ECF No. 1-2 at 4-5). Defendant is 7 a healthcare professional staffing service. Id. at 4. “In or about March 2013, Defendant 8 hired [Plaintiff] as a full-time, hourly Certified Medical Assistant in the OB/GYN 9 Department at the Naval Medical Center[.]” Id. at 5. Plaintiff “handled all aspects of 10 patient care in her position including: patient intake; scheduling patient appointments 11 with specialists; ensuring receipt of test results prior to a patient’s next appointment; 12 abdominal and vaginal sonography; attaching patients to blood pressure and heart rate 13 monitors and observing for any irregularities . . .” Id. at 5-6. “Due to her high-demand 14 role at the Naval Medical Center in San Diego, California, [Plaintiff] routinely worked 15 through lunch because of her tremendous workload.” Id. at 6. “[D]ue to the break-neck 16 pace of the medical clinic, [Plaintiff] would mentally tire some days and just wish she 17 could take a break. Being unable to take breaks began to take its toll on [Plaintiff]. 18 Eventually, [Plaintiff] began to make avoidable mistakes due to her fatigue and inability 19 to take breaks.” Id. at 7. “After making another mistake due to fatigue and being 20 unable to take breaks to collect her thoughts and re-center herself, Defendants 21 terminated [Plaintiff’s] employment. But for Defendants’ refusal to allow [Plaintiff] 22 to take state-mandated rest and meal breaks, [Plaintiff] would not have been subject to 23 mistakes resulting from her fatigue. Defendant’s conduct resulted in [Plaintiff’s] 24 eventual termination.” Id. 25 III. Defendant’s Requests for Judicial Notice (ECF Nos. 4-2 & 11-1) 26 “As a general rule, ‘a district court may not consider any material beyond the 27 pleadings in ruling on a Rule 12(b)(6) motion.’” Lee v. City of Los Angeles, 250 28 F.3d 668, 688 (9th Cir. 2001) (citation omitted) (quoting Branch v. Tunnell, 14 F.3d -2- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 449, 453 (9th Cir. 1994), overruled on other grounds by Galbraith v. Cty. of Santa 2 Clara, 307 F.3d 1119 (9th Cir. 2002)). “There are, however, two exceptions to the 3 requirement that consideration of extrinsic evidence converts a 12(b)(6) motion to a 4 summary judgment motion.” Id. “First, a court may consider ‘material which is 5 properly submitted as part of the complaint’ on a motion to dismiss without converting 6 the motion to dismiss into a motion for summary judgment.” Id. (quoting Branch, 7 14 F.3d at 453). “If the documents are not physically attached to the complaint, they 8 may be considered if the documents’ ‘authenticity . . . is not contested’ and ‘the 9 plaintiff’s complaint necessarily relies’ on them.” Id. (quoting Parrino v. FHP, Inc., 10 146 F.3d 699, 705-06 (9th Cir. 1998)). Second, the Court may take judicial notice of 11 “matters of public record” pursuant to Federal Rule of Evidence 201. Id. at 689 12 (quoting Mack v. S. Bay. Beer Distribs., Inc., 798 F.2d 1279, 1282 (9th Cir. 1986)). 13 Federal Rule of Evidence 201 allows courts to take judicial notice of facts that are “not 14 subject to reasonable dispute because” the facts “can be accurately and readily 15 determined from sources whose accuracy cannot reasonably be questioned.” Fed. R. 16 Evid. 201(b)(2). 17 Defendant requests that the Court take judicial notice of (1) an August 25, 2016, 18 9:02 a.m. e-mail from U.S. Contracting Officer Representative Kenneth Powalsiz to 19 Nancy Berman and Megan Wilson; (2) an August 25, 2016, 4:54 p.m. e-mail from 20 Megan Wilson and Nancy Berman to Plaintiff Mary Means; and (3) a transcript of the 21 evidentiary hearing in the matter of Mary Means v. The Arora Group, California 22 Unemployment Insurance Appeals Board hearing, which took place on December 15, 23 2016. (ECF Nos. 4-2 at 1; 11-1 at 1). Plaintiff has not contested the authenticity of 24 these documents, nor does Plaintiff oppose Defendant’s requests for judicial notice. See 25 Lee, 250 F.3d at 688. 26 The Court hereby takes judicial notice of an August 25, 2016, 9:02 a.m. e-mail 27 from U.S. Contracting Officer Representative Kenneth Powalsiz to Nancy Berman and 28 Megan Wilson; and an August 25, 2016, 4:54 p.m. e-mail from Megan Wilson and -3- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 Nancy Berman to Plaintiff Mary Means (ECF No. 4-2 at 1). 2 Defendant’s supplemental request for judicial notice of the transcript of the 3 evidentiary hearing in the matter of Mary Means v. The Arora Group on December 15, 4 2016 was submitted as a supplemental request attached to Defendant’s reply brief. The 5 Court declines to take judicial notice of the transcript, and denies Defendant’s 6 supplemental request for judicial notice (ECF No. 11-1). See Zamani v. Carnes, 491 7 F.3d 990, 997 (9th Cir. 2007) (“The district court need not consider arguments raised 8 for the first time in a reply brief.”). 9 IV. Legal Standard 10 Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6) permits dismissal for “failure to state 11 a claim upon which relief can be granted[.]” Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(6). “A district 12 court’s dismissal for failure to state a claim under Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 13 12(b)(6) is proper if there is a ‘lack of a cognizable legal theory or the absence of 14 sufficient facts alleged under a cognizable legal theory.’” Conservation Force v. 15 Salazar, 646 F.3d 1240, 1242 (9th Cir. 2011) (quoting Balistreri v. Pacifica Police 16 Dep’t, 901 F.2d 696, 699 (9th Cir. 1988)). “To survive a motion to dismiss, a plaintiff’s 17 complaint must have sufficient facts ‘to state a facially plausible claim to relief.’” Id. 18 (quoting Shroyer v. New Cindular Wireless Servs., Inc., 622 F.3d 1035, 1041 (9th Cir. 19 2010)). “A claim has facial plausibility when the plaintiff pleads factual content that 20 allows the court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the 21 misconduct alleged.” Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678 (2009) (citing Bell Atl. Corp. 22 v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 556 (2007)). “In sum, for a complaint to survive a motion 23 to dismiss, the non-conclusory ‘factual content,’ and reasonable inferences from that 24 content, must be plausibly suggestive of a claim entitling the plaintiff to relief.” Moss 25 v. U.S. Secret Serv., 572 F.3d 962, 969 (9th Cir. 2009) (quoting Ashcroft, 556 U.S. at 26 678). 27 V. Government Contractor Defense 28 A. Contentions of the Parties -4- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 Defendant contends that all of Plaintiff’s claims for relief are barred by the 2 government contractor defense. Defendant contends that the United States Navy 3 directed the alleged wrongful actions stated in the Complaint, and that the Defendant 4 complied with the Navy’s directives. Defendant contends that it provides medical 5 services to the U.S. Naval Medical Center “pursuant to a personal services contract[,]” 6 which provided the United States Navy with the authority to treat Defendant’s 7 employees as its own employees. (ECF No. 4-1 at 6). 8 Plaintiff contends that Defendant has failed to fulfill all of the elements of the 9 government contractor defense. Plaintiff contends that Defendant has not demonstrated 10 active participation between Defendant and the United States Navy in terminating 11 Plaintiff’s employment. Plaintiff contends that an email from a military official 12 instructing Defendant to terminate Plaintiff’s employment is insufficient to establish the 13 government contractor defense. 14 B. Applicable Law 15 The government contractor defense arises from the Supreme Court’s decision in 16 Yearsley v. W.A. Ross Const. Co., 309 U.S. 18 (1940). In Yearsley, landowners brought 17 an action for damages against a private contractor that built dikes in the Missouri River 18 “pursuant to a contract with the United States Government, and under the direction of 19 the Secretary of War[.]” 309 U.S. at 19. The Supreme Court held that the contractor 20 was not liable to the landowners, because “the work which the contractor had done in 21 the river bed was all authorized and directed by the Government of the United States” 22 and “the work thus authorized and directed by the governmental officers was performed 23 pursuant to the Act of Congress[.]” Id. at 20 (quotation marks omitted). The Supreme 24 Court stated that “it is clear that if this authority to carry out the project was validly 25 conferred, that is, if what was done was within the constitutional power of Congress, 26 there is no liability on the part of the contractor for executing its will.” Id. at 20-21. 27 The Supreme Court stated that this exception to liability does not apply if a contractor 28 “exceed[s] his authority” provided by the government, or when that authority is “not -5- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 validly conferred” by the government. Id. at 21; see also Campbell-Ewald Co. v. 2 Gomez, 136 S. Ct. 663, 673 (2016) (discussing Yearsley). 3 The Supreme Court again addressed the government contractor defense in Boyle 4 v. United Techs. Corp., 487 U.S. 500 (1988). Boyle addressed the potential liability of 5 “an independent contractor performing its obligation under a procurement contract” to 6 build a helicopter for the United States military. 487 U.S. at 502, 505. The Supreme 7 Court stated that the government contractor defense is justified because any judgments 8 arising from “state tort suits against contractors . . . would ultimately be passed through, 9 substantially if not totally, to the United States itself, since defense contractors will 10 predictably raise their prices to cover, or to insure against, contingent liability for the 11 Government-ordered” work. Id. at 511-12. The Supreme Court stated that the test to 12 determine whether the government contractor defense shields a contractor from liability 13 involves a initial determination that the contract involves “uniquely federal interests” 14 and that the contractor establish two elements: “(1) the United States approved 15 reasonably precise specifications; [and] (2) the equipment conformed to those 16 specifications[.]” Id. at 504, 5121 (citation omitted); see Snell v. Bell Helicopter 17 Textron, Inc., 107 F.3d 744, 746 (9th Cir. 1997) (“The military contractor defense is an 18 affirmative defense; [the private contractor] has the burden of establishing it.”). The 19 Supreme Court stated that “[t]he federal interest justifying this holding surely exists as 20 much in procurement contracts as in performance contracts; we see no basis for a 21 distinction.” Id. at 506. 22 Following Boyle, courts have applied the government contractor defense in cases 23 involving both procurement and performance contracts between the United States and 24 a private contractor. See Campbell-Ewald, 136 S. Ct. at 673 (discussing government 25 26 1 In Boyle, the Supreme Court included a third element: “(3) the supplier warned the United States about the dangers in the use of the equipment that were known to the 27 supplier but not to the United States.” 487 U.S. at 512. However, the Court does not address the third element, because the contract at issue in this case is not an equipment 28 contract. See Griffin v. JTSI, Inc., Civ. No. 08–00242 ACK–LEK, 2009 WL 8761211, at *15 n.45 (D. Haw. July 28, 2009). -6- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 contractor defense relating to a performance contract between United States Navy and 2 contractor to send recruiting text messages); In re Hanford Nuclear Reservation Litig., 3 534 F.3d 986, 1000 (9th Cir. 2008) (“[T]he government contractor defense applies not 4 only to claims challenging the physical design of a military product, but also to the 5 process by which such equipment is produced[,]” and “[t]he defense allows a 6 contractor-defendant to receive the benefits of sovereign immunity when a contractor 7 complies with the specifications of a federal government contract.”); Griffin v. JTSI, 8 Inc., Civ. No. 08–00242 ACK–LEK, 2009 WL 8761211, at *12 n.36 (D. Haw. July 28, 9 2009) (“Griffin II”) (“The Ninth Circuit’s application of the [government contractor] 10 defense has been limited to contracts involving specifications for the design or 11 production of military equipment or operation of military facilities.”). 12 Under the first factor, the contractor must establish that the United States was 13 closely involved in the development of specifications that regulated the contractor’s 14 performance. “When only minimal or very general requirements are set for the 15 contractor by the United States the rule is inapplicable. The situation is different where 16 the United States reviewed and approved a detailed set of specifications.” McKay v. 17 Rockwell Intern. Corp., 704 F.2d 444, 450 (9th Cir. 1983). In Butler v. Ingalls 18 Shipbuilding, Inc., a member of the United States Navy filed suit against the private 19 manufacturer of a vessel accommodation ladder that was built pursuant to a contract 20 with the United States. 89 F.3d 582, 583 (9th Cir. 1996). The Court of Appeals 21 reviewed the language of the contract between the manufacturer and the United States, 22 and concluded that the manufacturer constructed, installed, and tested the ladders 23 according to a set of listed “specifications” provided by the United States. Id. at 58424 85. The Court of Appeals found that the first element of the government contractor 25 defense was satisfied because the United States provided the manufacturer “with 26 extremely precise specifications and painstakingly reviewed [the Defendant’s] 27 conformance therewith.” Id. at 585. 28 The contractor must demonstrate that the government’s approval involved “more -7- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 than a rubber stamp.” Snell, 107 F.3d at 748 (quoting Trevino v. General Dynamics 2 Corp., 865 F.2d 1474, 1480 (5th Cir. 1989), cert. denied, 493 U.S. 935 (1989) (mem.)); 3 see also Boyle, 487 U.S. at 525 (Brennan, J., dissenting) (“Had respondent merely 4 manufactured the [] helicopter, following minutely the Government’s own in-house 5 specifications, it would be analogous to the contractor in Yearsley, although still not 6 analytically identical since Yearsley depended upon an actual agency relationship with 7 the Government[.]”). To find the government contractor defense applicable in a 8 particular case, the contractor is “required to” provide the court with evidence of a 9 “back and forth dialogue culminating in approval, and continuous exchange between 10 the contractor and the government [] to satisfy Boyle’s first condition[.]” Butler, 89 11 F.3d at 585-86 (citation and quotation marks omitted); see also Griffin II, 2009 WL 12 8761211, at *13 (finding the first element was satisfied because, “Although [the private 13 contractor defendant] provided the personnel, the United States had the exclusive 14 authority to manage and supervise [the private contractor defendant’s] performance of 15 security and technical services [at a military facility] under the Subcontract.”). The 16 second factor requires the court find that the contractor has complied with those 17 reasonably precise specifications established by the United States. See Griffin II, 2009 18 WL 8761211, at *15. 19 C. Analysis 20 The Court must initially determine whether the contract between Defendant and 21 the United States involves “uniquely federal interests[.]” Boyle, 487 U.S. at 504. In 22 Boyle, the Supreme Court stated that a “uniquely federal interest[]” is presented “in 23 getting the Government’s work done” pursuant to a procurement contract. Id. at 505, 24 505 n.1. In this case, Plaintiff alleges that Defendant is a healthcare professional 25 staffing service that employed Plaintiff at the Naval Medical Center San Diego. (ECF 26 No. 1-2 at 4-5). Providing medical services to the United States Navy implicates a 27 “uniquely federal interest[]” such that the government contractor defense could apply 28 to this matter. Boyle, 487 U.S. at 504; see also 32 C.F.R. § 199.17(a)(7)(i) (“the -8- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 Department of Defense has determined that” providing health care and health insurance 2 to members of the miliary may “have a direct and substantial effect on the conduct of 3 military affairs and national security policy of the United States.”). 4 To satisfy the first element of the government contractor defense, Defendant must 5 demonstrate the existence of “reasonably precise specifications” which have been 6 approved by the United States. Id. at 512. Defendant contends that the nature of the 7 personal services contract entered into between Defendant and the United States 8 supports a finding that the government contractor defense applies to this matter, and that 9 two emails from the day Plaintiff’s employment was terminated support the conclusion 10 that Plaintiff was “terminated at the direction of the U.S. Navy.” (ECF Nos. 4-1 at 7, 11 4-2 at 1-2). 12 The Complaint alleges that Plaintiff was hired by Defendant as a Certified 13 Medical Assistant at the Naval Medical Center San Diego in March 2013. (ECF No. 14 1-2 at 4-5). The Complaint alleges that Plaintiff’s employment was terminated by 15 Defendant “[a]fter making another mistake due to fatigue and being unable to take 16 breaks to collect her thoughts and re-center herself[.]” Id. at 7. Defendant bears the 17 burden of establishing active participation beyond rubber stamping to support the 18 government contractor defense. Snell, 107 F.3d at 746. Defendant has not provided the 19 Court with any reasonably precise specifications established by the United States Navy. 20 The only evidence presented to the Court relating to reasonably precise specifications 21 are the two emails that Defendant attached to its Motion to Dismiss. See Griffin v. JTSI, 22 Inc., 654 F. Supp.2d 1122, 1128, 1138, 1138 n.32 (D. Haw. 2008) (finding the 23 government contractor defense inapplicable when the court was presented with 24 evidence of “a two sentence e-mail” from a representative of the United States 25 “requesting that [the p]laintiffs be terminated immediately from their positions[,]” and 26 concluding that the court could not “justifiably hold that [the] email could reasonably 27 be compared to the ‘specifications’ at issue where the government contractor defense 28 has been considered.”). -9- 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 Given the lack of reasonably precise specifications approved by the United States 2 Navy, the record does not support the application of the government contractor defense 3 to this case. The Court cannot conclude that Defendant is entitled to dismissal of this 4 case as a matter of law based on the record. Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss on the 5 basis of the government contractor defense (ECF No. 4-1 at 5-13) is DENIED. 6 VI. Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy 7 A. Contentions of the Defendant 8 Defendant contends that Plaintiff fails to state a cognizable claim for wrongful 9 termination in violation of public policy because Plaintiff does not plead that she 10 engaged in an “employee protected activity” that caused Defendant to terminate her 11 employment. (ECF No. 4-1 at 13). Defendant contends that Plaintiff fails to allege that 12 her employment was terminated for an unlawful reason. The opposition filed by 13 Plaintiff does not address Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss the wrongful termination in 14 violation of public policy claim. (ECF No. 10). 15 B. Applicable Law 16 The Supreme Court of California has stated that “at-will employees may recover 17 tort damages from their employers if they can show they were discharged in 18 contravention of fundamental public policy.” Green v. Ralee Eng’g Co., 960 P.2d 19 1046, 1048 (Cal. 1998) (citing Tameny v. Atl. Richfield Co., 610 P.2d 1330, 1336 (Cal. 20 1980)). “[E]mployees who assert Tameny claims must show that the important public 21 interests they seek to protect are ‘tethered to fundamental policies that are delineated 22 in constitutional or statutory provisions.’” Id. at 1048-49 (quoting Gantt v. Sentry Ins., 23 824 P.2d 680, 688 (Cal. 1992), overruled on other grounds by Green, 610 P.2d at 1054 24 n.6). To state a plausible claim for wrongful termination in violation of public policy, 25 an employee must plead the following: (1) the existence of an employer-employee 26 relationship; (2) termination of the employee’s employment; (3) that the employee’s 27 protected activity was the legal cause of the termination, or that there was “nexus” 28 between the termination and the employee’s protected activity; and (4) damage to the - 10 - 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 employee. Holmes v. Gen. Dynamics Corp., 22 Cal. Rptr.2d 172, 176-77 n.8 (Cal. Ct. 2 App. 1993); Turner v. Anheuser-Busch, Inc., 876 P.2d 1022, 1031 (Cal. 1994). Viable 3 wrongful termination in violation of public policy claims “generally fall into four 4 categories:” (1) refusing to violate a statute; (2) performing a statutory obligation; (3) 5 exercising a statutory right or privilege; and (4) reporting an alleged violation of a 6 statute of public importance. Gantt, 824 P.2d at 684. 7 C. Analysis 8 In this case, Plaintiff alleges that her employment was terminated after she 9 “began to make avoidable mistakes due to her fatigue and inability to take breaks” due 10 to Defendant’s “refusal to allow [Plaintiff] to take state-mandated rest and meal 11 breaks[.]” (ECF No. 1-2 at 7). “After making another mistake due to fatigue and being 12 unable to take breaks to collect her thoughts and re-center herself, Defendant[] 13 terminated [Plaintiff’s] employment.” Id. Courts in California require an employee to 14 show a causal “nexus” between the employee’s protected activity, and the employer’s 15 action to terminate employment. See Turner, 876 P.2d at 1031 (granting an employer 16 summary judgment on wrongful discharge in violation of public policy claim because 17 “[the plaintiff] did not establish the required nexus between his alleged 18 ‘whistle-blowing’ activities in reporting allegedly illegal conduct, and negative reviews 19 of his performance coming four years later.”) 20 The facts alleged in the Complaint do not support an inference that Plaintiff’s 21 employment was terminated because she engaged in a particular protected activity. 22 Plaintiff alleges that Defendant’s “refusal to allow [her] to take state-mandated rest and 23 meal breaks” led to her fatigue, which next led to her making “avoidable mistakes[,]” 24 which subsequently led to her termination. (ECF No. 1-2 at 7). Plaintiff does not allege 25 a specific protected activity that she engaged in prior to the termination of her 26 employment. See Tameny, 610 P.2d at 1331 (reinstating tort claim for employee who 27 alleged that he was terminated “because he refused to participate in an illegal scheme 28 to fix retail gasoline prices”); Holmes, 22 Cal. Rptr. 2d at 174 (affirming judgment for - 11 - 16cv2755-WQH-MDD 1 an employee who was terminated “for disclosing to management the company’s 2 violation of the false statements act”). The Court concludes that Plaintiff has failed to 3 plead facts to support a cognizable wrongful termination in violation of public policy 4 claim. See also Wright v. Thrifty Payless, Inc., No. 2:13–cv–01681–KJM–EFB, 2013 5 WL 5718937, at *6 (E.D. Cal. Oct. 15, 2013) (“In cases where California courts have 6 addressed the question whether an employee was wrongfully discharged in violation of 7 public policy, there has always been an allegation that the termination was because of 8 the employee’s protected act or refusal to act.”). Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss 9 Plaintiff’s wrongful termination claim (ECF No. 4-1 at 13-14) is GRANTED. 10 VII. Conclusion 11 IT IS HEREBY ORDERED that Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss (ECF No. 4) is 12 granted in part and denied in part. Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss on the basis of the 13 government contractor defense is DENIED. Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss Plaintiff’s 14 first claim for relief, wrongful termination in violation of public policy, is GRANTED. 15 DATED: June 14, 2017 16 17 WILLIAM Q. HAYES United States District Judge 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 - 12 - 16cv2755-WQH-MDD

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