Antares Pharma Inc. v. Medac Pharma Inc. et al
MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Sue L. Robinson on 7/10/2014. (fms)
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE DISTRICT OF DELAWARE
ANTARES PHARMA, INC.,
MEDAC PHARMA, INC. and MEDAC
Civ. No. 14-270-SLR
BECTON DICKINSON FRANCE S.A.S. )
and BECTON DICKINSON AND
John C. Phillips, Jr., Esquire and Megan C. Haney, Esquire of Phillips, Goldman &
Spence, P.A., Wilmington, Delaware. Counsel for Plaintiff. Of counsel: lmron T. Aly,
Esquire of Schiff Hardin LLP and Ahmed M.T. Riaz, Esquire of Antares Pharma Inc.
Jack B. Blumenfeld, Esquire and Maryellen Noreika, Esquire of Morris, Nichols, Arsht &
Tunnell, LLP, Wilmington, Delaware. Counsel for Defendants and Intervenors. Of
counsel: Christopher J. Harnett, Esquire, James F. Haley, Jr., Esquire, Ching-Lee
Fukuda, Esquire, Hassen A. Sayeed, Esquire, Jacqueline M. James, Esquire, and
Steven K. Mossey, Esquire of Ropes & Gray LLP.
Dated: July\l>, 2014
On February, 28, 2014, plaintiff Antares Pharma, Inc. ("Antares") filed a
complaint alleging infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,565,553 ("the '553 patent") and
8,480,631 ("the '631 patent") by defendants Medac Pharma, Inc. ("Medac Pharma") and
medac GmbH, (collectively "Medac"). (D. I. 1) Antares filed a motion for preliminary
injunction directed to the '553 and '631 patents on March 14, 2014. (D. I. 6) On April
18, 2014, Antares amended its complaint, adding allegations of infringement of U.S.
Patent Nos. RE 44,846 ("the '846 patent"), and RE 44,847 ("the '847 patent")
(collectively with the '553 and '631 patents, "the patents-in-suit"). (D.I. 27) Antares
amended its motion for preliminary injunction on the same day to seek an injunction
directed at the '846 and '631 patents. 1 (D. I. 29)
On May 5, 2014 Medac Pharma answered the complaint and counterclaimed for
invalidity and non-infringement of the patents-in-suit. (D.I. 40) The same day, Becton
Dickinson France S.A.S., Becton, Dickinson and Company (collectively "Becton") filed
an intervenor complaint seeking a declaratory judgment that no valid claim of the
patents-in-suit is infringed by Becton and alleging that the patents-in-suit are invalid.
(D.I. 39) On May 30, 2014, Antares answered the intervenor complaint and
counterclaimed, alleging that Becton infringes the '553, '846 and '847 patents. (D. I. 52)
The same day, Antares also answered Medac Pharma's counterclaims. (D. I. 53) On
July 1, 2014, medac GmbH answered Antares' amended complaint and counterclaimed
for noninfringement and invalidity of the patents-in-suit. (D.I. 77)
Replacing the original motion for preliminary injunction.
Presently before the court is Antares' amended motion for preliminary injunction.
(D. I. 29) The court has jurisdiction pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 1331 and 1338.
Antares is a small, publicly traded, U.S.-based developer of automatic injection
devices used to self-administer pharmaceuticals. (D. I. 27 at ,-r 2) In October 2013, the
FDA approved Otrexup TM, which uses Antares' proprietary automatic injection device,
and in February 2014, Antares began selling Otrexup™. Otrexup™ is the first and only
product approved by the FDA to administer methotrexate subcutaneously (under the
skin) to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis. (D.I. 30 at 1-2)
Medac Pharma is a newly formed U.S. subsidiary of the German pharmaceutical
company, medac GmbH. (D. I. 27
3-4) Medac Pharma is an innovator in
injectable methotrexate, and its parent, medac GmbH, is the leader in the European
market for such products. (D. I. 44 at 6) Medac GmbH commercializes hand-powered
pre-filled methotrexate syringes in Europe. (D.I. 44 at 6) On September 10 2013,
Medac Pharma submitted a 505(b)(2) application with the FDA for a methotrexate
injection product, which will be sold under the trade name RASUVO™. (D.I. 44 at 2)
There are two patents at issue: the '631 patent, titled "Hazardous Agent
Injection System," which issued on July 9, 2013; and the '846 patent, titled "Needle
Assisted Jet Injector," which issued on April 15, 2014.
Ill. STANDARD OF REVIEW
A preliminary injunction is "an extraordinary remedy that should only be granted
in limited circumstances." Capriotti's Sandwich Shop, Inc. v. Taylor Family Holdings,
Inc., 857 F. Supp. 2d 489, 501 (D. Del. 2012). To be successful, a movant at bar must
demonstrate: (a) a reasonable likelihood of success on the merits; (b) the prospect of
irreparable harm in the absence of the injunction; (c) that this harm would exceed harm
to the opposing party; and (d) that granting the injunction is in the public interest. See
Abbott Labs. v. Sandoz, Inc., 544 F.3d 1341,1344 (Fed. Cir. 2008). "If either or both of
the fundamental requirements-likelihood of success on the merits and probability of
irreparable harm if relief is not granted-are absent, an injunction cannot issue." Enzo
Life Sciences, Inc. v. Adipogen Corp., Civ. No. 11-88, 2011 WL 2559610, at *2 (D. Del.
June 28, 2011) (citing McKeesport Hosp. v. Accreditation Council for Graduate Med.
Educ., 24 F.3d 519, 523 (3d Cir. 1994).
A. Likelihood of Success on the Merits
1. The '631 patent
The '631 patent is directed to "a hazardous agent injection system," more
specifically "a needle-assisted jet injector." ('631 patent, abstract, col. 45:8-14) The
'631 patent distinguishes a "jet injector" (including a "needle-assisted jet injector") and
an autoinjector or hand-powered syringe. (Col. 26:49-27:18) Specifically,
whereas a medicament injected into a subject via an autoinjector or
hypodermic syringe is delivered in a bolus near the needle tip, the
medicament delivered from a jet injector is sprayed rapidly into the tissue,
typically remotely from the needle tip, and typically does not deposit the
medicament in a bolus local to a needle tip. . . . Needle-assisted jet
injectors ... have pressures and speeds that are sufficiently high so that
the medicament exits the needle tip as a fluid jet.
Because the medicament delivered by a jet injector is essentially sprayed
rapidly into the subject's tissue, remotely from the needle tip, the
medicament does not leave the jet injector as a single drop or bolus and is
thus not delivered to a subject as a bolus local to a needle tip. Therefore,
by using the jet injectors disclosed herein, a medicament can be
dispersed into a subject's tissue more efficiently.
(Col. 27:5-18, 32:54-61)
The court construes "jet-injector'' as "a powered injector used to achieve the
delivery of medicaments in a high speed stream, that is, at a pressure, force, and speed
sufficiently high so that the medicament exits the needle tip as a fluid jet and not as a
bolus. The critical difference between a jet injector and autoinjectors or hand-powered
syringes is how the medicament is delivered - dispersed remotely from the needle-tip
Uet) rather than deposited in a locus near the needle tip (bolus)."
The parties' experts compared injection with a conventional needle to injection
with Medac's autoinjector using a ballistics gel block - the still images show a bolus
surrounding the end of the needle. (0.1. 11 at ,-r 48; 0.1. 50 at ,-r 96) Antares' expert,
Fisher, opined that "Medac's methotrexate injector is a jet injection device, because it
uses a jet to inject to the medicament into a patient to a depth beyond the tip of the
needle." Moreover, Fisher concluded that "when Medac's injector is fired into a block of
ballistics gel, the force of the injector causes the fluid to be expelled as a jet that
penetrates to a deeper portion of the block, ... in contrast to the lack of jet ... [when]
firing a manual syringe into the same type of block." (0.1. 11 at ,-r 48) Medac's expert
duplicated the ballistics gel study and concluded that "[t]he [M]edac injector ...
deposits methotrexate in a bolus near the needle tip" and "Medac's injector does not
have increased dispersion as compared to the hand-powered syringe." (0.1. 50 at ,-r,-r
97 -98) Neither party presented a comparison of Antares' jet injector with either a hand
syringe or Medac's autoinjector nor did the parties illustrate the "rapid spray" dispersion
of a jet injector. 2
During prosecution, an inventor of the '631 patent submitted a declaration to the
PTO emphasizing that
the subcutaneous deposition of methotrexate resulting from the claimed
needle-assisted jet injector is important because increased dispersion of
methotrexate, as compared to bolus deposition of methotrexate from a
hand-powered needle and syringe, significantly impacts the
methotrexate's contact and interactions with cells of the tissue into which
it is injected, which in turn alters the migration of the methotrexate to the
(D. I. 45, ex. 17 at 1J12) In contrast, Antares now avers that "increased dispersion" and
the creation of a "fluid jet" are only "possible benefits" of the '631 patent. (D.I. 67 at 5,
citing col. 27:1-11, 18:43-49)
Antares also argues that "Becton did human injection tests showing that drug
was deposited over 17.5 mm beneath the skin with the autoinjector, something a
manual injector could not do." (D.I. 67 at 5) Abry, the European Manager for
Commercial Development at Becton Dickinson France S.A.S., acknowledged that one
"outlier," labeled "statistically outlying values" (in a study with a total of 960 injections),
showed drug penetration of 17.5 mm. (D.I. 69, ex. HH at 166:10-18) However, the
results of the study "demonstrated that there was no significant difference in depth of
the fluid depot between Physioject™ autoinjection and a manual syringe injection,
finding ... a mean depth of fluid depot of 7.75 mm for self-injection and of 7.83 mm for
With the exception of a hand drawing provided in Medac's presentation to the
Becton's disposable autoinjector.
nurse-assisted manual injection for the 0.2 ml injections, and of 8.58 mm for
self-injection and of 8. 72 mm for nurse-assisted manual injection for the 1.0 ml
injections." (D.I. 49 at 111111-12, ex. A at 393, fig. 2) Similarly reported data in a Becton
document "include[d) an exemplary echography of the tissue taken during the study and
report[ed] that the depth of depot 'was statistically not different between the
auto-injector (8.2 mm; SD: 2.5) and the prefilled syringe as alone (8.3 mm; SD: 2.2)."'
(D.I. 49 at 1113, ex. Cat MEDAC-DE 2616)
The '631 patent specification differentiates jet injectors as providing increased
dispersion and not depositing medicament in a bolus. Indeed, the patentees focused
on this difference during prosecution. Moreover, Antares has not offered a comparison
of its jet injector with Medac's autoinjector. Further, the still image provided of Medac's
autoinjector shows a bolus near the needle tip. The court concludes that Antares has
not carried its burden of showing a likelihood of success on the merits. 4
2. The '846 patent
a. Prosecution history
The '846 patent is a reissue of U.S. Patent No. 7,776,015 ("the '015 patent"),
which issued on August 17, 2010 from Appl. No. 11/002,687 ("the '687 application")
filed on December 3, 2004. The '846 patent, titled "Needle Assisted Jet Injector," is
described in the "Summary of Invention" as relating to "a needle assisted jet injector."
(Col. 2, 54-55) In the "Background of the Invention," the patentees described the
Therefore, the court does not reach Medac's invalidity arguments.
following needs that were being addressed in the field of invention, 5 that is,
a need for a needle assisted jet injector that operates at relatively low
pressure and that is capable of quickly delivering medicament. There
also exists a need for such an injector having a retractable or concealed
needle to prevent the medical hazards associated with exposed needles.
During prosecution, the examiner rejected the '687 application as anticipated
and/or made obvious by prior art references that, according to the applicants, did not
disclose a "jet injector." The following are just a few examples of the applicants'
arguments in this regard:
In the Response to Arguments section of the Office Action, the statement
is made that it is allegedly "clear'' that Kramer injects liquid as forcefully
shooting forth from a nozzle in a stream, and that this makes Kramer a
jet injector. Furthermore, the Office Action separated the term "jet" from
"injection," improperly treating them as separate terms. Such a definition
is improper and is contrary to the ordinary understanding in the art. The
terms "jet injector," "jet injecting," "jet injection," and related phrases are
well understood terms of art. The jet from a jet injector is powerful
enough to penetrate through a depth of tissue, such as muscle or skin
layers, instead of being deposited as a bolus. Jet injectors are often
defined in terms of the combination of certain parameters like pressures,
diameter of the outlet that makes the jet, and flow rate, but Kramer does
not disclose these parameters to suggest a jet.
With regard to the recitation of the jet injection device itself, the Examiner
argued that this recitation in the preamble was not given patentable weight
and cited 1976 and 1951 case law in alleging that the term "jet injector''
somehow merely relates to an intended use. The recitation of "A jet injector''
is definitely structural and significantly affects the structural recitations in the
body of the claim. One of ordinary skill in the art would have understood that
a jet injector involves significant structural features, including, for instance,
"The present invention is directed to a device for delivery of medicament, and in
particular to a jet injector with a short needle to reduce the pressure at which the jet
injector must eject the medicament for proper delivery." (Col. 1:24-27)
sufficiently powerful force-generating source, a construction that can withstand
high pressures of jet injectors, and a suitable orifice such as the orifice of the
injection-assisting needle to produce the jet that is understood to be powerful
enough to penetrate through tissue as a jet. Several elements recited in the
claim, such as the force-generating source and the needle, would have a
different construction in a jet injector than in other types of injectors, such
as hypodermic or auto-injectors, which are described in the specification,
or such as the injector of Kramer. Consequently, the term, "jet injection
device," in the preamble is a positive recitation from which the structures of the
claim body depend.
(0.1. 45, ex. 9 at 2-3) (emphasis added) (see also 0.1. 45, ex. 20 at 5-6)
In June 2006 and October 2008, the applicants were still attempting to overcome
the examiner's rejections under 35 U.S.C. §§ 102 and 103 over such prior art
references as Kramer, arguing that "the jet injector of the present claims" is
"significantly different" from the "automated injector of Kramer." (ld., ex. 27 at 8) In
order to "further define the invention and distinguish it from Kramer in view of all
previously submitted reasons," the applicants amended independent claims 1 and 21 to
add the descriptive language in bold:
wherein the force generating source is configured such that activation
of the force generating source moves the plunger to apply a pressure to the
medicament in the fluid chamber . . . to expel medicament from the fluid
chamber by creating a high-speed jet of the medicament that penetrates
patient tissue to a distance through and beyond . . . the injecting end and
past the insertion point to an injection site.
(ld., ex. 27 at 3, 7) The examiner issued a notice of allowance on April 6, 2010,
[t]he claims in this application have been allowed because the prior art
of record fails to disclose either singly or in combination the claimed
apparatus of a jet injection device with the high speed jet with a fluid
pressure between about 100 and 1000 p.s.i. to penetrate tissue through
Replacing the phrase "and eject the amount of the medicament through."
and axially beyond the insertion point and such that the injecting end
reaches a needle point at a depth of up to about 5mm below the surface
along (or no more [than] 5mm) along with a mechanical member that is
elastically deformed to provide the force.
The closest prior art is Brennen (U.S. Patent 4,222,392), Baum (U.S.
Patent 4,929,238), Kramer (U.S. Patent 5, 176,643) and Haber (U.S.
Patent 5,304, 128), but all fail to disclose the claimed combination with
the claimed penetration depth, pressure p.s.i. output, axial penetration,
and elastically deformed mechanical force.
(/d., ex. 28 at 2) The '687 application issued as the '015 patent on August 17, 2010.
On June 22,2012, Appl. No. 13/531,023 was filed by the inventors of the '015
patent, presumably seeking to amend such pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 251 (a). 7 According
to the record presented by the parties, new claims 23-37 were added, reciting "an
injection device" comprising certain features. In responding to rejection of certain of the
new claims by the examiner in September 2013, the applicants argued that neither
Kramer nor any of the other cited references, alone or in combination, suggested or
taught either of a "latch or spring feature, or equivalent structures, within the proximal
end" of the "injecting device that is under sufficient compression to eject the
medicament .... " (/d., ex. 24 at 11, 13) The applicants remarked that "support" for the
new claims could be found "throughout the specification and in particular the
paragraphs (based on the column and line numbers of U.S. Patent No. 7,776,015, the
basis of the current reissue application) and figures" enumerated by the applicants.
(/d., ex. 24 at 9) The '846 patent issued on April 15, 2014.
b. Legal standard
"Presumably" is used because the parties did not see fit to include such in the
record, at least not where it could be easily found by the court.
Section 251 (a) of Title 35 of the United States Code provides in relevant part as
Whenever any patent is, through error, deemed wholly or partly inoperative
or invalid, by reason of a defective specification or drawing, or by reason of
the patentee claiming more or less than he had a right to claim in the patent,
the Director shall, on the surrender of such patent and the payment of the
fee required by law, reissue the patent for the invention disclosed in the
original patent, and in accordance with a new and amended application, for
the unexpired part of the term of the original patent. No new matter shall be
introduced into the application for reissue.
The Federal Circuit has found two requirements in§ 251 (a). The first, the "error"
requirement, "limits the availability of a reissue patent to certain correctable errors,"
e.g., "the patentee claiming his invention too broadly or too narrowly." Hester Indus.
Inc. v. Stein Inc., 142 F.3d 1472, 1479 (Fed. Cir. 1998) (citation omitted). "The 'original
patent' requirement is a second and independent requirement, ... which restricts a
reissue patent to 'the invention disclosed in the original patent."' /d. (citation omitted).
The reissue statute should be construed liberally, as it is "based on fundamental
principles of equity and fairness .... " In re Weiler, 790 F.2d 1576, 1579 (Fed. Cir.
With respect to the "error" requirement, "[o]ne of the most commonly asserted
'errors' in support of a broadening reissue is the failure of the patentee's attorney to
appreciate the full scope of the invention during the prosecution of the original patent
application." Hester, 142 F.3d at 1479. In determining whether such an error actually
supports the new claims, a review of the prosecution history of the original patent must
be undertaken to ensure that a patentee does not regain '"through reissue ... subject
matter that he surrendered in an effort to obtain allowance of the original claims."' /d. at
1480 (citation omitted). The "recapture rule" addresses the above concern.
As explained by the Federal Circuit in Hester,
"[u]nder [the recapture] rule, claims that are 'broader than the original patent
claims in a manner directly pertinent to the subject matter surrendered during
prosecution' are impermissible." ... Application of the recapture rule begins
with a determination of whether and in what respect the reissue claims are
broader than the original patent claims. . . . A reissue claim that does not
include a limitation present in the original patent claims is broader in that
/d. If the reissue claims are determined to be broader, under the recapture rule the
court must "next examine whether these broader aspects relate to surrendered subject
matter. ... 'To determine whether an applicant surrendered particular subject matter,
[the court] look[s] to the prosecution history for arguments and changes to the claims
made in an effort to overcome a prior art rejection.'" /d. (citation omitted) (emphasis in
[A]s a general proposition, in determining whether there is a surrender, the
prosecution history of the original patent should be examined for evidence
of an admission by the patent applicant regarding patentability. . . . In this
regard, claim amendments are relevant because an amendment to overcome
a prior art rejection evidences an admission that the claim was not
Arguments made to overcome prior art can equally evidence an admission
sufficient to give rise to a finding of surrender.
/d. at 1481. If the court concludes that there has been a surrender, it "must next
determine whether the surrendered subject matter has crept back into the asserted
reissue claims." /d. at 1482.
If the above described prongs of the recapture rule have been satisfied, the rule
can be avoided only if the reissue claims "are materially narrower in other overlooked
aspects of the invention. The purpose of this exception to the recapture rule is to allow
the patentee to obtain through reissue a scope of protection to which he is rightfully
entitled for such overlooked aspects." /d. at 1482-83. Therefore, "[u]nless the claims
are materially narrowed in a way that avoids substantial or whole recapture of the
surrendered subject matter, the surrendered subject matter has crept into the reissue
claims and they are barred under the recapture rule." In re Youman, 679 F.3d 1335,
1344-45 (Fed. Cir. 2012).
Although it is not clear to the court that the parties provided the entire
prosecution history of either the '015 patent or the '846 patent in connection with the
instant preliminary injunction proceeding, the court has reviewed the record as
submitted and concludes that the recapture rule applies to the facts at bar, despite
plaintiff's arguments to the contrary: "There are two different claimed aspects, the 'jet'
aspect in the original application and the safety features aspect in the reissue. . . . As
Medac's expert admitted, the claim 31 safety features can be used with any
autoinjector, not just jet injectors. . . . In this situation, ... '[a]s for obtaining claims on
reissue which are different, no prohibition arises merely because of the language of the
reissue statute."' (D. I. 67 at 4, citing In re Wad/inger, 496 F.2d 1200, 1207 (C.C.P.A.
The court respectfully disagrees with plaintiff's reasoning. The prosecution
history of the '015 patent is replete with arguments and amendments made to
distinguish such prior art references as Kramer, wherein the distinguishing feature of
the invention was characterized as a "jet injector." Indeed, the applicants argued in this
regard that the structural recitations in the original claims were affected by the fact that
it was a "jet injection device" that was claimed; to wit, "the term, 'jet injection device,' in
the preamble is a positive recitation from which the structures of the claim body
depend." (0.1. 45, ex. 9 at 3) On multiple occasions, the applicants argued that "the jet
injector of the present claims" is "significantly different" from the automated injector of
Kramer. (/d., ex. 27 at 8) The applicants amended claims 1 and 21 to further buttress
the fact that their invention was different from other injectors, in that the medicament
was expelled "from the fluid chamber by creating a high-speed jet of the
medicament . ... " (/d., ex. 27 at 3, 7) Each of the original 22 claims refers to a "jet
injection device," and the specification is written in the context of a "jet injection
Applying the recapture rule to the above facts, the reissue claims are broader, in
that they do not recite the limitation "jet injection device" but, rather, "an injection
device." Given the prosecution history related above, there is every indication that the
applicants surrendered all injectors but for "jet injectors," understood by those of skill in
the art at the time to include only those injectors having a "jet ... powerful enough to
penetrate through a depth of tissue, such as muscle or skin layers, instead of being
deposited as a bolus." (/d., ex. 9 at 2) Likewise, the applicants argued that "jet
injectors" affected the structural recitations in the body of the original claims 9 and, as
noted, the structural features now claimed in the '846 patent were described in the
specification of the '015 patent only in the context of a jet injector. Without the
The specification and the claims mention "jet injection," "jet injector," and like
phrases over 75 times.
See, e.g., 0.1. 45, ex. 9 at 2-3.
structural context of a jet injector, the court concludes that the surrendered subject
matter- prior art injectors that would not be considered "jet injectors" to those of skill in
the art at the time - has crept into the reissue claims. 10
With respect to the final prong of the analysis, that is, whether the recapture rule
can be avoided because the applicants did not recapture everything they surrendered,
the analysis proceeds on a limitation-by-limitation basis. See North American
Container, Inc. v. Plastipak Packaging, Inc., 415 F.3d 1335, 1350 (Fed. Cir. 2005). To
avoid recapture for claims that are broader in some respects and narrower in others, 11
"the narrowing must relate to the subject matter surrendered during the original
prosecution .... " In re Mostafazadeh, 643 F.3d 1353, 1359 (Fed. Cir. 2011). Here,
the "jet injector'' and needle length limitations of the claims were entirely eliminated on
reissue and no new restriction was imposed on the injector or needle that would avoid
the recapture rule.
The '015 patent claimed certain features of a "jet injector." The '015 patent
issued over prior art references that arguably disclosed those same features but in a
different injector. The patentees ultimately prevailed in convincing the examiner that
the "jet injector," as known to those of skill in the art, had distinct characteristics and
To the extent that the structural limitations of the reissue claims only make
sense in the context of a jet injector, e.g., a syringe does not require a spring or a latch,
then the court construes "an injecting device" consistent with its construction of "jet
injector" in the '631 patent and relies on the related infringement analysis supra.
By adding the "latch" limitation, e.g., the asserted claims are arguably narrower
than the original claims.
structure not found in the cited prior art. To allow the patentees to remove this
limitation and claim features that were only described in the context of a jet injector
does not fit within the realm of corrections contemplated within § 251. As discussed
above in the analysis of the '631 patent, Antares has not carried its burden of showing
likelihood of success on the merits that Medac's product infringes claims directed to a
B. Irreparable Harm
Antares' currently has the only available subcutaneous injector for methotrexate
on the market, with Medac set to launch its competing product as early as July 10,
2014. (D. I. 8 at 1f 14; D. I. 30, exs. F, EE at 14) Insurance companies and other third
party payors place drugs into formulary "tiers," which determine the level of co-pays and
reimbursements. This impacts the sales of the drug and a company's ability to grow the
market. Otrexup TM is now a "tier 3" product, which allows for substantial insurance
coverage. (D. I. 8 at 1J1f 27-28) Antares argues that the launch of a competing product
would force the renegotiating of the current tier and pricing structure. Moreover,
Antares has identified the types of harm that traditionally have qualified as not easily
compensable by money damages-price erosion and threatening its brand. See, e.g.,
Aria Diagnostics, Inc. v. Sequenom, Inc., 726 F.3d 1296, 1304 (Fed. Cir. 2013) ("Price
erosion, loss of goodwill, damage to reputation, and loss of business opportunities are
all valid grounds for finding irreparable harm.") (quoting Celsis In Vitro, Inc. v.
CellzDirect, Inc., 664 F.3d 922, 930 (Fed. Cir. 2012)). While Medac responds that any
losses to Antares are measurable and would be compensable by money damages, the
court finds Antares' reasoning more persuasive on this issue, particularly with respect to
the tier pricing. See, e.g., Nutrition 21 v. U.S., 930 F.2d 867,872 (Fed. Cir. 1991)
(stating that some evidence and reasoned analysis for the inadequacy of money
damages should be proffered.) Antares has carried its burden of demonstrating
C. Balance of Harms and Public Interest
While Antares' sales would suffer if Medac's product were introduced and later
found infringing, delaying Medac's launch would also cause monetary damages. The
balance of harms is neutral. As to the public interest, Antares avers that its product is
available and in use for the same indications as Medac's product, i.e., rheumatoid
arthritis and psoriasis. Medac responds that the products are not interchangeable as
RASUVO™ provides additional dosing flexibility not offered through OTREXUP™. As
over 90% of prescribed doses are for the standard doses that Antares already sells, this
factor is neutral.
On the record presented, the court denies Antares' motion for a preliminary
injunction. An order shall issue.
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