Harrison v. Howard R. Young Institute et al
MEMORANDUM OPINION - Signed by Judge Richard G. Andrews on 11/14/14. (rwc)
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE DISTRICT OF DELAWARE
: Civ. No. 14-1009-RGA
HOWARD R. YOUNG
Arto Harrison, Wilmington, Delaware, Pro Se Plaintiff.
Plaintiff Arto Harrison, a former inmate at the Howard R. Young Correctional
Institution, Wilmington, Delaware, filed this action pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983. He
appears pro se and has been granted leave to proceed in forma pauperis. (0.1. 13).
The Court proceeds to review and screen the Complaint pursuant to 28 U.S.C.
§1915(e)(2)(B) and § 1915A(a). (See 0.1. 2).
Plaintiff suffers from severe back problems. When he arrived at the HRYCI, he
was housed three men to a cell in a one man cell and slept on the floor. Plaintiff
alleges that the condition worsened, was not addressed, and that security was aware of
his condition, but placed him in situations that caused him unnecessary pain and
suffering. He seeks injunctive relief and compensatory and punitive damages.
A federal court may properly dismiss an action sua sponte under the screening
provisions of 28 U.S.C. § 1915(e)(2)(B) and § 1915A(b) if "the action is frivolous or
malicious, fails to state a claim upon which relief may be granted, or seeks monetary
relief from a defendant who is immune from such relief." Ball v. Famiglio, 726 F.3d 448,
452 (3d Cir. 2013); see a/so 28 U.S.C. § 1915(e)(2) (in forma pauperis actions); 28
U.S.C. § 1915A (actions in which prisoner seeks redress from a governmental
defendant); 42 U.S.C. § 1997e (prisoner actions brought with respect to prison
conditions). The Court must accept all factual allegations in a complaint as true and
take them in the light most favorable to a pro se plaintiff. See Phillips v. County of
Allegheny, 515 F.3d 224, 229 (3d Cir. 2008); Erickson v. Pardus, 551 U.S. 89, 93
(2007). Because Plaintiff proceeds pro se, his pleading is liberally construed and his
Complaint, "however inartfully pleaded, must be held to less stringent standards than
formal pleadings drafted by lawyers." Erickson v. Pardus, 551 U.S. at 94 (citations
An action is frivolous if it "lacks an arguable basis either in law or in fact."
Neitzke v. Williams, 490 U.S. 319, 325 (1989). Under 28 U.S.C. § 1915(e)(2)(8)(i) and
§ 1915A(b)( 1), a court may dismiss a complaint as frivolous if it is "based on an
indisputably meritless legal theory" or a "clearly baseless" or "fantastic or delusional"
factual scenario. Neitzke, 490 U.S. at 327-28; Wilson v. Rackmill, 878 F.2d 772, 774
(3d Cir. 1989); see, e.g., Deutsch v. United States, 67 F.3d 1080, 1091-92 (3d Cir.
1995) (holding frivolous a suit alleging that prison officials took an inmate's pen and
refused to give it back).
The legal standard for dismissing a complaint for failure to state a claim pursuant
to § 1915(e)(2)(8)(ii) and § 1915A(b)(1) is identical to the legal standard used when
ruling on Rule 12(b)(6) motions. See Tourscher v. McCullough, 184 F.3d 236, 240 (3d
Cir. 1999). However, before dismissing a complaint or claims for failure to state a
claim upon which relief may be granted pursuant to the screening provisions of 28
U.S.C. §§ 1915 and 1915A, the Court must grant Plaintiff leave to amend his complaint
unless amendment would be inequitable or futile. See Grayson v. Mayview State
Hosp., 293 F.3d 103, 114 (3d Cir. 2002).
A complaint may be dismissed only if, accepting the well-pleaded allegations in
the complaint as true and viewing them in the light most favorable to the plaintiff, a
court concludes that those allegations "could not raise a claim of entitlement to relief."
Bell At!. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 558 (2007). Though "detailed factual
allegations" are not required, a complaint must do more than simply provide "labels and
conclusions" or "a formulaic recitation of the elements of a cause of action." Davis v.
Abington Mem'l Hosp., 765 F.3d 236, 241 (3d Cir. 2014) (quoting Twombly, 550 U.S. at
555). In addition, a complaint must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true,
to state a claim to relief that is plausible on its face. See Williams v. BASF Catalysts
LLC, 765 F.3d 306, 315 (3d Cir. 2014).
To determine whether a complaint meets the pleading standard as set forth in
Twombly and Iqbal, the Court must: (1) outline the elements a plaintiff must plead to a
state a claim for relief; (2) peel away those allegations that are no more than
conclusions and thus not entitled to the assumption of truth; and (3) look for well-pled
factual allegations, assume their veracity, and then "determine whether they plausibly
give rise to an entitlement to relief." Bistrian v. Levi, 696 F.3d 352, 365 (3d Cir. 2012)
(internal citations omitted). The last step is "a context-specific task that requires the
reviewing court to draw on its judicial experience and common sense." Iqbal, 556 U.S.
Plaintiff's claims against Defendants fail as a matter of law. The Eleventh
Amendment of the United States Constitution protects an unconsenting state or state
agency from a suit brought in federal court by one of its own citizens, regardless of the
relief sought. See Pennhurst State Sch. & Hosp. v. Halderman, 465 U.S. 89 (1984);
Edelman v. Jordan, 415 U.S. 651 (1974). The HRYCI falls under the umbrella of the
Delaware Department of Correction, an agency of the State of Delaware. Further,
Defendants HRYCI and the medical department are not persons subject to claims
under 42 U.S.C. § 1983. See Will v. Michigan Dep't of State Police, 491 U.S. 58, 71
(1989). The State has not waived its immunity from suit in federal court, see Brooks
McCollum v. Delaware, 213 F. App'x 92,94 (3d Cir. 2007), and although Congress can
abrogate a state's sovereign immunity, it did not do so through the enactment of 42
U.S.C. § 1983. See Quem v. Jordan, 440 U.S. 332, 345 (1979). Therefore, the Court
will dismiss the complaint as legally frivolous pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1915(e)(2)(B)(i)
and § 1915A(b)(1).
However, it appears plausible that Plaintiff may be able to articulate a claim
against alternative defendants. Therefore, Plaintiff will be given an opportunity to
amend his pleading. See O'Dell v. United States Gov't, 256 F. App'x 444 (3d Cir.
Plaintiff requests counsel. (0.1. 9). This case is in its early stages and, as the
complaint now stands, is not cognizable. Therefore, the Court will deny the request for
counsel without prejudice to renew.
For the above reasons, the Complaint will be dismissed as legally frivolous and
based upon Defendants' immunity pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §§ 1915(e)(2)(B)(i) and (iii)
and 1915A(b)(1). Plaintiff will be given leave to file an amended complaint. The
request for counsel (0.1. 9) will be denied without prejudice to renew.
An appropriate order will be entered.
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