Letzer v. The Radiant Creations Group, Inc et al

Filing 50

ORDER AND OPINION DENYING DEFENDANTS' MOTIONS TO DISMISS COMPLAINT denying 23 Motion to Dismiss; denying 26 Motion to Dismiss. Signed by Judge Donald M. Middlebrooks on 12/19/2016. (lan)

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UNI TED STATES DI STRI COURT CT SO UTH ERN DI STRI O F FLO RI CT DA CASE NO .16 14 - 349- V- I CI M DDLEBROO KS SHELLEY LETZER, Pl i if antf, THE M DI ANT CREATI ONS GROUP,l ., a NC Fl i Cor a i GOLDEN RI orda por ton; VER CAPI , TAL LLC,a Fl rdalmie la lt c o i i t d ibiiy ompa ny; GOLDEN RI VER CAPI TAL 1 m C. a Fl i , , orda Cor r ton; T ENTERPRI po a i Nl SES,I C.a Fl i N , orda Cop or ton;SBD GLOBAL FL,l C.aFl i ai N , orda Cor a i NI ENTERPRI FL,m C ., a por ton; T SES FlrdaCor a i SBD SCI oi por ton; ENTI C & FI BI OLOGI CAL DYNAM I m C. aFl i CS, , orda Cor ai n;GARY R.SM I i vi ly,a porto TH, ndi dual Flrdar sde ;GARY D . o i e i nt ALEXANDER, i vi ualy,aFl i r i nt a M I ndi d l orda esde ; nd CHAEL ALEXANDER,i vi l a Fl i r i nt ndi dualy, orda esde , De e nt . f nda s ORDER AND O PI O N DENYI DEFENDANTS'M OTI NI NG ONS TO DI I SM SS COM PLAI NT THI CAUSE c S omes bef e t Cour u or he t pon Def nda s Gar D.Alxande , M i e e nt y e r cha l Alxan ,Gol n Ri rCa t l LLC,Gol n Ri rCa t 1 I ., SBD Gl lFL,I ,a e der de ve pia, de ve pial , nc oba nc. nd The Ra a Crains Gr dint e to oup,I ' (he ' lxa nc.s t W e nder Dee fndant' Moton t Dimis t s' ) i o s s he Se ndAme d Complit(s exa rMoton' ,Gl onOcobe 4,201 ( 23) a u co nde an GAl nde i ' ed ) t r 6 DE , nd pon Def nt Ga y R.Smih,NI En e rs ,l ,a Nl Entp rs s FL, I ' (he f t enda s r t T t m ies nc. nd T e ie nc.s t ' h Smi Dee nt, a t ehe wiht Alxand Dee nt,tDee nt' M oi t Dimist fnda s' nd og t r t he e er fnda s i fnda s' ton o s s he ' ) Sec Ame ond nded Compli (l t Moton' ,fld on Ocobe 1 201 ( 26)1 Pl ntf ant dsmih i ' ie ) t r 4, 6 DE . ai if l e en tSBD Sc e ii & Bi ogi alD yna i s l hasnota ar d i t s c s D f dan i ntfc ol c m c , nc, ppe e n hi a e. SheleyLeze (swt r' fldaRepo ei oppostont t Alxa rM otononOco r21 l t r d eze ' e l ) s ns n ii o he e nde i tbe , 2 1 ( 3 )a d aRe p n e i o po iin t te S t M oin o Oco e 31 20 6 ( 31 0 6 DE 0 n s o s n p st o h mi o h to n tb r , 1 DE ) . Fort r s e ane btl t M o i nsa ede e . he ea ons xpli d ow, he to r ni d BA CK G R O UN D Thi ca ears soutofanalege deful on t Conve tbl De nt eNots(i es' s s ie l d a t wo ri t be ur e t Not ' ) is d by Lez rt non- ry The Re bl Cor ai (s ne e'. ( c Ame sue te o pa t newa e porton sRe wabl') Se ond nded Co lit h r ia trd mpl' t! 1 2 ) Th idv d a Dee da t, r R. t Ga y mp an , een fe i co . a ! 4, 9 . e n ii u l fn ns Gay Smi r ' h, Alxa r a M ihae Alxande wer of e sofRe wa e. (d a ! 1 ) Th No e , ae e nde , nd c l e r e fc r ne bl 1 . t 9 . e ts d td M a 21a J 1 201 r pr entd al n f o Let rt Re wabl f $200, .00. (d.. y nd une 2, 3, e es e oa r m ze o ne e or 000 1) Lez s tsi d he o i a i nsu rt Not swhe s pai Rene bl t l n a ount (d. ter a ife r blg to nde he e n he d wa e he oa m . 1 a ! 1 ) Re e b eh sn trpadt ela (#. t!2 ) I se d a c r igt t eCo lit t 5 . n wa l a o e i h o n. f a 6 . n ta , c o dn o h mpan , De e nt û nc t d an elbor t lhel g f nda s i oc e co a a e s l ame'' o a d Rene bl sdebtoblg i n t ough 't voi wa e' i ato hr fa d ln ta ses o a st,rg t,a d obiains (d a ! 2 ,2 ) S e ii al t r u ue t r n fr f ses ihs n l to . 1 . t ! 0 8 . p cfc l he g y, Compl ntsaes t tRene bl as i d is rght a oblga i t Def ntThe Ra a ai t t ha wa e sgne t i s nd i tons o enda dint Crai Gr e tons oup, l . (t dint' (d. a ! 21, be a i tve wihdr is busne s nc iRa a ' i t ) ) c me naci , t ew t is r gsrto f rt eS aeo Flrd (d a ! 1 ) a i c re tyi s le t(d. t! 1 ) I sae e itain o h tt f o i a i. t 7 , nd s u rn l n ov n i a 8 . t tts f t rt tRene bl d r udul l con ye ta f r e a o ot r s diti ed isa s t urhe ha wa e t a enty ve d, r nse r d nd/ r he wie srbut t s e s f f i ufi int or no c i r i n' t û e ti 'ot r De e nt ,whih a e syl d a t or ns fce onsde ato ' o s ra n' he c f nda s c r t e s he S mih De e d n s'a d S e n e De e d n s' (d.a j 2 ) Ale e l Ra in ha is l i t fn a t' n ' xa d r fn a t. I t r 6 . lg dy, da t s tef s Al ' b c me i s v n a d i u a e t s tsy te de tt twa a sg d t i. (d.a ! 2 - 3 . e o n ole t n s n bl o aif h b ha s sine o t 1 t ! 2 2 ) M e nw hie t era n' of t Sm ih a A l nde Def nda s c a l, i ti ' c he t nd exa r e nt onve yed, t a f r , r ns ered or diti t d t i a s t f i ufi e c i r ton t ot r Sm ih a Al nde Def nda s srbu e her s e s or ns fcint onsde a i o he t nd exa r e nt , ma ngt f me e ii i ol nta as unabl t rpa t de ont Nots (d. t!27) ki he or r nttes ns ve nd lo e o e y he bt he e . 1 a . Th c or t Sm ih a Al xa r Def nt ar alege t be S uc s or i i e es' t e om a e t nd e nde enda s e l d o s ce s s n nt r t' o s Re e be (#. t! 1 ) Lez ra r ta s ene e a re t r le e Re e bl ofisd b n wa l, / a 6 . te ves h t h v r g e d o eiv n wa e t e t obiain (d a !2 ) l to . 1 . t 5 . g Leze fld a c t r ie ompli a i tDe e ant gans f ndant on Augus 11 2 6 ( 1, S ea n e s t , 01 . DE ) h me d d te c mplitt c ( 7 & 9 ,mo tr c n l o Aug t l ,2 6 ( 9 The Second h o an wie DE ) s e e ty n us 7 01 DE ) . Ame d d Co an (i mp an )c n anst re c us sofa to ( )a b e c o c nr c n e mplit ' co lif' o ti h e a e cin: 1 r a h f o ta t cam a an tRa in (d.a ! 3 -6 ;()a sae sauo y cam u de t e Fo ia Unio m li g is d a t i t ! 03 ) 2 tt tt tr li n r h lrd fr Fru uln Tr n f rAc ( UFTA) Fl, a j7 6 1 ,e.s q,a ans alDee d n s(d. t! a d e t a se t F , a St. 2 .01 t e . g i t l f n a t i a ! 37-0) a ( a e t e rques f t Cour t a nta r ei r overal Dee nt 3 ; nd 3) n quiabl e t or he t o ppoi ec ve l fnda d or a i a c i por tons nd ompa e 'i or t makean a coun i oft i a s t a de i rpa nt c ni s' n der o c tng he r s e s nd lve yme o t eNo eo lg to t Lez r(d. t! 414 ) De e d n ss e d s sa u d rF d R. v. f h t b iain o te i a ! -2 . fn a t e k imis l n e e . Ci P.1 b () 2()6 . LEGAL STANDARD A moin t ds s u e Rul 1 ( ()c aln e t elg ls fce c o ac mplit t o imis nd r e 2b)6 h l g s h e a ufiin y f o an , o e SeeFe R.Ci P.1 b)6) l asesi t lga s tcinc ofaco antsalegai ,t d. v. 2( ( . n s sng he e l ufs e y mpli ' l tons he Cour i bo t a y t pla ng sa r a tc aed i Bel Atantc Cor v.Twombl 550 t s und o ppl he e di t nda d riult n l l i p y, . U. 5 4 (0 7 a dAs c o v I b l 5 6U. 6 2 6 ( 0 9 .Th ti,h c mpan ç s . S. 4 2 0 ) n h rh . q a , 5 S. 6 , 78 2 0 ) a s te o li tk t , mu . c an s t i f c ua m a tr a ce e ast u t $tt a cli t r i t ti plusbl on ont i ufk ent a t l te , c ptd r e, o sa e am o elef ha s a i e is fce'' Am.De alAs ' v Ci Cop. 605 F. 1 t a .' nt sn , gna r , 3d 283,1 ( 1h Ci.201 ( i 289 1 t r 0) quotng Twombl 550U. a 570 .dDimis li t r f epemitdwhe ont ba i ofads ii y, S. t ) t s s a s heeor r te n he ss ipostve i s ofl w ,no c tuc i oft f t la l tons w il s s ue a onsr ton he ac ua lega i l uppor t ca e of a ton.' G l t he us c i ' over v fi t Gr ,I . 459 F. 1 . gget p. nc, 3d 304,1 ( 1h Ci.2006)(ntr lquottonsomitd)( tng 308 1 t r i ena ai te cii Ma s alC@. o u .v Ma s a lC@. sDit, 9 F. 1 71 1 7 ( 1h Ci.1 9 ). rh l Bd fEd c . rh l Ga s.9 2 2d 1 , 1 4 1 t r 9 3 ) 3 W he r e ng a m oton t di mis a c tmus c tue pl ntf s c n eviwi i o s s , our t onsr ai if ompl n i t ait n he lg mos f vor bl t pl ntf a t t f c ua l tons sa e t r i a tue. Se i ht t a a e o ai if nd ake he a t lalegai t t d he en s r e Erc s n v Pa du , 51U. 8 9 ( 0 7 ;Ch itph rv Ha b r 5 6U, 4 3, 0 ( 0 ; ik o . r s 5 S. 9, 3 2 0 ) rso e . r uy, 3 S, 0 4 6 20 2) Br o s v Bl e Cr s & Bl e Shed o Fl . l c, 1 6 F.d 1 6 , 1 6 ( lh Ci. 1 9 ) o k . u os u il f a, n . 1 3 3 4 3 9 1 t r 9 7 . Howeve ,pla ngs t t'a e no m or t n c l i , a e notentte t t as umpton of r e di ha tr e ha oncusons r ild o he s i tuh. W hie l al c usons c pr de t fa rt l eg oncl i an ovi he r mewor of a c k ompli , t y mus b ant he t e s uppored by f cua alegai . I ,556 U . a 678;se alo Si tai v Coc col t a t l l tons' qbal ' S. t e s nalr nal a- a . Co,5 8 F.d l 5 1 6 ( 1hCi. 0 9 (ttn t a a u ra td d d to o fc i n t . 7 3 2 2, 2 0 1 t r 2 0 ) sai g h t n nwa rn e e uci n f a t s o c i r tuef pur eofdtemi ngwhehe acli i l ly s tce ) onsdeed r or pos tr ni t r am s tgal ufi int. Gene a l a pl i ifi notr quie t de a lalt f c supon whih heba e hi cai , r ly, antf s e r d o t i l he a t c ss s l m Fe R. v,P.8( ( ,Rahe , e8()2)rquiesas ta pl nsae ntoft cli t t d. Ci a)2) t r Rul a( e r hor nd ai ttme he am ha f rynotfest de e ail ii he f ndantofbot t cli a t s h he am nd he uppori gr tng ounds Twomby,550 U. a . l S. t 555- Howeve,dk e 8 a( silrquie a ihowi 'r t t n a blnke ase ton,of 56. r ç ul ( )2) tl e rs s ng, aher ha l a t s ri e il mentt r i 'I a 556 n. Pli tf S i ton t pr de t t ounds'of hi ntte o elef' d t 3. a n ifs ' ga i o ovi he gr obl s t ntte e t r i r r m or t n lbel and c usons a a f muli r cia i oft e ilm nt o elef equies e ha a s oncl i , nd or ac e tton he eeme sofaca eofa ton wilnotdo. 1 a 555 (iai omitd) t t alegai l nt us ci l ' #. t ' ctton te . i ual l tons Fac mu tb e o h t r ieg litf )rg tt rle a o et es e u aielv l o tea s mp in s e n ug o as panips ih o eif b v h p c ltv e t, n h su to t taloft a lga i i t co pl i a etu ' I ha l he le tons n he m ant r r e. d ' DI SCU SSI N O The Alxa ra Smih M otonspr pou ovel ppi a g nt f rdim isng e c e nde nd t i o nd ra ng r ume s o s s i a h oft t r e cl i s Ia es t e a g e sby cons de i ea h c a m i t n. he h e a m , ddr s hos r um nt i rng c l i n ur 4 4. Br a h o nta t e c fco r c , Aga ns t s c am t Al nde Def nda s ofe a ar i t hi l i he exa r e nt f r n gument onl i pa sng, y n si c endi t t t br ac of c r c co t pors t be a c r t cli bu as e t i ont ng ha he e h onta t unt t pur t o ontac am t s rs n pa a a 36 da r gr ph mage t tcl m beyo wha i r co r bl i a sm pl c r c c am f s ha ai nd t s e ve a e n i e onta t l i or f l et pa ade nt e' ( 23 a 2) Paaga 36oft Compli ,l atd a t e of aiur o y be ur.' DE t . r rph he ant oc e t he nd te scin o Bra h o Co ta t sae t a da sa rs l o Ra in ' b e c , Pli tf has h e to n e c f nrc, tts h t t l e ut f da ts ra h a n if g s fee sg fc n d ma e . ( mp .a ! 3 ) Tobe i wi ,ti g o n f rds sa d e u frd ini a t a g s' Co l t 6 . i ' gn t h s r u d o imis l o s h no a a t t is wih Ra a tsunde l ng la lt , o y wih t e e ofd ges I t ppe r o ake s ue t di n ' ryi ibiiy nl t he xt nt ama . t i ee n ay ho v r ta ith is s ofla iiy a d d ma e ae ditn t' Co b s lme tr , we e , h t d q e sue l ib l n a g s < sic . t ' sy Auozone I . 445 F.App' 91 91 ( h Ci.2011. Se t , nc, x 4, 7 9t r ) cond,whie Lez ' al ain of l ters leg to da a s s f r be us of br c i wo de br dl t Alxa r Defnda s cie t no m ge ufe ed ca e ea h s r d oa y, he e nde e nt t o au hort f t pr t iy or he oposto t t S i nii a da a ' a e not r cove abl o a br c ii n ha t g fc nt m ges' r s e r e n ea hed de nt e con r c . How f i fc nt' t da a be ur ta t i gnii a ' he m ges a e i mer l a que ton of f c . s r s ey si at Cons que l dim is loft br c ofc r tcl m i notwa r nt e nty, s s a he ea h ontac ai s r a ed. #. Flrd Fn#' Fr ud ln T a se Ac ( o ia t v- a ue t r nf r / FUFT A) The mai t us oft Alxande M oton c le s whe he ,wih r pe t t Le e ' n hr t he e r i ha lnge t r t es c o ztr s FUFTA cli , t Compli a qua el al ges C tculrz deais of t a lge y am he a nt de t y le t i a i ed t l par he le dl fa d e t rn a to 'u d rFe R. v P. () ( 2 a 2 .Lez rd ne t t h Ru e9 b r u uln ta s cin' n e d. Ci, 9b . DE 3 t ) te e is ha t e l ( ) sa r a i t FUFTA a tons Folowi ot rdec sonsoft sCour,1ag e wih Le z r tnda d pples o c i , l ng he ii hi t r e t te , Formos c us ofa ton,t f r lr e r uie a pli tf t m a ia s ta pli t a es c i he ede a ul s eq r a n if o ke 1 hor nd an saeme oft eli s ng t tt pl de i e il t r i . Fe R.Ci P.8 a)2) The t t nt he a m howi ha he ea r s ntted o elef' d. ' v. ( ( . Supr e Cour i er e st s r e lber ly, Gimourv Gats M c em t nt pr t hi ul i a l l . e , Donal ( Co. 382 F. 131 df , 3d 2, ght e ng t d 1 4 ( 1h Ci.2004) Conves l Rul 9( i es a hei ened pladi sandar when 31 1 t r . rey, e b) mpos 5 de lng wih c am soffa ormit . l s h c es $ pa t m us sa ew ih pa tc art t ai t li r ud sake n uc as , : ry a t tt t riul iy he cic t nce consiutng fa o m it ke.' Fe R.Ci P.9( . To do s t Compl nt r umsa s tt i r ud r sa ' d. v. b) o, he ai mus s tf t t e orh: () p e iey wha sae ns wee ma e i wh t d c n s o o a 1 r cs l t ttme t r d n a o ume t r r l r pr e a i orwha om isonswe e m a , a d ( )t etmea plc o e c e es nt tons t si r de n 2 h i nd a e f a h s h satme a t pes n rs nsbl f ma ng ( , i t ca e of uc t e nt nd he ro epo i e or ki or n he s o sin ,n tma i ) s me a d ( )t c ne to s c sae ns a d t e miso s o kng a , n 3 he o tn f u h ttme t n h ma n ri whc t e mildt ep an if a ( wh tted f n a t o ti da n e n ih h y se h litf, nd 4) a h ee d n s b ane s ac e nc oft fa ons que e he r ud. Zimba v Ca cade1 ' I . 256 F. 11 4,1 ( 1h Ci.2001 ( i Br s v Bl e . s ntl nc, , 3d 9 202 1 t r ) quotng ook ue . Cr s t BleShed o ma,I c,1 6F.d 1 6 ,1 71( 1h Ci.1 9 :.W h n k o e g o o s t u il fbl . n . 1 3 3 4 3 1 t r 9 7 e n wld e f t pr di t f c swoul be i t def ntss e pos e son, t e requiem ent ar r l xed t he e cae a t d n he enda ' ol s s i hes r s e ea o pe m i pl di on i or a i a be i . We r v Fis M anhatan Co. 902 F. 1 1 r t ea ng nf m ton nd lef xne . r t t , 2d 69, 72 ( d Ci.1 9 ) Bute n te ,f c mplitmu ta d c s e i f css p o t g a srng 2 r 9 0. ve h n $ o an s d u e p cfc a t u p ri a n to i e enc offa ' 1 nfr e r ud. d. ' Th Alx n e De e d n s j ie b t SmihDee da t, r uet tF e e a d r fn a t,on d y he t fn n s a g ha UFTA i afa d s ru cam wihn te sop o Rue9 b . W eet a t ec s ,he manant tLez rsCo an li t i h c e f l ( ) r h t h a e t y iti ha tt ' mpli t woul f i be a e i doe notm a a pa tc arze f cua s d a l c us t s ke ri ul i d a t l howi The pr bl wih t s ng, o em t hi t o yi ta fd rlc u t i ti dsrc h v c n iee a d rj ce i mutpl tme ,J d e he r s h t e e a o rs n h s itit a e o sd rd n ee td t li e i s u g M ar ' ra o i o t ss be t q oe a ln t beo i p ru sv ras e s nng n hi u jc, u td t e g h lw,s e s a ie: TheCour c udest t hei e d pl di sa r ofRul 9( doesnot t oncl hat he ghtne ea ng tndad e b) a py t cams b o g t u d r g F p l o li r u h n e ) UFTA.Un ie c mmo lw fa d cams lk o n a r u li , fa e ta f rcli sar a s td a ns a pe s orentt t tdi notdea r udulnt r ns e am e s ere gai t r on iy ha d l die ty wih t pl ntf i t c le e ta a i The ef e t pl ntf r c l t he ai if n he ha lng d r ns cton. r or , he ai if ge r ly pos es es ltl orno i or to a ne a l s s ite nf ma i n boutt a lge fa e ta f he le d r udul nt r nser ot rt n i oc r d. The faud e a t t c a si a ofhi ng m one i he ha t cure r ulnt c ,he lnde tne d di y, s aleg y c l edl omm it d by ade e te f ndanta a he ,t t e uson oft pl i if nd not r o he xcl i he antf . Thi i i s a k con r tt a com m on I w f a cl m w he e a pl i ifa l ges t t s s n tr t as o a r ud ai r a ntf le ha a def ntma a matra f le satm e o omison die ty t t pl ntf. enda de e il as t e nt r si r c l o he ai if Under s h cic sa s t pli if i i a poston t plad wih t uc r um t nce , he a ntf s n ii o e t he s cfct r uie byRul 9( .Thi Cour c l st tdes t t us oft pe iiiy eq rd e b) s t oncude ha pie he e he 6 wor 'faud,'a fa e ta f cai i sgnii a l dif e fom o he d sr ' r udulnt r nser l m s i fc nty fer nt r t r fa cams t whih Rul 9( i die td. Gi n t s lck of a es t rud li o c e b) s rce ve hi a cc s o i or i on t pa tofapli ifi a fa e ta f rca e, t a ia i nf maton he r antf n r udulnt r ns e s he pplc ton ofa heght ne pla ng sa d i i ppr i t . i e d e di tndar s na opra e GufCo s Pr d c ,I c v Am.Gr wes l c,No.0 - 0 3 - V,2 08 W L 6 01 0 a * l at o u e n . . o r, n . 7 8 6 3 C1 0 6 0, t 6 ( D.Fl M a .7,2008 ( a a J, (ntma cttons omitd) Fort s r s ,l alo S. a. r ) M n', ) i e l iai te . he e ea ons s co udet ta pli tf as e tng a ca e ofa ton unde FUFTA i f der lc tnee notm e t ncl ha a n if s ri us ci r n e a our d e Rul 9b)sheghtne pla ngsa r Asar s t dimis lofLez ' FUFTA cai i not e ( ' i e d e di tndad. eul, s sa ters lm s wa r nt d on t sbass ra e hi i. The Smih De e nt a ncea t rg ound f rdimisngt sc , They ur t t t f nda s dva no he r o s s i hi ount ge ha Lez rs alg t ns petiig t FUFTA f i t ra h e n Ru e 8a ( )s pe dng te ' le ai o rann o al o e c ve l ( )2 ' la i r quie e s a t tsa r hasbee i e pr t i Twomby a I . Asdic s a e r m nt, s ha t nda d n ntr eed n l nd qbal s us ed bove, t e c e hol t t pl adi do not de hos as s d ha e ngs monsr t e il nt t r i whe t m e el tae ntteme o elef n hey r y ge r t Sa l a concusons a af muli r cia i oft elm e sofa c us ofa ton.'' ne ae i bes nd l l i , nd or ac e tton he e nt a e ci Twomby,55 U . a 555. Le z ,a or ng t t Sm ih De e nt, doe no mor t n l 0 S. t t er cc di o he t f nda s s e ha r he s t elment t a FUFTA cli ,as s adduc ' er unde l ng s e are he e s o am he es s o z ryi uppori f c s tng a t whas ve.'( 26a 2) Leter howe r ct t as cfcs i ofta a ins ( )al n toe r' DE t . z , ve , ies o pe ii eres rns cto : 1 oa a r e n b t e Lez ra d Re e be flo d b ( )Re t b es a sg n o rg t g e me t ewe n te n n wa l, o lwe y 2 n wa l ' si mne t f ih s a o l ain t Ra in ,c n urt twih ( )Re wa l' s l o a st t c po aee tte nd bi to s o da t o c rn t 3 ne be s ae f ses o o rt n i s g i a s citdwiht i vi lDefnda s whih ld t ( t f t re ha ofRe wa e' s o ae t he ndi dua e nt, c e o 4) he urhe xc nge ne bl s Q St a S CS mong t e enttesz Al t e ta a tons des i d by Let r a a ds l ga ' hos ii . 1 hes r ns c i , crbe ze s çhe l me,' heped o us t whih c l bf cae c ompany wa la ef t debtand whih ha t r s c t rpa i. s ibl or he c d he e our es o e y t The s r c ur of t a l ged û he l ga e ' pr de s fc ent f c s t s tu t e he le û l m ' ovi s uf i s a t o uppor t FU FTA t he 2Leze alo at c as e bis t t Com pl ntc e ofs t r s ta hes xhi t o he ai opis ome oft r f r nce fna a he e e e d i ncil i tume sa c nsr nt nd ommuni tonsconc ni t cai er ng hem.( Compla Ex.15 . .t -) 7 e e nt a l lowst c tt dr t r as l me s nd ç l a he our o aw he e onabl i e e t t def nda i labl f e nf r nce hat he e nt s i e or t m ic he s onduc al d. I al 556 U .S. 678.Thati al Rul 8r quie . t lege ' qb , ' at s l e e rs Cha ng cou s s e t t Sm ih De e ngi r e om wha , he t f ndant i y t tLet rs f c sa e notnons mpl ha ze ' a t r e se ,t y a e me ey t vag . l pm i ulr t hi i t f tt t s r f r t t xit nt he r r l oo ue n c a , hey ghlght he ac ha he e e s o he ta f r of i s t ' ge r l a t ' rai 'of t Smih a A lxa r e ii , wihout r ns e i e s' ne aly nd o t t n' as ce he t nd e nde nttes t s ciialy i tf ng t membe s of eihe caegor . Onc a i t Sm ih De e nt pe fc l den iyi he r t r t y e gan, he t f nda s sr t t pl di sanda d t f r Twombl sa est tf t a lga i s tech he ea ng t r oo a . y tt ha acual le ton uppori Gplusbl tng d a i e g ounds'f a cli a e smpl t e t tS aie a r s bl expe t ton t dic r wil r ' or a m r i y hos ha s s r ea ona e c a i hat s ove y l r ve e denc ofilgal'c uct Twombl , 55 U. a 5 e al vi e le ' ond . y 0 S, t 45. A pli ifne no s e ch out a ntf ed t k t e r f c ofa pur tdl il alsna i ta a i i or rt r s t te ctton. I ve y a et pore y leg ncal r ns cton n de o aie ha xpe a i deal S e lSu pl Cop.v An a,6 2F.d 31 ,3 3 2 ( d Ci. 01 )( ititc r d ma d d lv l te p y r . z 5 3 0 2 - 4 2 r 2 1 dsrc ou t e n e e e o pe dn l o j siid by T mby' wh n i ful d panif a s ri RI cam fr f la ig i t u tfe n wo l ' e t a t litf s et e ng CO li o omitng prcs me hani ofhow s heme opeae ;s e alo Vi on v Ve milon Cl., 776 ti e ie c cs c rtd) e s ns . r li y F. 92 930 (t Ci.201 ( antf al i ilga polc s a c ofhome notrquie t 3d 4, 7h r 5) pli if legng le l ie e r h e rd o i e tf whc wi o o fc rp ee it ) A. L.C. v Ci o M i a 6 7 F.d 1 7 , d niy ih nd w fie e rd n o ; F - LO. . t f ami, 3 3 1 8 y 118 (11h Ci.2011 (i ie pla ng doe notrquie aplitf t s iial pla e r 6 t r ) s c e di not s e r anif o pecfc ly e d ve y ee ntofhi ca eofa ton' .Notc pl di woul bec meanuliyi Lez r wiho t lme s us ci ' ) ie ea ng d o lt f te , t ut he bene i of dic r we e f c t al ge e cty whih a s t we e ta f r d a whi ft s ove y, r or ed o le xa l c s e s r r nsere nd ch c or t e ii s we e t i r cpi nt a ea h sa of t pup o t s lga e. lt r f e op ae ntte r he r e i t s t c t ge he red hel m he e or c n ld ta Lez rh ss tsidRue8 a( )spla igsa d r o cu e h t te a aife l ()2 ' e dn t n ad. M o e f m a itcal t Smih Def nt c ii ze Le z rs Compli a a d hot r or lsi ly, he t enda s rtci te ' a nt s d gun s pl a ng' i t te ch counti e di ' n ha a ncom or t a r - l sal oft f c sa oft cont toft aes nd e alege l he a t nd he en he pr vi c s The Smih Def nda s a e c r t t t t Elven h Cic t has i i hed e ous ount. t e nt r orec ha he e t r ui nve g 8 a i t s gun pl di and ha pa tculry sngld out s e sve r nc or ton of gans hot ea ngs s ri a l i e ucc s i ei om a i alegai a t s ce ofmuch c uson. Weln v Pam Be c C/ S e f ' O/c ,7 2 l tons s he our onf i ia d . l a h y. h r fs / e 9 F.d l 3 1 21( 1h Ci. 01 ) Att es met ,Weln fu d t a te Co lita is e 3 31 , 3 1 t r 2 5 . h a i me ia d o n h t h mpan t su i ta c s wa n tas o g npe dngbe a s isri o rto d dn tC tral ice s l n h t a e s o h t u la i c u e t enc mo ain i o k eil n r a e) ma y t bu den ofunde sa ng t f c ua al ga i unde l ng ea h c he r r tndi he a t l le tons ryi c ount' Wel .' iand,792 F. a 3d t 1 324. Fo t m os pa t t i alo tue he e. The basc a lga i i t s c e ar r he t r, hat s s r r i le tons n hi as e sr i f w a d: one e iy was oblga e t r y a l n but i t a i a is prncpal taghtol r ntt i t d o epa oa ns e d t nd t i i s r tuct e t i o r tonst a d t oblg i . The b ea h oft l n a e esr ur d he r pe a i o voi hat i aton r c he oa gr ementa t nd he r sr t i ar c ept l a lgal s ve abl buti i notdifc tt pi ntwhih f c s e tucurng e onc ualy nd e ly e r e ts fi ul o npoi c at a e r e ntt e ch c am . Thi i t r f e nota c s whe e t r i a i onne ton' misng r elva o a l i s s he e or ae r he e s i c ci ' si i t e t s t ntve counta t f dualp e caes' Wagne v Fi st H ori Pharm . i we n he ubsa i be nd he a r di t . ' r r zon . he s hot e ng s Cop. 464 F. 1 r, 3d 273,1 ( 1h Ci.2006) Dim isalon t basi ofa s gun pladi i 279 1 t r . s s a s de e lo ni d. C. Re e v r hi c ie s p Fi l t Smih Dtf nda s a g t tt i uf i ntf t a l lbass f is naly, he t e nt r ue ha he ns fc e acual nd ega i or t FUFTA cli - i pa tc a ,t ge a m a r i whi h ia s t ' a e de crbed - m a a am n riulr he ner l nne n c is e s' r s i ke r eve s p i pr c ial Bec us Iha ale de e m i d t tt as e s i quesi do no ec i rhi m a tc . a e ve r ady t r ne ha he s t n ton ne t be s ii a l i ntfed a t ss a ,Iagr e wih Leze t tdim isng t de a f ed o pecfc ly de i t hi t ge e t t r ha s s i he m nd or ar c ve s p a t ssagewoul be pr m aur e ei r hi t hi t d e t e. Ac r ngl i i O RDERED a ADJUDGED t t co di y, t s nd ha ( )Dee nt Gar D.Al nde ,Mi elAlxa r Gol n Ri r Capial LLC, 1 fnda s y exa r cha e nde, de ve t, G ol n Ri r Ca t l1 l ,SBD G l de ve pia , nc. obalFL,I .a The Ra a Cr a i G r p, nc. nd di nt e tons ou l .sMotont Dimist Se ondAme dCompl nt( 23)i DENI nc' i o s s he c nde ai DE s ED. 9 ( Dee nt Gar R.Smih,NI Entprs ,l ,a Nl Entprs FL,I 's 2) fnda s y t T e ies nc. nd T t ies nc . M otont Dimist Sec Ame edCompli ( 26)i i o s s he ond nd ant DE s I ED. DONEAND ORDERED i C a esa WetPl B $, lrd ti X dyo n hmbr t s am e Foia hs a f z' ' . y . . DC CXbC ,201 CI F 6, ' Z ' ' / LD M . I M DDLEBROOKS UN I TED STATES DI STRI J CT UDGE C C* Co elofRe r uns co d 10

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