Moore v. Stewart
MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge George Jarrod Hazel on 9/15/2016. (c/m 9/16/2016 aos, Deputy Clerk)
U.S. DIS mlCT COURT
DISTF:ICT OF MARYLAND
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COUIlaTbS"P I 5 P .
FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND U
J lj b
ANTHONY MOORE, #54607-083
WARDEN TIMOTHY STEWART
CIVIL ACTION NO. GJH-15-2440
On August 13,2015, Anthony Moore, an inmate housed at the Federal Correctional
Institution in Cumberland, Maryland (FCI-Cumberland), filed a Petition for habeas corpus relief
under 28 U.S.c.
On September 9, 2015, the Court directed the Government to file a
response to the Petition. The Government filed a Motion to Dismiss and Moore has filed an
Opposition. ECF No.9; ECF NO.7. The matter has been fully briefed, and the case is ready for
review and may be determined without a hearing. See Local Rule 105.6 (D. Md. 2016).
On December 19,2002. a federal grand jury returned a twenty-two count indictment
charging Moore and thirteen co-defendants with various federal drug and firearm violations,
stemming from a conspiracy to distribute heroin and cocaine base. On May 21, 2003, Moore
pleaded guilty to one count of conspiracy to distribute and possess with intent to distribute I
kilogram or more of heroin and 50 grams or more of cocaine base in the United States District
Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, in violation of21 U.S.c.
846. ECF No. 7-1; see also Uniled Slaies v. Moore, Criminal No. 02-cr-0225 A WA (E.D. Va.
2003). During the May 21, 2003 plea colloquy, the sentencing court informed Moore that his
offense carried a mandatory minimum penalty of 10 years imprisonment and a maximum
possible penalty of a life sentence, with a line not to exceed $4,000,000.00. ECF NO.7-I at 5.
Moore indicated his understanding of the seriousness of the penalties.ld.
At sentencing on
November 12.2003, Judge Jerome B. Friedman examined the drug weights. Moore's role in the
offense. and the firearm enhancement. He determined that a downward departure was not
warranted and calculated Moore's offense level as 41 under the United States Sentencing
Guidelines and his criminal history category as IV, which resulted in an advisory guidelines
range of 360 months to life. Moore was sentenced to a 360-month term of imprisonment and five
years of supervised release. The remaining counts in the indictment were dismissed. ECF No. 7-2
at 95-103, 133-41. Judgment was entered against Moore on November 14,2003. Moore's appeal
to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit was dismissed.
Moore tiled a 28 U.S.C.
Motion to Vacate, which attacked the voluntariness of his
guilty plea. the effectiveness of his attorney, and the alleged unconstitutional enhancement of his
sentence. See United States v. Moore, Criminal No. 02-cr-0225 AWA (E.D. Va. 2003) at ECF
No. 69. The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia denied the Motion
on January 20.2006. Id., ECF No. 77. Moore filed Motions to Alter or Amend the Judgment
denying his Motion to Vacate. Id., ECF No. 78; ECF No. 79; ECF No. 80. The Motions were
denied. /d., ECF No. 80. The Fourth Circuit dismissed the appeal on July 9. 2007. See United
Moore, 232 Fed. App'x 291 (4th Cir. 2007).
Moore Iiled a second
Motion in the Eastern District of Virginia. The Motion was
dismissed without prejudice as successive on February 28, 2012. See United States v. Moore.
Criminal No. 02-cr-0225 AWA (E.D. Va. 2003) at ECF Nos. 221. 225-27. Moore moved to alter
or amend the denial of the Motion and the district court denied that Motion on June 13, 2012. /d.,
ECF No. 233: ECF No. 243. Moore's appeal of the denial of his Motion and reconsideration
request was dismissed by the Fourth Circuit on January 16. 2013.1 See United States
504 Fed. App'x 263 (4th Cir. 2013).
In the instant Petition, Moore argues that (I) his sentence exceeds the statutory maximum
in violation of provisions of the U.S. Constitution and (2) that the federal district court lacked
subject matter jurisdiction to try, convict. or sentence him under 21 V.S.c.
ECF No. I.
In the Government's Motion to Dismiss, it is argued that the Court should dismiss the
Petition as the relief sought by Moore is more properly brought under a
Motion to Vacate
is not "inadequate or ineffective" so as to file an action under 28 U.S.c.
NO.7. In his Opposition. Moore identifies "several purely legal questions concerning this Court's
habeas jurisdiction and [his 1 habeas claims." ECF NO.9 at I.
Moore seeks habeas corpus relief under
"savings clause" provision under
invoking what is often referred to as the
to seek vacatur of his sentence, criminal judgment
and indictment. An inmate may file a motion under
to collaterally attack the legality of
I Moore's subsequent post-judgment Motions to Suspend and Disbar Counsel and to Dismiss the Indictment were
denied by the Virginia federal court. The decision was affirmed on appeal on March 4, 2016. See United States v.
Moore, 636 Fed. App'x 882 (4th Cir. 2016).
his conviction or sentence. 28 U.S.C.
Davis v. United Slales, 417 U.S. 333, 343
(1974). But generally, a prisoner may file a petition under
which a sentence is executed. 28 U.S.c.
sentence under 28 U.S.C.
only to challenge the manner in
A prisoner must challenge the legality of his
unless "the remedy by motion [under
ineffective to test the legality of his detention." 28 U.S.c.
is inadequate or
see Rice v. Rivera. 617 F.3d
802, 806-08 (4th Cir. 20 I0) (per curiam); In re Jones, 226 F.3d 328, 332 (4th Cir. 2000); 28
see also Farrow v. Revell, 541 Fed. Appx. 327, 328 (4th Cir. 2013) (per
curiam) ("A federal prisoner who seeks to challenge the legality of his conviction or sentence
generally must proceed pursuant to
petitions are reserved for challenges to
the execution of the prisoner's sentence.") (citing In re Vial, 115 F.3d 1192, 1194 (4th Cir.
Section 2255 is not inadequate merely because the inmate is unable to obtain relief under
In re Vial, 115 F.3d at 1194 n.5. Thus,
is not rendered inadequate because of a
limitation bar, the prohibition against successive petitions, or a procedural bar due to failure to
raise the issue on direct appeal.Id. (citing Tripali v. Henman, 843 F.2d 1160, 1162 (9th Cir.
is inadequate and ineffective to test the legality of a conviction when:
(I) at the time of the conviction, settled law of this circuit or the Supreme Court
established the legality of the conviction;
(2) subsequent to the prisoner's direct appeal and first S 2255 motion, the
substantive law changed such that the conduct of which the prisoner was
convicted is deemed not to be criminal; and
(3) the prisoner cannot satisfY the gatekeeping provisions of
new rule is not one of constitutional law.
In re Jones, 226 F.3d at 333-34.
For instance, such relief is available where a prisoner is imprisoned for an ofTense which
is no longer a crime. See United States v. Surraa, 797 FJd 240, 248-50 (4th Cir. 2015),
rehearing en bane granted (4th Cir. Dec. 2, 2015). The savings clause of
is "confined to
instances of actual innocence of the underlying ofTense of conviction," not "innocence" ofa
sentencing factor. Darden v. Stephens, 426 Fed. App'x 173, 174 (4th Cir. 2011) (refusing to
extend the savings clause to reach the petitioner's claim that he was actually innocent of being a
Moore seeks habeas relief under
previously filed a
by means of the Savings Clause, because he
Motion, which was denied on the merits. Moore, however, does not
satisfy the Savings Clause requirements of
on the savings clause provision of
9 2255( e) as set out
in In re Jones and he may not rely
This circuit has not recognized an entitlement to
habeas corpus relief when an inmate challenges his sentence contending that the remedy under
is inadequate or ineffective. See United States v. Poole, 531 FJd 263, 267 n.7 (4th Cir.
2008) ("Fourth Circuit precedent has likewise not extended the reach of the [9 2255(e)] savings
clause to those petitioners challenging only their sentences). Otherwise, the rule prohibiting a
second and successive
motion, 28 V.S.c.
would be rendered meaningless.
The Court observes that Moore's other arguments carry no weight. Moore relies on
Persaud v. United States, 134 S.C!. 1023 (2014) to claim that his
petition is proper (rather
motion) and that his sentence exceeds the statutory maximum he would have
otherwise faced had his sentence not been improperly enhanced. His reliance on that case is
inappropriate. He cannot challenge a sentencing enhancement through a
Rouse v. Wilson, 584 Fed. App'x 76 (4th Cir. 2014); Barnes v. Bragg, Case No. 8:15-cv-02842HMH-JDA, 2016 WL 4087360 (D.S.C. 2016). Further, an inmate's inability to file as 2241
petition under the "savings clause" provision of
does not violate the Suspension
Clause. See Felker v. Turpin, 518 U.S. 651, 654, 663-64 (1996); In re Vial, 115 F.3d at 1197
(4th Cir. 1997) (Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act restriction on successive habeas
corpus petitions do not amount to an unconstitutional "suspension" of the writ of habeas corpus).
Respondent's Motion to Dismiss shall be granted.
In light of the rulings of the Court, the instant Petition for habeas corpus relief will be
denied, and this case will be dismissed by separate Order. When a district court dismisses a
habeas petition, a Certificate of Appealability may issue only if the applicant has made a
substantial showing of the denial ofa constitutional right. 28 U.S.C.
district court denies relief on the merits, a prisoner satisfies this standard by demonstrating that
reasonable jurists would find that the district court's assessment of the constitutional claims is
debatable or wrong. Slack v. McDaniel, 529 U.S. 473, 484 (2000); see Miller-EI v. Cockrell. 537
U.S. 322, 336--38 (2003). Moore does not satisfy this standard, and the Court declines to issue a
Certificate of Appealability. A separate Order follows.
Date: September li2016
GEORGE 1. HAZEL
United States District Judge
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