Brodt v. City of New York et al
MEMORANDUM AND ORDER granting 16 Motion to Dismiss: The defendants' motion to dismiss plaintiff's federal claims is GRANTED. The Clerk is directed to terminate the motion. (Docket # 16.) Counsel for defendants is hereby ordered to provide copies of all unpublished authorities cited herein to the plaintiff. (Signed by Judge P. Kevin Castel on 3/6/2014) (tn)
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK
13 Civ. 3272 (PKC)
CITY OF NEW YORK, DEPARTMENT OF
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY &
TELECOMMUNICATIONS, LEE DICKE and
MICHAEL BIMONTE, individually,
Plaintiff Hyman Brodt, who represents himself pro se, brings thirteen claims of
religious discrimination and retaliation against the City of New York (the "City"), its Department
ofInformation Teclmology & Telecommunications (the "IT Department") and two individual
defendants, Lee Dicke and Michael Bimonte.
Brodt alleges that he was terminated and denied promotions under the pretext of
budget limitations, when, in reality, the defendants discriminated against him on the basis of his
Jewish faith. Plaintiff brings claims of retaliation and religious discrimination under Title VII of
the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e, et seq., the New York State Human Rights
Law, N.Y. McKinney's Executive Law § 296, and the New York City Human Rights Law, New
York City Administrative Code § 8-107. Plaintiff also asserts that the defendants violated the
protection of free exercise of religion enshrined in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
and Article I ofthe New York Constitution, and equal protection under the law guaranteed by the
Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and Atiicle I, Section 11 of the New York
Defendants move to dismiss the Complaint pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6), Fed. R.
Civ. P. For the reasons explained below, the Complaint fails to state a federal claim against the
defendants. First, the IT Department is not an entity capable of being sued, and Brodt has agreed
to voluntarily withdraw all claims against it. Second, Title VII does not permit Brodt's claims
against two individual supervisors, Lee Dicke and Michael Bimonte. Third, the Complaint fails
to state claims of discrimination or retaliation under Title VII against the City or any other
defendant, and does not plausibly allege violations of the United States Constitution. The
Complaint therefore fails to state a federal claim for relief. The Comt declines to exercise
supplemental jurisdiction over Brodt's remaining claims brought under New York law.
In reviewing the Complaint, the Court accepts all non-conclusory factual
allegations as tme, and draws every reasonable inference in favor ofthe plaintiff as the nonmovant. See In re Elevator Antitrust Litig., 502 F.3d 47, 50 (2d Cir. 2007) (per curiam).
In February 1999, the IT Department hired Brodt as a computer specialist.
(Compl't ~ 28.) He passed a civil service exam for the computer specialist position in March
2001. (Compl't "29.) In May 2003, the IT Depatiment terminated him from the computer
specialist position. (Compl't ~ 30.) Brodt was told that his termination was due to budget cuts,
but, believing that this explanation was a pretext for discrimination, on May 23, 2003, he filed
"an internal EEO complaint of an unlawful employment discrimination against [the IT
Department]." (Comp!'t ",,30-31.) On July 3,2003, he withdrew the complaint after accepting
a new IT Department position as associate staff analyst. (Compl't ~ 32.) The associate staff
analyst position did not have permanent employee status, which could be earned by passing a
civil service exam. (Compl't ~~ 33-34.)
In June 2004, Brodt took a civil service exam for the staff analyst position.
(Compl't "33.) Brodt states that from June 2007 to January 2009, he repeatedly applied for a
position that would grant him permanent status as a staff analyst, but that the IT Department
informed him that it was "not picking anybody off the list at that time." (Comp!'t ,,34.)
Plaintiff claims that "[t]his was not true as others on the list were picked up (i.e., hired)."
(Compl't ~ 34.) He asserts that defendant Bimonte, whom the Complaint identifies as a deputy
commissioner in the IT Department, had authority to make hiring decisions. (Compl't ~ 34.)
Defendant Dicke became the Brodt's immediate supervisor in October 2010.
(Compl't "35.) The two had "worked closely" together since 2003, but Dicke did not previously
have a supervisory role as to Brodt. (Compl't "35.) According to Brodt, during the course of
his association with Dicke, Dicke made derogatory statements about Brodt's religious faith.
(Compi't ~ 36.) Specifically, Brodt alleges that Dicke "constantly mocked" him "for having 9
children," and that when Brodt went to daily prayer service, Dicke "made derisive comments
saying that he should not forget to pray for him also." (Compl't ~ 37.) According to the
Complaint, "What was most almoying was Mr. Dicke's constant touching and rubbing of Mr.
Brodt's yarmulke." (Comp!'t ~ 38.) Brodt states that he did not complain about Dicke's conduct
at the time because Dicke "promised that he would use his influence" with defendant Bimonte to
get Brodt a permanent position. (Compi't ,,38.)
Brodt states that beginning in June 2009, he took the first in a series of five
additional civil service exams in hopes of being hired for a permanent position. (Campi 't ~ 39.)
In November 2012, the IT Department was notified that Brodt had passed relevant exams and
was eligible for a permanent position. (Compl't "40.) The Complaint alleges that Brodt still
was not hired permanently. (Compl't ~ 40.)
According to the Complaint, in January 2012, Brodt received his first negative
performance review, which was delivered by Dicke. (Compl't ~ 41.) Brodt also was told that,
due to budget cuts, he would be terminated in April 2012. (Compl't ~ 42.)
As described in the Complaint, "[o]n January 24,2012, Mr. Brodt filed an intemal
EEO complaint against Mr. Dicke for religious discrimination and religious harassment."
(Compl't ~ 43.) In March 2012, the "EEO concluded that Mr. Dick should attend [the IT
Department's] Sexual Harassment Prevention Training for Managers and should be counseled
about personal space and workplace comments." (Comp!'t "44.) Brodt was terminated on April
On or about May 23,2012, Brodt filed a charge of discrimination with the Equal
Employment Opportunity Commission (the "EEOC"). (Compl't
,,4.) According to the
Complaint, on July 12, 2012, the EEOC referred the matter to the New York State Division of
Human Rights (the "NYSDHR") for review. (Comp!'t ~ 5.) Separately, on May 30,2012, Brodt
filed a charge of discrimination with the NYSDHR. (Rowntree Dec. Ex. B.) In a written
decision of November 20, 2012, the NYSDHR concluded that there was no probable cause to
believe that the IT Department engaged in unlawful discrimination. (Rowntree Dec. Ex. D.)
According to the Complaint, on February 22, 2013, the United States Department of Justice
issued a right to sue letter. (Compl't "6.) Separately, the defendants have submitted a Decision
and Order from an Article 78 proceeding that Brodt commenced in the New York Supreme
Court, Kings County, which dismissed Brodt's claim that the IT Department unlawfully
terminated him and refused to employ him in a permanent staff position in violation of Section
61 ofthe New York Civil Service Law. See Brodt v. New York City Dep't ofInfo. &
Telecomms., Index No. 4658/2012; Rowntree Dec. Ex. C.
The Complaint asserts thitieen separate counts of religious discrimination.
Counts one ("Employment Discrimination"), four ("Unlawful Discrimination"), five ("Disparate
Treatment"), six ("Disparate Impact"), seven ("Retaliation") and thirteen ("Discriminatory
Discharge") allege violations of Title VII, along with claims brought under New York law.
Plaintiff alleges that he was unlawfully tenninated "based on his religion and religious
appearance" and discriminated against based on "his status as "an observant JEW." (Compl't
60,71.) Counts eleven and twelve assert violations of the First Amendment and FOUlieenth
Amendment pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983.
RULE l2(b)(6) STANDARD
To survive a motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim upon which relief can
be granted, "a complaint must contain sufficient factual matter, accepted as true, to 'state a claim
to relief that is plausible on its face.'" Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 556 U.S. 662, 678
(2009) (quoting Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 570 (2007». "'[L]abels and
conclusions' or 'a formulaic recitation of the elements of a cause of action will not do. '" Id.
(quoting Twombly,_550 U.S. at 555). A plaintiff must plead "factual content that allows the
court to draw the reasonable inference that the defendant is liable for the misconduct alleged."
"[A] pro se complaint, however inartfully pleaded, must be held to less stringent
standards than formal pleadings drafted by lawyers." Erickson v. Pm'dus, 551 U.S. 89, 94
(2007) (citation and quotation marks omitted). Courts continue to afford special solicitude to pro
se complaints after Iqbal and Twombly. See Harris v. Mills, 572 F.3d 66, 72 (2d Cir. 2009).
Plaintiffs' pro se pleadings "must be read liberally and should be interpreted 'to raise the
strongest arguments that they suggest.'" Graham v. Henderson, 89 F.3d 75, 79 (2d Cir.
1996) (quoting Burgos v. Hopkins, 14 F.3d 787,790 (2d Cir. 1994)).
The IT Department Is Not a Suable Entity and All Claims Against It Are
Section 396 of the New York City Charter requires claims against the City's
agencies to be brought against the City itself, and not against its agencies. Section 396 states in
All actions and proceedings for the recovery of penalties for the
violation of any law shall be brought in the name of the city of
New York and not in that of any agency, except where othelwise
provided by law.
This provision has been repeatedly been applied to require claims to be brought against the City,
as opposed to its departments and agencies. See, ",-&, Ximines v. George Wingate High Sch.,
516 F.3d 156, 160 (2d Cir. 2008) ("Section 396 of the Charter has been construed to mean that
New York City departments, as distinct from the City itself, lack the capacity to be sued.");
Jenkins v. City of New York, 478 F.3d 76, 93 n.19 (2d Cir. 2007) ("the NYPD is a non-suable
agency of the City."); Funt v. Human Resources Admin. ofthe City of New York, 68 A.D.3d
490,490 (1st Dep't 2009) (under Section 396, the City'S Human Resources Administration is a
In his opposition memo, Brodt states that, in light of Section 396, he voluntarily
withdraws all claims against the IT Department. (Docket # 26 at 5.) Brodt's claims against the
IT Department are therefore dismissed.
Plaintiffs Title VII Claims against Dicke and Bimonte Are Dismissed.
Title VII does not provide for personal liability on the part of an employer's
agents, and permits claims only against the employer itself.
Spiegel v. Schulman, 604
F.3d 72, 79 (2d Cir. 2010); Tomka v. Seiler Corp., 66 F.3d 1295,1313-14 (2d Cir. 1995),
abrogated on other grounds, Burlington Indus., Inc. v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1998). The
Complaint therefore fails plausibly allege Title VII claims against defendants Dicke and
Bimonte, and all Title VII claims against them are dismissed.
The Complaint Does Not Plausibly Allege a Title VII Violation against
the City or Any Other Defendant.
A. The Complaint Fails to Allege Discrimination on the Basis of
1. The Conduct Attributed to Dicke Fails to Allege Discriminatory
An employee bringing a Title VII discrimination claim need not allege facts that
make out a prima facie case under McDonnell Douglas Corp. v. Green, 411 U.S. 792 (1973), but
the complaint must nevertheless set forth allegations that support a plausible claim of
discrimination. Swierkiewicz v. Sorema N.A., 534 U.S. 506 (2002); see also Hedges v. Town of
Madison, 456 Fed. Appx. 22,23 (2d Cir. 2012) (summary order) (describing post-Iqbal pleading
standards in Title VII actions as "somewhat of an open question" in the Second Circuit, but
observing that, "at a minimum, employment discrimination claims must meet the standard of
pleading set forth in Twombly and Iqbal, even if pleading a prima facie case is not required.").
Under Iqbal, a claim of intentional discrimination must include "factual content" sufficient "to
'nudg[e]'" a "claim of purposeful discrimination 'across the line from conceivable to plausible.'"
556 U.S. at 683 (quoting Twombly, 550 U.S. at 570).
In reviewing the sufficiency of a complaint's allegations, a plaintiffs "feelings
and perceptions of being discriminated against are not evidence of discrimination." Bickerstaff
v. Vassar Coli., 196 F.3d 435, 456 (2d Cir. 1999) (alterations and quotation marks omitted); see
also Williams v. Wellness Medical Care, P.C., 2013 WL 5420985, at *6 (S.D.N.Y. Sept. 27,
2013) (Karas, J.) ("without sufficient facts, even the most sincerely held beliefs [of
discrimination] do not comprise a sufficient basis for withstanding a 12(b)(6) attack."). A
complaint "must specifically allege the events claimed to constitute intentional discrimination as
well as circumstances giving rise to a plausible inference of ... discriminatory intent." Corbett
v. City of New York, 2013 WL 5366397, at *21 (E.D.N.Y. Sept. 24, 2013) (Amon, C.J.).
In this instance, the Complaint does not set forth allegations sufficient to allege
that Brodt was discharged or denied permanent position based on discriminatory animus. In
plaintiff s 114-paragraph, 22-page complaint, only two paragraphs discuss conduct that was
alleged to reflect discriminatory motivation. (Compl't ~~ 37-38.) They do not include facts that
plausibly allege discriminatory animus. Plaintiff himself characterizes the conduct as merely
"atmoying," and adds that he never complained about Dicke's behavior because Dicke
"promised that he would use his influence" with Bimonte to secure Brodt a permanent position.
(Comp!'t ~ 38.)
Dicke's remarks that Brodt "should not forget to pray for [Dicke] also" are selfdeprecating toward Dicke himself and do not evince hostility toward Brodt's religion. (Compl't
37.) Although it was a comment that referenced a religious practice and Brodt's devotion to
that practice, it is devoid of a negative implication. Reading an element of animus to such a
comment would chill the workplace, and make virtually any comment on the subject of prayer or
religious practice unlawful.
Similarly, although they may have made Brodt uncomfortable, Dicke's remarks
conceming Brodt's nine children do not reflect negatively on Brodt's religious practices or
beliefs. (Compl't ~ 37.) Dicke's comments, rude though they may have been, focused on the
apparently accurate fact that Brodt has nine children. The Complaint does not allege that
discriminatory terms were used to link Brodt's religion with the size of his family. Without
more, Brodt's claim that "Mr. Dicke constantly mocked Mr. Brodt for having 9 children"
(Comp!'t ~ 37) does not raise an inference of discrimination.
Brodt's allegation that Dicke was "constant[ly] touching and rubbing" Brodt's
yammlke potentially stands on a different footing because Dicke's actions were both derisive
and directed to an object associated with Brodt's religion. (Comp!'t ~ 38.) The Complaint does
not allege any other details as to these occurrences, including whether they were accompanied by
discriminatory comments, and Brodt himself characterizes this conduct as merely "annoying."
(Comp!'t ~ 38.) However, conduct that is merely "rude and derogatory" does not necessarily
state a claim under Title VII, which is not a "'general civility code.'" Bickerstaff, 196 F.3d at
452 (quoting Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Servs., Inc., 523 U.S. 75, 80 (1998»; cf. Tessler v.
KHOW Radio, Inc., 1997 WL 458489, at *8 (D. Colo. Apr. 21, 1997) (comments that mocked
plaintiffs yannulke as a "beanie" were insnfficient to support a hostile work environment
claim); Cohen v. Austin, 901 F. Supp. 945, 950 (E.D. Pa. 1995) (concluding after a bench trial
that a description of plaintiff s yarmulke as a "beanie" "merely reflect a certain insensitivity" and
not discriminatory animus). Brodt may have found Dicke's behavior upsetting and
Taken in their totality, Brodt has not alleged discriminatory motivation in
defendants' failure to offer a pennanent position or his later discharge. COUlis in this District
have dismissed claims when a plaintiff s allegations of discriminatory motive reflected an
uncomfortable workplace environment, as opposed to discriminatory animus.
Humphries v. City University of New York, 2013 WL 6196561, at *9 (S.D.N.Y. Nov. 26, 2013)
(Enge1mayer, J.) (a supervisor's utterance of "critical but facially non-discriminatory terms" does
not, without more, plausibly allege animus); Edwards v. New York State Unified Court System,
2012 WL 6101984 (S.D.N.Y. Nov. 20,2012) (Pauley, J.) (allegation that supervisors "yelled at"
plaintiff and "displayed [her] as a personal black joke in front ofthe staff' did not allege
discrimination); Ortiz v. Standard & Poor's, 2011 WL 4056901, at *4 (S.D.N.Y. Aug. 29, 2011)
(Buchwald, l) (supervisor statement that "she wants 'the old Doug who laughs back'" was not
plausibly discriminatory). COU1tS also dismiss religious discrimination claims when the
allegations are too vague to plausibly allege animus. Hanis v. NYU Langone Medical Center,
2013 WL 3487032, at *15 n.19 (S.D.N.Y. July 9,2013) (Cott, MJ.) (assertion that plaintiff
"spoke a prayer at work in the presence of her supervisor ... resulting in inhumane discipline
and discharge" was insufficient to allege religious discrimination); Munoz-Nagel v. Guess, Inc.,
2013 WL 1809772, at *6 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 20, 2013) (Ramos, J.) (allegation that plaintiff suffered
religious discrimination because "she was not available to work on Sundays" did not raise
inference of discrimination).
Brodt's allegations, taken as a whole, do not "nudge" his "claim of purposeful
discrimination 'across the line from conceivable to plausible. ", Iqbal, 556 U.S. at 683 (quoting
Twombly, 550 U.S. at 570). His Title VII discrimination claims are therefore dismissed.
2. The Complaint Fails to State a Failure-to-Promote Claim.
Brodt separately has failed to allege circumstances that raise an inference of
discrimination specific to his failure-to-promote claims. A failure-to-promote claim may be
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supported by evidence that, despite an employee's qualifications, he or she is passed over for
promotion while the employer continues to seek applicants for the open position. See generally
Aulicino v. New York City Dep't of Homeless Servs., 580 F.3d 73, 80 (2d Cir. 2009). A
plaintiff still must plausibly allege that he "was rejected under circumstances which give rise to
an inference of unlawful discrimination." Id. (quotation marks omitted).
For the reasons explained, the Complaint does not plausibly allege that Dicke's
conduct was motivated by discriminatory animus. Even if it did, the Complaint does not allege
that Dicke had direct authority over hiring decisions, and instead alleges that Bimonte had hiring
authority. (Comp!'t ~ 18.) The Complaint does not attribute any discriminatory utterance,
behavior or motivation to Bimonte.
In a failure-to-promote claim, an inference of discrimination also may be raised
when a plaintiff plausibly alleges that similarly situated employees outside ofplaintiffs
protected class received more favorable treatment. See generally Norville v. Staten Island Univ.
Hosp., 196 F.3d 89, 95-96 (2d Cir. 1999). To support such an inference, a complaint "must
compare" the plaintiff to employees who are "similarly situated in all material respects." Id. at
95 (quotation marks omitted). While the religion of a colleague may be less readily discernible
than other classifications recognized under Title VII, the Complaint makes no effort to allege
whether employees granted pennanent staff analyst positions were similarly situated to Brodt or
whether they also practiced the Jewish religion. Because the Complaint makes no allegations as
to whether Brodt was treated differently than similarly situated employees, it fails to raise an
inference of discrimination as to any failure-to-promote claim.
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B. The Complaint Does Not Plausibly Allege a Hostile Work
Environment Claim Under Title VII.
To state a claim that a plaintiff was subjected to a hostile work environment, a
complaint must plausibly allege a workplace setting "penneated with discriminatory
intimidation, ridicule, and insult, that is sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter the conditions of
[plaintiffs] employment and create an abusive working environment." Harris v. Forklift Sys.,
Inc., 510 U.S. 17,21 (1993). "Simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated incidents of
offensive conduct (unless extremely serious) will not support a claim of discriminatory
harassment." Petrosino v. Bell Atl., 385 F.3d 210, 223 (2d Cir. 2004).
For the reasons largely explained, the Complaint does not allege workplace
behavior that plausibly amounts to a hostile work enviromnent. The Complaint alleges that
"[d]uring the entire period ofMr. Brodt's association with Mr. Dicke he was subject to religious
harassment and was in a hostile work environment." (Compl't "1136.) This allegation, standing
alone, is a legal conclusion not afforded the presumption oftruth under Twombly and Iqbal. As
evidence of the hostile work envirOlmlent, the Complaint cites only Dicke's comments
concerning plaintiffs nine children, Dicke's request that plaintiff pray for him and Dicke's
"constant touching and rubbing" of Brodt yarmulke. (Compl't '1'137-38.) In his own words,
Brodt alleges that Dicke's conduct was "annoying," and says that the conduct resulted in
"humiliation, embarrassment, [and] emotional distress." (Compl't "11"1138,62.)
Accepting the truth of Brodt's allegations and drawing every reasonable inference
in his behavior, the Complaint alleges the type of "[s]imple teasing, offhand comments, or
isolated incidents of offensive conduct" that do not give rise to an actionable hostile work
environment claim. Petrosino, 385 F.3d at 223. Brodt's hostile work environment claims are
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C. The Complaint Fails to Allege Retaliation under Title VII.
Title VII makes it unlawful "for an employer to discriminate against any of his
employees ... because he has opposed any practice made an unlawful employment practice by
this subchapter .... " 42 U.S.C. §2000e-3(a). A plaintiff makes out a prima facie case of
retaliation in a Title VII case by coming forward with evidence of"l) 'participation in a
protected activity'; 2) the defendant's knowledge ofthe protected activity; 3) 'an adverse
employment action'; and 4) 'a causal connection between the protected activity and the adverse
employment action. '" Zann Kwan v. Andalex Grp. LLC, 737 F.3d 834, 844 (2d Cir. 2013)
(quoting Jute v. Hamilton Sundstrand Corp., 420 F.3d 166, 173 (2d Cir. 2005». As with a
discrimination claim, a plaintiff alleging retaliation under Title VII does not need to make out a
prima facie case in order to survive a motion to dismiss under Rule 12(b)(6). See Williams v.
N.Y. Housing Auth., 458 F.3d 67, 71 (2d Cir. 2006). A plaintiff "must nonetheless allege facts
that state a plausible retaliation claim." McAllister v. Metro. Transit Auth., 2013 WL 4519795,
at *7 (E.D.N.Y. Aug. 26, 2013) (Gleeson, J.) (quotation marks omitted).
The Complaint fails to plausibly allege any nexus between protected activity and
the adverse employment action. Brodt asserts that he suffered retaliation for "making good faith
claims and/or complaints of religious discrimination to Defendants and appropriate authorities,
including the EEO." (Comp!'t ~ 76.) He asserts that his termination arose "[a]s a proximate
result of' his claims of religious discrimination. (Compl't'178.)
The first incident of protected activity identified in the Complaint is an internal
discrimination complaint that Brodt filed on May 23, 2003. (Compl'qI31.) On July 3,2003,
while his complaint was pending, Brodt was offered a position of associate staff analyst, after
which he withdrew the complaint. (Compl't ~ 32.) The earliest that Brodt alleges to have
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suffered retaliation for this complaint is sometime after June 2007 - more than four years laterwhen he unsuccessfully began to apply for a permanent position as staff analyst. (Comp!'t ~ 34.)
The four-year gap between Brodt's May 2003 discrimination complaint and the
alleged acts of retaliation does not plausibly allege Title VII retaliation. The Second Circuit has
observed in a summary order that an eighteen-month gap is "too temporally removed to support
the inference" of retaliation. Woodworth v. Shinseki, 447 Fed. Appx. 255, 258 (2d Cir. 2011)
(summary order) (citing Clark Cnty. Sch. Dist. v. Breeden, 532 U.S. 268, 274 (2001) ("Action
taken (as here) 20 months later suggests, by itself, no causality at all.")); see also Van Dyke v.
Partners ofDebevoise Plimpton LLP, 2013 WL 5375542, at *3 (S.D.N.Y. Sept. 24, 2013) (fiveyear gap between protected activity and alleged retaliation "demonstrates that there can be no
plausible c0ll11ection between them") (Daniels, J.); Jones v. N.Y. City Bd. ofEduc., 2012 WL
1116906, at *14 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 2, 2012) ("District courts in this circuit consistently have found
that an intervening period of more than two to three months is insufficient to establish a causal
connection tll1'ough temporal proximity alone.") (Sweet, J.). Plaintiffs claim of retaliation under
Title VII is therefore dismissed.
Separately, in his opposition memo, plaintiff argues that his tennination was
retaliatory and arose at least in part due to "a causal connection between the disciplinary action
of Mr. Dicke .... " (Opp. Mem. at 12.) According to the Complaint, however, Brodt was told in
January 2012 that he would be temlinated the following April. (Compl't "42.) On January 24,
he filed an internal complaint against Dicke asserting religious discrimination and harassment.
(Compl't "43.) According to the Complaint, "[i]n March 2012, EEO concluded that Mr. Dicke
should attend [the IT Department's] Sexual Harassment Prevention Training for Managers and
should be counseled about personal space and workplace comments." (Comp!'t ~ 44.) Brodt
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was terminated on April I? ,2012. (Compl't ~ 45.) Assuming that Dicke's sexual harassment
training arose out of plaintiff s January complaint - a connection that is not alleged and is not
self-evident - Brodt had already been informed of his own pending termination prior to filing his
discrimination complaint. AmlOuncement of the adverse employment action predated any
protected activity by Brodt. The Complaint therefore does not plausibly allege a causal
connection between Brodt's internal complaint of January 24,2012 and his previously
Plaintiffs retaliation claim made pursuant to Title VII is therefore dismissed.
Plaintiffs Section 1983 Claims Are Dismissed.
Brodt asserts that the defendants "acted with wanton and reckless disregard for
Plaintiffs civil rights, religious appearance and belief, under the First Amendment .... "
(Compl 't ~ 101.) He also asserts that he was denied "equal protection of the laws because of his
religion, in violation ofthe Fourteenth Amendment .... " (Compl't'1105.)
Constitutional claims alleging religious discrimination brought under section 1983
are evaluated under the same standard as Title VII claims. See generally Sorlucco v. N.Y. City
Police Dep't, 888 F.2d 4, ? (2d Cir. 1989); see also Chick v. County of Suffolk, _ Fed. Appx.
_,2013 WL 6332682, at *1 (2d Cir. Dec. 6,2013) (sunm1ary order) (applying Title VII
standard to section 1983 claim at Rule 12(b)(6) stage). For the reasons explained as to plaintiffs
Title VII claims, his section 1983 claims also fails to allege religious discrimination in violation
ofthe First Amendment's free exercise clause or the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protection
I While the Complaint does not cite 42 U.S.C. § 1981, to the extent that constitutional employment discrimination
claims are frequently brought under section 1981, the Complaint would rail to state a claim for the same reason.
See,~, Vivenzio v. City of Syracuse, 611 F.3d 98, 106 (2d Cir. 2010) ("The substantive standards applicable to
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The Court Declines to Exercise Supplemental Jurisdiction over Plaintiffs
Remaining State-Law Claims.
Brodt's remaining claims are brought under the New York State Human Rights
Law, the New York City Human Rights Law and the New York Constitution. Brodt, who
identifies himself as a resident of Brooklyn, does not invoke complete diversity of citizenship as
a basis for federal subject matter jurisdiction. (Compl't ~~ 7, 10.)
The Comi declines to exercise supplemental jurisdiction over plaintiff's remaining
claims under New York law. Section 1367 of title 28 of the United States Code govel11s the
exercise of supplemental jurisdiction and states in relevant part:
[I]n any civil action of which the district courts have original
jurisdiction, the district courts shall have supplemental jurisdiction
over all other claims that are so related to claims in the action
within such original jurisdiction that they fOlm part of the same
case or controversy under Article III of the United States
28 U.S.C. § 1367(a).
Section 1367(c)(3) states that a district court "may decline to exercise
supplemental jurisdiction over a claim under subsection (a) if ... the district court has dismissed
all claims over which it has original jurisdiction .... " Although section 1367(c)(3) is couched in
permissive tem1s, the Second Circuit has made clear that the Court's discretion "is not
boundless." Valencia ex reI. Franco v. Lee, 316 F.3d 299, 305 (2d Cir. 2003). "In deciding
whether to exercise jurisdiction over supplemental state-law claims, district comis should
balance the values of judicial economy, convenience, faimess, and comity - the 'Cohill factors. '"
Klein & Co. Futures, Inc. v. Bd. of Trade of City ofN.Y., 464 F.3d 255, 262 (2d Cir. 2006)
(citing Carnegie-Mellon Univ. v. Cohill, 484 U.S. 343, 350 (1988». "[I]n the usual case in
claims of employment discrimination under Title VII ... are also generally applicable to claims of employment
discrimination brought under § I 981 [and] the Equal Protection Clause .... ").
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which all federal-law claims are eliminated before trial, the balance of factors to be considered
under the pendent jurisdiction doctrine - judicial economy, convenience, faimess, and comitywill point toward declining to exercise jurisdiction over the remaining state-law claims." Cohill,
484 U.S. at 350 n.7.
Here, plaintiff s federal claims have been dismissed and none of the Cohill factors
suppOlis the exercise of supplemental jurisdiction over plaintiffs remaining claims. Those
remaining claims solely implicate New York state laws conceming religious discrimination. All
patiies appear to be located in New York City, and the interests of convenience, fairness and
comity do not weigh in favor of retaining supplemental jurisdiction. At this early stage ofthe
litigation, there would be little to no judicial economy in retaining jurisdiction. I therefore
decline to exercise supplemental jurisdiction over plaintiffs state-law claims.
The defendants' motion to dismiss plaintiffs federal claims is GRANTED. The
Clerk is directed to terminate the motion. (Docket # 16.)
Counsel for defendants is hereby ordered to provide copies of all unpublished
authorities cited herein to the plaintiff.
P. Kevin Castel
United States District Judge
Dated: New York, New York
March 6, 2014
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