Soberick v. Borough of Lansford et al

Filing 95

MEMORANDUM and ORDER granting 82 dft Barry Moran's Motion for Summary Judgment ; As court has been notified that case has been settled between all other parties, Clerk of Court is directed to CLOSE case.Signed by Honorable James M. Munley on 9/15/08 (sm, )

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IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA JACK SOBERICK, Plaintiff, : No. 3:04cv1738 : : (Judge Munley) : v. : : BOROUGH OF LANSFORD, : JAMES STRAUSS, MAYOR GEORGE : KRAJNAK, POLICE OFFICER : JEREMY SOMMERS, ROBERT : GAUGHAN, RICHARD GIANTESANO, : CHARLES REPINEC, MARGARET : HOROWSKI, BARRY MORAN, : and JOSEPH NIHEN, : Defendants : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: M E M O R AN D U M B e fo re the court is Defendant Barry Moran's motion for summary judgment (D o c . 82). Having been fully briefed and argued, the case is ripe for disposition. B a c k g ro u n d T h is case arises from plaintiff's employment as a police officer for the Borough o f Lansford. He has been employed as a full-time officer since 1996, and had w o rk e d as a part-time officer from 1986 until that time. (Defendant's Statement of M a te ria l Facts as to W h ic h There is No Genuine Issue to Be Tried (Doc. 89) (h e re in a fte r "Defendant's Statement") at ¶ 2). On the night of June 29-30, 2001, J a m e s Zurn, who worked for the CNS railroad in Jim Thorpe, Pa, was stopped at a D U I checkpoint at the border of the Borough of Lansford and the Borough of C o a ld a le . (Id. at ¶¶ 4, 11). Zurn had been drinking, and police later concluded that h is blood alcohol had exceeded the legal limit. (Id. at ¶ 11). Police nevertheless a llo w e d Zurn to drive home from the scene. (Id.). The parties dispute plaintiff's e xa c t role at the checkpoint. He was the ranking police officer on duty that night, a n d defendant claims Soberick was at the checkpoint when the incident occurred. (Id.). Plaintiff contends that he was on duty as a general supervisor and not s p e c ific a lly assigned to the checkpoint. (Plaintiff's Answer to Defendant Barry M o ra n 's Statement of Material Facts as to W h ic h There is no Genuine Issue to be T rie d (Doc. 89) (hereinafter "Plaintiff's Statement) at ¶ 11). Sometime after he was released, Zurn gave Jeffrey W a in rig h t, another officer o n the scene $3,500 in cash. (Defendant's Statement at ¶ 11). The parties dispute w h e the r plaintiff was present at this cash hand-over. (Plaintiff's Statement at ¶ 11). T h e money was supposedly to be used to buy weapons for the police department. (Defendant's Statement at ¶ 11). That money was deposited in the Borough's g e n e ra l fund account, but eventually returned to Zurn when Borough officials c o n c lu d e d that the money was a bribe. (Id.). Defendant Barry Moran is a Special Agent with the Pennsylvania Attorney G e n e ra l's Bureau of Criminal Investigation. (Id. at ¶ 5). He has worked there since 1 9 7 9 . (Id.). Moran has been assigned to several offices, but has worked at the W ilk e s -B a r re Office since 1999. (Id.). Before working for the Commonwealth, M o r a n worked five years for the FBI. (Id. at ¶ 6). He has a BA in criminal justice 2 fro m Mansfield University and also has other training in criminal investigation, in c lu d in g training on Fourth Amendment and search warrant procedures. (Id.). During his years as an investigator, Moran has applied for hundreds of arrest and s e a r c h warrants. (Id. at ¶ 7). Moran testified in his deposition that it is his practice n o t to rely on investigations of local officials before seeking a warrant. (Id.). Instead, h is office conducts the investigations that lead him to seek warrants. (Id.). Plaintiff c o n te n d s that in this case he relied on an investigation conducted by plaintiff's p o litic a l enemies in the Borough, who acted out of their animus against him. (Plaintiff's Statement at ¶ 7). O n June 4, 2003, Soberick, W a in rig h t and Zurn were arrested on charges of b rib e ry. (Defendant's Statement at ¶ 8). Wainright and Soberick were also charged w ith criminal conspiracy. (Id.). District Judge Casimir T. Kosciolek reviewed the a ffid a vit before signing and issuing the arrest warrant. (Id. at ¶ 9). The facts upon w h ic h the affidavit of probable cause was based were the result of an investigation th a t began in the Attorney General's Office in July 2002 and continued until June 2 0 0 3 . (Id. at ¶ 10). Plaintiff contends that the investigation concluded before June 2 0 0 3 , and that plaintiff's arrest came only after several of the defendants in this case p ick e te d the Attorney General's Office. That office took jurisdiction because of a c o n flict of interest in the Carbon County District Attorney's office. (Id.). Plaintiff c o n te n d s that the investigation took place in part because political officials in L a n s fo rd put pressure on the Attorney General's office to undertake it. (Plaintiff's 3 S ta te m e n t at ¶ 10). Some of the defendants in the case even picketed that office to u rg e investigation. (Id.). According to Agent Moran, the investigation included interviews of more than 2 0 individuals, including Zurn, Wainright and Soberick. (Defendant's Statement at ¶ 1 2 ). Investigators also interviewed other members of the Lansford police force, as w e ll as officers involved in the checkpoint from other jurisdictions. (Id.). They also s p o k e with George Kraznak, the Lansford mayor, Mary Kruczek, the Borough S e c r e ta r y, Carbon County District Attorny Gary Dobias and Assistant District A tto rn e y Michael Greek. (Id.). Moran also used numerous documents, including the w ritte n statements of plaintiff, in completing his investigation. (Id. at ¶ 14). Moran k n e w none of the individuals he interviewed before the investigation began. (Id. at ¶ 1 6 ). During the investigation, Moran operated under the supervision of a Senior D e p u ty Attorney General and prepared frequent progress reports for this supervisor. (Id. at ¶ 15). This Deptuy, Anthony Forray, made the recommendation that plaintiff b e arrested and charged. (Id.). He reviewed the affidavit of probable cause. (Id.). M o ra n submitted an affidavit of probable cause in support of the warrant. (See Attachment A to Defendant's Statement of Facts (Doc. 84-2)). He filed the a ffid a v it on June 2, 2003. (Id.). The affidavit relates the course of Moran's in ve s tig a tio n and identifies the persons he interviewed. (Id. at ¶ 3). Moran informed th e court of the traffic stop, Zurn's release, his contacts with W a in rig h t and plaintiff, a n d his payment to the two of $3,500 in cash. (Id. at ¶ 4). Moran related that 4 J e re m y Sommers, an officer on the scene, had told him that plaintiff was present w h e n police stopped Zurn. (Id. at ¶ 6). Sommers recalled that Zurn asked several o ffic e rs how he could avoid arrest. (Id.). He also heard Soberick and W a in rig h t d is c u s s in g the need for new weapons for the department, and that they had to wait for lab results before deciding how to deal with Zurn. (Id.). Eventually, however, S o b e r ic k allowed Zurn to leave the scene. (Id.). After that event, Sommers reported th a t he saw Zurn in Lansford several times, attempting to contact Wainwright. (Id.). He saw the two meeting on at least three occasions. (Id.). Wainright later showed S o m m e rs a gas gun, telling him that it had been procured through Zurn. (Id.). Moran also swore that Zurn told him that after he was stopped he explained to W a in rig h t that he hoped to avoid a DUI arrest because it might affect his ability to o p e ra te the railroad. (Id. at ¶ 7). He remembered that either Soberick or W a in rig h t re le a s e d him on that night. (Id.). Six individuals had their blood tested that night. (Id. at ¶ 10). Five provided blood sufficient for testing. (Id.). Those five all had b lo o d alcohol beyond the legal limit. (Id.). Zurn was the only person not charged w ith DUI. (Id.). After his release, Zurn had several meetings with W a in rig h t in an a tte m p t to have his charges dropped, and he offered to buy the department material to achieve that end. (Id. at ¶ 7). Eventually, he and W a in rig h t worked out a deal to h a v e Zurn pay $3,500. (Id.). In September 2001, Zurn went to the police d e p a r tm e n t and turned the money over to W a in r ig h t and Soberick. (Id.). Soberick to o k the money, put it in a cash box, and told W a in rig h t to give Soberick what he 5 b e lie ve d to be his blood test results. (Id.). Eventually, Zurn got his money back. (Id.). W a in rig h t called him and told him the Borough was trying to punish him for ta k in g Zurn's money. (Id.). The affidavit relates reports from various individuals w h o observed W a in rig h t's actions in obtaining money from Zurn and procuring the g u n for the department. (See, e.g., Id. at ¶¶ 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13). The affidavit also re c o rd s Soberick's denials of involvement in any bribery scheme. (Id. at 14). A district justice dismissed the charges against Soberick on August 14, 2003, a fte r a preliminary hearing. (Defendant's Statement at ¶ 8). After this ruling, plaintiff b ro u g h t a complaint in the Carbon County Court of Common Pleas. (See Doc. 1). T h e complaint, brought against Sommers, the police chief, the mayor and various B o r o u g h Council Members, as well as Agent Moran, sought relief for violation of p la in tiff's free speech, equal protection, and associational rights. The complaint also a lle g e d a conspiracy to violate plaintiff's rights, failure to train and state-law claims of d e fam a tio n and malicious prosecution. Defendants removed the case to this court o n August 6, 2004. After the court granted in part and denied in part defendants' m o tio n to dismiss, the defendants answered the complaint. Discovery ensued, and th e court had to intervene several times to coerce the plaintiff into complying with d e fe n d a n ts ' discovery requests. Finally, however, Defendant Moran filed the instant m o tio n for summary judgment on March 24, 2008. (See Doc. 82). The parties then b rie fe d the motion, bringing the case to its present posture. J u r i s d ic io n 6 A s the case is brought pursuant to 42 U.S.C. § 1983, the court has jurisdiction u n d e r 28 U.S.C. § 1331 ("The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of all civil a c tio n s arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States."). We h a ve jurisdiction over plaintiff's state law claims pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1367(a) ("In a n y civil action of which the district courts have original jurisdiction, the district courts s h a ll have supplemental jurisdiction over all other claims that are so related to claims in the action within such original jurisdiction that they form part of the same case or c o n tro ve rs y under Article II of the United States Constitution."). Standard of Review T h e case is before the court on defendant's' motion for summary judgment. Granting summary judgment is proper if the pleadings, depositions, answers to in te rro g a to rie s , and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that th e re is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. See Knabe v. Boury, 114 F.3d 407, 410 n.4 (3d Cir. 1 9 9 7 ) (citing FED. R. CIV. P. 56(c)). "[T]his standard provides that the mere existence o f some alleged factual dispute between the parties will not defeat an otherwise p ro p e rly supported motion for summary judgment; the requirement is that there be n o genuine issue of material fact." Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 2 4 7 -4 8 (1986) (emphasis in original). In considering a motion for summary judgment, the court must examine the fa c ts in the light most favorable to the party opposing the motion. International Raw 7 M a te ria ls , Ltd. v. Stauffer Chemical Co., 898 F.2d 946, 949 (3d Cir. 1990). The b u rd e n is on the moving party to demonstrate that the evidence is such that a re a s o n a b le jury could not return a verdict for the non-moving party. Anderson, 477 U .S . at 248 (1986). A fact is material when it might affect the outcome of the suit u n d e r the governing law. Id. Where the non-moving party will bear the burden of p ro o f at trial, the party moving for summary judgment may meet its burden by s h o w in g that the evidentiary materials of record, if reduced to admissible evidence, w o u ld be insufficient to carry the non-movant's burden of proof at trial. Celotex v. C a tre tt, 477 U.S. 317, 322 (1986). Discussion T h e only issue here before the court is whether summary judgment should be g ra n te d Defendant Moran on plaintiff's claim that he was arrested without probable c a u s e in violation of his right be free of unlawful search and seizure under the Fourth A m e n d m e n t. The Third Circuit Court of Appeals has held that "the Fourth A m e n d m e n t prohibits a police officer from arresting a citizen except upon probable c a u s e ." Orsatti v. New Jersey State Police, 71 F.3d 480, 482 (3d Cir. 1995). Such p ro b a b le cause "requires more than mere suspicion; however it does not require that th e officer have evidence sufficient to prove guilt beyond a reasonable doubt." Id. at 4 8 2 -8 3 . Such probable cause "exists when the facts and circumstances within the a rr e s tin g officer's knowledge are sufficient in themselves to warrant a reasonable p e rs o n to believe that an offense has been or is being committed by the person to be 8 a rre s te d ." Id. at 483. "[A] district court may conclude `that probable cause exists as a matter of law if the evidence, viewed most favorably to Plaintiff, reasonably would n o t support a contrary factual finding." Merkle v. Upper Dublin Sch. Dist., 211 F.3d 7 8 2 , 788-89 (3d Cir. 2000) (quoting Sherwood v. Mulvihill, 113 F.3d 396, 401 (3d Cir. 1 9 9 7 ). An officer who arrests without probable cause can be liable to the arrestee fo r damages. Id. Here, the plaintiff's arrest came after a magistrate issued an arrest warrant b a s e d on Defendant Moran's affidavit. The parties do not dispute that on its face the a ffid a vit provides probable cause for issuing a warrant. Still, courts have found that "a n arrest warrant issued by a magistrate judge does not, in itself, shelter an officer fro m liability for false arrest." W ils o n v. Russo, 212 F.3d 781, 786 (3d Cir. 2000). A p la in tiff can nevertheless prevail on a Section 1983 claim for false arrest by showing "b y a preponderance of the evidence: (1) that the police officer `knowingly and d e lib e ra te ly, or with a reckless disregard for the truth, made false statements or o m is s io n s that create a falsehood in applying for a warrant;' and (2) that `such s ta te m e n ts or material, or necessary, to the finding of probable cause." Id. at 786-87 (q u o tin g Sherwood, 113 F.3d at 399). The statements or omissions in question must a ls o be material to the issuance of the warrant to create liability. "To determine the m a te ria lity of the misstatements and omissions, we exercise the offending in a c c u ra c ie s and insert the facts recklessly omitted, and then determine whether or n o t the `corrected' warrant affidavit would establish probable cause." W ils o n , 212 9 F .3 d at 789. Here, plaintiff contends that Defendant Moran omitted material facts from the w a rra n t. Affidavits must contain materially relevant information, since "a police o ffic e r cannot make unilateral decisions about the materiality of information, or, after s a tis fyin g him- or herself that probable cause exists, merely inform the magistrate or ju d g e of inculpatory evidence." Id. at 787. Not all omissions, of course, expose an o ffic e r to potential liability: "omissions are made with reckless disregard if an officer w ith h o ld s a fact in his ken that `any reasonable person would have known that this w a s the kind of thing the judge would wish to know.'" Id. at 788 (quoting United S ta te s v. Jacobs, 986 F.2d 1231, 1235 (8th Cir. 1993)). Still, to create liability, those o m is s io n s must be material; the plaintiff must show "by a preponderance of the e vid e n c e that probable cause does not exist under the corrected affidavit." United S ta te s v. Yosuf, 461 F.3d 374, 383 (3d Cir. 2006). Plaintiff points to six omissions in that affidavit which he claims were material: (1) Soberick could not arrest Zurn because he never observed him in c o n tro l of a motor vehicle; (2 ) he never accepted money from Zurn; (3 ) Soberick followed Borough regulations in reporting the money and s e c u rin g it after Zurn brought the money to the department; (4 ) he followed the Borough Solicitor's instructions in handling the funds; (5 ) Zurn's money was discussed openly by the borough council, which accepted the money and deposited it in the general fund; and (6 ) the public actions were at the advice and consent of the Borough's s o l ic t o r . Taken together, plaintiff insists, a magistrate reviewing the affidavit would have to c o n c lu d e that plaintiff lacked the mens rea necessary for a charge of bribery or 10 c o n s p ira c y. The court concludes that "correcting" the affidavit by adding these omissions to it would not eliminate the probable cause that existed in the warrant. The criminal c o m p la in t charged plaintiff with two crimes, bribery in official and political matters, 18 P A. C.S. § 4701, and criminal conspiracy, 18 Pa. C.S. § 903. A person is guilty of b rib e ry in official and political matters "if he offers, confers, or agrees to confer upon a n o the r, or solicits, accepts or agrees to accept from another: (1) any pecuniary b e n e fit as consideration for the decision, opinion, recommendation, voter or other e xe rc is e of discretion as a public servant, party official or voter by the recipient." 18 P A. C.S. § 4701(a)(1); see, e.g., Commonwealth v. Johnson, 910 A.2d 80, 84 (Pa. S u p e r . Ct. 2006) (holding that defendant could be convicted of bribery if he "e xe rc is e d his discretion as a police officer in order to procure for free a service that w o u ld normally cost money."). A person is guilty of conspiracy "if with the intent of p ro m o tin g or facilitating [a crime's] commission he: (1) agrees with such other p e r s o n or persons that they or one or more of them will engage in conduct which c o n s titu te s such crime or an attempt or solicitation to commit such crime." 18 PA. C .S . § 903(a)(1); see, e.g., Commonwealth v. Murphy, 795 A.2d 1025, 1037-38 (Pa. S u p e r . Ct. 2002) (holding that "`to sustain a conviction for criminal conspiracy, the C o m m o n w e a lth must establish that the defendant (1) entered into an agreement to c o m m it or aid in an unlawful act with another person or persons, (2) with a shared c rim in a l intent and (3) an overt act was done in furtherance of the conspiracy.'") 11 (q u o tin g Commonwealth v. Hennigan, 753 A.2d 245, 253 (Pa. Super. Ct. 2000)). The question for the court, then, is whether adding these omitted facts would m e a n that no reasonable person could conclude that plaintiff had "solicit[ed], a c c e p t[e d ] or agree[d] to accept from another: (1) any pecuniary benefit as c o n s id e ra tio n for the decision, opinion, recommendation, voter or other exercise of d isc re tio n as a public servant, party official or voter by the recipient." 18 Pa.C.S. § 4 7 0 1 (a )(1 ); see Merkle, 211 F.3d at 788 (defining probable cause as occurring when "th e facts and circumstances within [the affiant's] knowledge are sufficient in th e m s e lve s to warrant a reasonable person that an offense has been or is being c o m m itte d by the person to be arrested.'") (quoting Orsatti, 71 F.3d at 482).1 The c o u rt will examine each of the proposed additions to determine whether including th e m would show by a preponderance of the evidence that probable cause was not p re s e n t in the affidavit. F irs t, plaintiff contends that the affidavit should have contained reference to th e fact that he did not have the ability to arrest Zurn because he had never Because the court finds this question dispositive in relation to the bribery charge, no discussion of probable cause in relation to the conspiracy charge is necessary. The court notes, however, that the affidavit of probable cause contains information by which a reasonable person could conclude that plaintiff worked together with Wainright to solicit and process the bribe from Zurn. The affidavit, after all, contains information that indicates that plaintiff mentioned the possibility of paying a bribe to avoid the DUI charge to Zurn, that Wainright then worked out the terms of the bribe and that plaintiff processed the bribe after Zurn received it. Though a court ultimately concluded that the evidence did not support these claims, the affidavit of probable cause, even with additional information about the ultimate destination of the funds and plaintiff's role at the scene of the arrest, contains sufficient information for issuance of the warrant. 12 1 o b s e rve d him in control of a motor vehicle. Because plaintiff did not have grounds to a rr e s t Zurn, he had nothing to exchange for the bribe. The court does not find this fa c t relevant to probable cause, and including the affidavit would not have changed th e magistrate's decision on the warrant. The question here is not whether plaintiff h a d sufficient grounds to arrest Zurn, but whether he solicited a bribe from Zurn after Z u rn came to believe that plaintiff could place him under arrest.2 Plaintiff appears to re a d the Pennsylvania bribery statute far too narrowly. In Commonwealth v. G o ld b a rd , for instance, the Pennsylvania Superior Court found that a tax agent could b e found guilty of bribery for receiving $8,000 in exchange for agreeing to reduce a c o a l company's tax liability on a recently purchased airplane by one-half even if the C o m m o n w e a lth failed to present evidence that the coal company had any tax liability a t all. Commonwealth v. Goldbard, 419 A.2d 161, 163 (Pa. Super. Ct. 1981). The c o u rt found that defendant had accepted a pecuniary benefit in exchange for an a g re e m e n t to violate his public duty. Id. The court concluded that "[t]he legal duty w h ic h [defendant] had was his legal duty to investigate possible tax liabilities due the C o m m o n w e a lth of Pennsylvania, his duty not to agree to destroy records of the C o m m o n w e a lth , and his duty to advise taxpayers to take the appropriate lawful a c tio n s regarding their tax liability." Id. at 163-64. We note as well that the allegation in the affidavit of probable cause was that plaintiff was on the scene of the arrest and allowed Zurn to leave it after Zurn sought a way out of the ticket. Letting Zurn leave the scene, whether plaintiff actually caused his arrest or not, represents an decision not to act, and is covered by the bribery statute. 13 2 T h e situation is similar here; though plaintiff may not have had legal authority to arrest Zurn, the allegations in the corrected affidavit nevertheless would contain in fo rm a tio n that plaintiff used Zurn's sense of impending prosecution to obtain a p e c u n ia ry benefit for the department. Indeed, the court fails to see why the situation d e s c rib e d in the corrected affidavit­that plaintiff knew he could not arrest Zurn but s o lic ite d a bribe in order not to do so­would make plaintiff's behavior any less worthy o f sanction. As with the tax agent, a police officer would surely violate his duty to e n fo rc e the laws fairly and equitably if he used the threat of an arrest he knew he c o u ld not procure to obtain funds for police department resources. Probable cause d o e s not disappear by "correcting" the affidavit with this information. N e xt, plaintiff argues that the affidavit should have included a statement that h e never took any money from Zurn. The affidavit contains a summary statement th a t alleges that Zurn "gave to Officer W a in rig h t and Officer Jack Soberick $3,500 in c a s h ." (Doc. 84-2 at ¶ 4). The affidavit also summarizes the testimony of James Z u rn , which includes a declaration that in "September 2001, Zurn traveled to the L a n s fo rd Police Department and turned over [$3,500] to W a in r ig h t and Soberick." (Id. at ¶ 7). Police Chief Jim Strauss informed Moran that plaintiff in early 2002 s h o w e d him a gray lock-box in the city's evidence room. (Id. at ¶ 9). Strauss c la im e d that plaintiff told him that the box contained $3,500 provided by Zurn. (Id.). Moran's affidavit also included Soberick's denial that he had been paid the money d ire c tly by Zurn and that he had allowed Zurn to leave the scene or had done 14 a n yth in g improper with the money. (Id. at ¶ 15). The affidavit relates, however that S o b e ric k was present when Zurn handed the money to W a in r ig h t . (Id.). Soberick a lso admitted that he placed the money in a lock box. (Id.). The court finds that "correcting" the affidavit to add the statement that plaintiff n e v e r took any money from Zurn would not have eliminated the probable cause s ta te d in the affidavit. The affidavit reports that certain witnesses had accused S o b e r ic k of receiving the money from Zurn. Plaintiff does not deny that the in d ivid u a ls in question made those statements to Moran. He also admits to being in p o s s e s s io n of the money that the affidavit indicates Zurn paid to the department, w h e th e r as a "donation" or a bribe. Moran apparently came to the conclusion that e vid e n c e indicated that Soberick had actually received the money, and stated so. The actual evidence Moran presented, however, was more ambiguous, and in d ic a te d that Soberick may not have actually taken immediate possession when Z u rn turned over the $3,500.3 At the same time, a judge reviewing the evidence of th o s e statements­which plaintiff does not dispute were made­could reasonably c o n c lu d e that probable cause existed to conclude that plaintiff received the payment, if not directly from Zurn. In any case, even if the court were to conclude that the in c lu s io n of an unambiguous statement that plaintiff never received money directly Indeed, the court is reluctant to conclude that adding an unequivocal statement that plaintiff never took money from Zurn would actually "correct" the affidavit. Moran had no evidence­not even from the plaintiff­that he never took money that came from Zurn, whether Zurn placed the money directly in his hand or not. 15 3 fro m Zurn was warranted, such a statement would not have eliminated the probable c a u s e for the warrant's conspiracy count. Evidence in the affidavit reasonably in d ic a te s that plaintiff was involved in the scheme to obtain money from Zurn; w itne s s e s indicated that he participated with W a in r ig h t in the decision to let Zurn le a ve the scene, discussed with W a in rig h t uses for the money Zurn was to pay, and to o k charge of processing the money W a in rig h t obtained. Plaintiff also points to the steps that he took after receiving money from Zurn a s evidence that should have been included in the corrected affidavit. He argues th a t "[i]t defies logic to postulate that Soberick with the intent to accept a bribe, would fo llo w Department regulations by placing the money in an evidence box, immediately in fo r m the Chief of Police, follow the instructions of the Assistant District A tto rn e y/B o r o u g h Solicitor, have the `bribe' discussed at a public meeting of the B o r o u g h Council, and have that governing body of the Borough accept the funds u p o n the advice and consent of the Solicitor/Assistant District Attorney." (Brief in O p p o s itio n to Defendant's Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. 90) at 8). The court fin d s that the affidavit contains probable cause to arrest the plaintiff even when this in fo rm a tio n about plaintiff's handling of the money is added. According to the a ffid a vit, the purpose of obtaining the funds from Zurn was to purchase weapons for th e department. A judge examining the additional information that plaintiff took steps to record the source of the cash and have the city acknowledge the receipt could still re a s o n a b ly find that probable cause to arrest the plaintiff existed. Indeed, a 16 m a g is tra te could conclude that plaintiff by contacting the Borough and the Borough P o lic e Chief had taken steps to legitimize the arrival of the money in the D e p a rtm e n t's coffers. Laundering money in that fashion, the judge could find, is e vid e n c e of an attempt to conceal public corruption, not grounds for denying a w a rra n t. The court thus finds that none of the evidence, if added to the affidavit of p ro b a b le cause, would cause a magistrate to deny a warrant. Taken together, that a d d itio n a l evidence does not change the uncontradicted statements in the affidavit th a t plaintiff was on the scene when police stopped Zurn, that witnesses reported th a t plaintiff had allowed Zurn to leave the scene despite his suspected intoxication a n d had suggested to Zurn departmental equipment needs that he could fill, and that p la in tiff had possession and control of the money implicated in the bribery scheme. Adding to those facts that plaintiff was not in charge of the DUI checkpoint, that he d id not receive the money directly from Zurn, and that he processed that money a c c o rd in g to the Borough's rules does not eliminate the probable cause stated in the a ffid a v it. Accordingly, the court will grant the defendant's motion for summary ju d g m e n t. This decision disposes of the case, and the court will not consider d e fen d a n t's claim of qualified immunity.4 At oral argument, plaintiff's counsel contended that Moran also made false statements in his affidavit. Counsel did not make this argument in his brief. Even if he had, the court would not find that materially false statements existed in the affidavit. According to the plaintiff, the affidavit falsely contends that plaintiff was the "ranking officer at the scene" of the initial DUI request. (See Affidavit of Probable Cause (Doc. 84-2) at ¶ 17 4 C o n c l u s io n F o r the reasons stated above, the court will grant Defendant Moran's motion fo r summary judgment. An appropriate order follows. 6). In plaintiff's answer to defendant's statement of facts for his motion, plaintiff asserts that "[i]t is specifically Denied that Officer Soberick was the ranking police officer from Lansford at the DUI checkpoint. In fact, Officer Soberick was not even specifically assigned to the checkpoint. He was the ranking officer on duty for the entire Borough of Lansford, and was responsible for handling calls and patrols throughout the Borough." (Plaintiff's Statement at ¶ 11). Plaintiff appears to contend that this statement was false or made in reckless disregard for the truth. The court finds that this statement was not necessarily untrue. Plaintiff himself admits that he was the "ranking officer" from the Lansford Police on duty on the night in question, though he was not assigned to the DUI checkpoint. A reasonable person making out an affidavit might conclude that since plaintiff was the department's "ranking officer," he was the "ranking officer" on the scene when he arrived at the DUI checkpoint. In any case, this alleged factual consistency is not material to the probable cause contained in the warrant. Plaintiff admits he was at the scene of the DUI checkpoint when Zurn arrived. Since probable cause was based, in part, on plaintiff's presence on the scene, not his rank at the time, that rank is immaterial to the probable cause contained in the affidavit. No liability could therefore attach to the defendant for this statement. 18 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA JACK SOBERICK, Plaintiff, : No. 3:04cv1738 : : (Judge Munley) : v. : : BOROUGH OF LANSFORD, : JAMES STRAUSS, MAYOR GEORGE : KRAJNAK, POLICE OFFICER : JEREMY SOMMERS, ROBERT : GAUGHAN, RICHARD GIANTESANO, : CHARLES REPINEC, MARGARET : HOROWSKI, BARRY MORAN, : and JOSEPH NIHEN, : Defendants : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ORDER AN D NOW, to wit, this 15th day of September 2008, Defendant Barry Moran's m o tio n for summary judgment (Doc. 82) is hereby GRANTED. As the court has b e e n notified that the case has been settled between all of the other parties, the C le rk of Court is directed to CLOSE the case. BY THE COURT: s / James M. Munley JUDGE JAMES M. MUNLEY U n it e d States District Court 19

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