Bedrock Computer Technologies, LLC v. Softlayer Technologies, Inc. et al
Jury Instructions. (rlf, )
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS
CASE NO. 6:09-CV-269-LED
JURY TRIAL DEMANDED
CHARGE OF THE COURT
MEMBERS OF THE JURY:
You have heard the evidence in this case. I will now instruct you on the law that you must
apply. It is your duty to follow the law as I give it to you. On the other hand, you the jury are the
judges of the facts. Do not consider any statement that I have made during the trial or make in these
instructions as an indication that I have any opinion about the facts of this case.
After I instruct you on the law, the attorneys will have an opportunity to make their closing
arguments. Statements and arguments of the attorneys are not evidence and are not instructions on
the law. They are intended only to assist you in understanding the evidence and the parties’
A verdict form has been prepared for you. You will take this form to the jury room and when
you have reached unanimous agreement as to your verdict, you will have your foreperson fill in, date
and sign the form.
Answer each question from the facts as you find them. Do not decide who you think should
win and then answer the questions accordingly. Your answers and your verdict must be unanimous.
In determining whether any fact has been proved in this case, you may, unless otherwise
instructed, consider the testimony of all witnesses, regardless of who may have called them, and all
exhibits received in evidence, regardless of who may have produced them.
CONSIDERING WITNESS TESTIMONY
By the Court allowing testimony or other evidence to be introduced over the objection of an
attorney, the Court did not indicate any opinion as to the weight or effect of such evidence. You, the
jurors, are the sole judges of the credibility of all witnesses and the weight and effect of all evidence.
When the Court sustained an objection to a question addressed to a witness, you must
disregard the question entirely, and may draw no inference from the wording of it or speculate as to
what the witness would have testified to, if he or she had been permitted to answer the question.
At times during the trial it was necessary for the Court to talk with the lawyers here at the
bench out of your hearing, or by calling a recess. We met because often during a trial something
comes up that does not involve the jury. You should not speculate on what was discussed during
In determining the weight to give to the testimony of a witness, you should ask yourself
whether there was evidence tending to prove that the witness testified falsely concerning some
important fact, or whether there was evidence that at some other time the witness said or did
something, or failed to say or do something, that was different from the testimony the witness gave
before you during the trial.
You should keep in mind, of course, that a simple mistake by a witness does not necessarily
mean that the witness was not telling the truth as he or she remembers it, because people may forget
some things or remember other things inaccurately. So, if a witness has made a misstatement, you
need to consider whether that misstatement was an intentional falsehood or simply an innocent lapse
of memory; and the significance of that may depend on whether it has to do with an important fact
or with only an unimportant detail.
HOW TO EXAMINE THE EVIDENCE
Certain testimony in this case has been presented to you through a deposition. A deposition
is the sworn, recorded answers to questions asked a witness in advance of the trial. Under some
circumstances, if a witness cannot be present to testify from the witness stand, the witness testimony
may be presented, under oath, in the form of a deposition. Some time before this trial, attorneys
representing the parties in this case questioned this witness under oath. This deposition testimony
is entitled to the same consideration and is to be judged by you as to credibility and weight as if the
witness had been present and had testified from the witness stand in court.
While you should consider only the evidence in this case, you are permitted to draw such
reasonable inferences from the testimony and exhibits as you feel are justified in the light of common
experience. In other words, you may make deductions and reach conclusions that reason and
common sense lead you to draw from the facts that have been established by the testimony and
evidence in the case.
The testimony of a single witness may be sufficient to prove any fact, even if a greater
number of witnesses may have testified to the contrary, if after considering all the other evidence you
believe that single witness.
There are two types of evidence that you may consider in properly finding the truth as to the
facts in the case. One is direct evidence such as testimony of an eyewitness. The other is indirect
or circumstantial evidence—the proof of a chain of circumstances that indicates the existence or
nonexistence of certain other facts. As a general rule, the law makes no distinction between direct
and circumstantial evidence, but simply requires that you find the facts from a preponderance of all
the evidence, both direct and circumstantial.
When knowledge of a technical subject matter may be helpful to the jury, a person who has
special training or experience in that technical field is called an expert witness and is permitted to
state his or her opinion on those technical matters. However, you are not required to accept that
opinion. As with any other witness, it is up to you to decide whether to rely upon it.
In deciding whether to accept or rely upon the opinion of an expert witness, you may consider
any bias of the witness, including any bias you may infer from evidence that the expert witness has
been or will be paid for reviewing the case and testifying, or from evidence that he or she testifies
regularly as an expert witness and that income from such testimony represents a significant portion
of the expert’s income.
SUMMARY OF CONTENTIONS
I will first give you a summary of each side’s contentions in this case. I will then tell you
what each side must prove to win on these issues.
Plaintiff Bedrock Computer Technologies LLC, referred to as “Bedrock,” contends that
Defendant Google Inc. has in the past and presently infringes Bedrock’s United States patent, Patent
No. 5,893,120, known as the ’120 Patent, by making, using, selling, and/or offering for sale in the
United States computer equipment configured with or utilizing software based on Linux version
2.4.22 and every version thereafter and/or computer equipment configured with or utilizing software
based on Linux version 2.6.25 and every version thereafter. Bedrock is seeking damages for
Defendant’s alleged infringement. Bedrock bears the burden of proving infringement and damages.
Google denies that its Linux servers infringe claims 1 and 2 of the ’120 patent. In addition,
Google contends that Bedrock’s patent is invalid. In particular, Google contends that certain prior
art that existed before the filing of the ’120 patent renders the ’120 patent invalid. Invalid patents
cannot be infringed. Google bears the burden of proving that the asserted claims of the patent are
INSTRUCTION ON THE BURDEN OF PROOF
As I told you at the beginning of the trial, in any legal action, facts must be proved by a
required amount of evidence, known as the “burden of proof.” The burden of proof in this case is
on Bedrock for some issues and on Google for others. Bedrock has the burden of proving
infringement and damages. Infringement determinations are made on a claim-by-claim basis.
Bedrock must prove infringement by a preponderance of the evidence.
Google has the burden of proving invalidity. Validity determinations are made on a claimby-claim basis. As an issued United States patent, Bedrock’s ’120 Patent is presumed to be valid.
Google must prove invalidity by a preponderance of the evidence.
When a party has the burden of proof on any claim or defense by a preponderance of the
evidence, that means the evidence must persuade you that that claim or defense is more likely true
than not true. In determining whether any fact has been proved by a preponderance of the evidence,
you may, unless otherwise instructed, consider the stipulations, the testimony of all witnesses
regardless of who may have called them, and all exhibits received in evidence regardless of who may
have produced them.
MEANING OF THE CLAIM TERMS
At the beginning of the trial, I gave you some general information about patents and the
patent system and a brief overview of the patent laws relevant to this case. I will now give you more
detailed instructions about the patent laws that specifically relate to this case. If you would like to
review my instructions at any time during your deliberations, they will be available to you in the jury
The claims of a patent are the numbered sentences at the end of the patent. The claims
describe the invention made by the inventor and describe what the patent owner owns and what the
patent owner may prevent others from doing. Claims may describe products or apparatus, such as
a machine or processes for making or using a product. In this case, Bedrock has asserted apparatus
claims in the ’120 Patent.
Claims are usually divided into parts or steps, called “limitations” or “elements.” For
example, a claim that covers the invention of a table may recite the tabletop, four legs, and the glue
that secures the legs to the tabletop. In this example, the tabletop, legs, and glue are each a separate
limitation of the claim.
INSTRUCTIONS ON CONSTRUCTION OF THE CLAIMS
In deciding whether or not an accused product or apparatus does or does not infringe a patent
claim, the first step is to understand the meaning of the words used in the patent claims. The
meaning of the words in the patent claim is the same for both the infringement and the validity
It is my job as Judge to determine what the patent claims mean and to instruct you about that
meaning. You must accept the meanings I give you and use those meanings when you decide
whether or not the patent claims are infringed, and whether or not they are invalid. I have interpreted
the meaning of some of the language in the patent claims involved in this case. My interpretation
of those claims appears in your juror notebook. The claim language I have not interpreted for you
in your juror notebook is to be given its ordinary and accustomed meaning as understood by one of
ordinary skill in the field of technology.
OPEN-ENDED OR “COMPRISING” CLAIMS
The beginning, or preamble, of Claim 1 of the ’120 Patent uses the word ‘comprising.”
“Comprising” means “including but not limited to” or “containing but not limited to.” Thus, if you
decide that an accused product includes all the requirements in that claim, the claim is infringed.
This is true even if the accused instrumentality includes components in addition to those
For example, a claim to a table comprising a tabletop, legs, and glue would be infringed by
a table that includes a tabletop, legs, and glue, even if the table also includes wheels on the table’s
INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CLAIMS
Patent claims may exist in two forms, referred to as independent claims and dependent
claims. An independent claim does not refer to any other claim of the patent. It is not necessary to
look at any other claim to determine what an independent claim covers. Claim 1 of the ’120 patent
is an independent claim.
A dependent claim refers to at least one other claim in the patent. A dependent claim
includes each of the elements of the other claim to which it refers, as well as the additional elements
recited in the dependent claim itself. In this way, the claim ‘depends” on another claim. To
determine what a dependent claim covers, it is necessary to look both at the dependent claim and the
other claim or claims to which it refers. Claim 2 of the ’120 patent is a dependent claim.
When analyzing the alleged infringement of any dependent claim asserted by Bedrock, you
must consider all limitations of both the dependent claim and the independent claim from which it
depends. If you find that claim 1 is not infringed, then you must also find that dependent claim 2 is
not infringed. If you find that independent claim 1 is infringed, then you must separately determine
whether dependent claim 2 is also infringed.
All of the asserted claims in this case include “means-plus-function” limitations. These
claims describe one or more “means” for performing a function, rather than describing the structure
that performs the function. For example, let’s say that a patent describes a table in which the legs
are glued to the tabletop. One way an inventor may claim the table is to require the tabletop, four
legs, and glue between the legs and the tabletop. Another way to claim the table is to require the
tabletop and the legs, but instead of stating “glue,” the inventor states a “means for securing the legs
to the tabletop.” This second type of claim requirement is called a “means-plus-function” limitation.
It describes a means for performing the function of securing the legs to the tabletop, rather than
requiring the glue.
When a claim requirement is in means-plus-function form, it covers the structures described
in the patent specification for performing the function stated in the claim and also any structure
equivalent to the described structures. It does not cover any other structure. In the ’120 patent,
structures corresponding to the means-plus-function limitations are found in the figures, the written
words of the specification, and in the pseudocode. In my example, the claim covers a table using
glue to secure the legs to the tabletop, as described in the patent, and any equivalent structure to glue
that performs the function of securing the legs to the tabletop.
I have interpreted the meaning of the means-plus-function limitations in claims 1 and 2 of
the ’120 Patent and identified the structures corresponding to the means-plus-function limitations.
My interpretation of the means-plus-function limitations can be found in your juror notebook.
Any person or business entity that, without the patent owner’s permission, makes, uses, sells,
or offers to sell a device that is covered by at least one claim of a patent, before the patent expires,
infringes the patent. In this case, Bedrock asserts that Google has infringed claims 1 and 2 of the
’120 patent. Bedrock has the burden of proving infringement by a preponderance of the evidence.
Only the claims of a patent can be infringed. You must consider each claim individually.
You must compare each of the asserted claims, as I have defined them, to each of Defendant’s
accused devices, and determine whether or not there is infringement. In order to prove infringement,
Bedrock must prove that Google’s Linux servers include or perform each and every limitation of the
DIRECT INFRINGEMENT – LITERAL INFRINGEMENT
You must decide whether Google has made, used, sold or offered for sale within the United
States apparatuses or instrumentalities covered by one or more of claims 1 and 2 of Bedrock’s ’120
Patent. You must compare each claim to Google’s accused instrumentalities to determine whether
every requirement of the claim is included in the accused instrumentality.
To prove literal infringement, Bedrock must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that
Google’s accused instrumentality includes every requirement in a single claim of Bedrock’s ’120
Patent. If Google’s product or instrumentality omits any requirement recited in a claim of Bedrock’s
’120 Patent, Google does not infringe that claim. In making your determination, you must consider
each claim separately, and each accused instrumentality separately.
For literal infringement, Bedrock is not required to prove that Google intended to infringe
or knew of the ’120 Patent.
Claims 1 and 2 include requirements that are in means-plus-function form.
A product or instrumentality meets a means-plus-function requirement of a claim if: (1) it
has a structure or a set of structures that performs the identical function recited in the claim, and (2)
that structure or set of structures is either identical or “equivalent” to one or more of the described
sets of structures that are defined on the claim chart as performing the function of the functional
limitation. If the product or instrumentality does not perform the specific function recited in the
claim, the “means-plus-function” requirement is not met, and the product or instrumentality does not
literally infringe the claim. Alternatively, even if the product or instrumentality has a structure or
set of structures that performs the function recited in the claim but the structure or set of structures
is not either identical or “equivalent” to one or more of the sets of structures that I defined for you
on the chart as being described in the ’120 Patent and performing this function, the product or
instrumentality does not literally infringe the asserted claim.
Two structures are equivalent if a person of ordinary skill in the art would consider the
differences between them to be insubstantial for performing the required function. One way to
determine this is to look at whether or not the accused structure performs the identical function in
substantially the same way to achieve substantially the same result. Another way is to consider
whether people of ordinary skill in the art believed that the structure of the accused product and the
structure in the patent were interchangeable at the time the patent was issued by the PTO.
In order to prove direct infringement by literal infringement of a means-plus-function
limitation, Bedrock must prove the above requirements are met by a preponderance of the evidence.
INVALIDITY – GENERALLY
Patent invalidity is a defense to patent infringement. Even though the Patent Office examiner
has allowed the claims of a patent, you have the ultimate responsibility for deciding whether the
claims of the patent are valid.
The issuance of a patent by the Patent Office provides a presumption that the patent is valid.
From the issuance of the patent, it is presumed that a claimed invention is “novel,” “useful,” “not
obvious,” and satisfies the other legal requirements for a valid U.S. patent. Each claim of a patent
is presumed valid independently of the validity of the other claims.
In making your determination as to whether a patent claim is valid or invalid, you must
consider each patent and each of the claims of a patent separately and individually, as you did when
you considered whether the claim was infringed or not. If a preponderance of the evidence
demonstrates that a claim in a given patent fails to meet the requirements of the patent laws, then that
patent is invalid. However, if you find that one or more claims of a patent fails to meet the
requirements of the patent laws, it does not necessarily mean that the remaining claims of that patent
are also deficient or invalid.
The presumption of validity remains intact and the burden of proof remains on the party
challenging validity, throughout this litigation. In other words, the burden of proof never shifts to
the patent owner to prove that its patents are valid.
I will now instruct you on the invalidity issues you should consider.
ANTICIPATION–PUBLICLY USED OR KNOWN, OR PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED
Google contends that the asserted claims of the ’120 Patent are invalid because the claimed
invention is not new.
For a claim to be invalid because it is not new, all of its requirements must have existed in
a single device or method that predates the claimed invention, or must have been described in a
single previous publication or patent that predates the claimed invention.
In patent law, such previous device, publication or patent is called a “prior art reference.”
If a patent claim is not new, we say it is “anticipated” by a prior art reference. Google must prove
by a preponderance of the evidence that the claim was anticipated.
The disclosure in the prior art reference does not have to be in the same words as the claim,
but all of the requirements of the claim must be there, either stated or necessarily implied, so that
someone of ordinary skill in the relevant field looking at that one reference would be able to make
and use at least one embodiment of the claimed invention.
Anticipation also occurs when the claimed invention inherently (necessarily) results from the
practice of what is disclosed in the written reference, even if the inherent disclosure was
unrecognized or unappreciated by one of ordinary skill in the field of the invention.
Here is a list of the ways that Google can show that a patent claim was not new:
if the claimed invention was already publicly known or publicly used by others in the
United States before the date of invention of the ’120 Patent.
if the claimed invention was already patented or described in a printed publication
anywhere in the world before the date of invention. To qualify as a prior art
reference, a “printed publication” must be at least reasonably accessible to those
interested in the field, even if it is difficult to find. An electronic publication,
including an on-line or internet publication, is a “printed publication” if it is at least
reasonably accessible to those interested in the field even if it is difficult to find.
if the claimed invention was already described in another published U.S. patent
application or issued U.S. patent that was based on a patent application filed before
the patent holder’s filing date of date of invention.
If a patent claim is not new as explained above, you must find that claim invalid.
ANTICIPATION–MADE OR INVENTED BY SOMEONE ELSE
Google contends that all asserted claims of the ’120 Patent are invalid as anticipated because
the invention was first made or invented by someone else.
If someone other than the named inventor made or invented the invention described in one
or more such patent claims involved in this lawsuit, then each such claim was “anticipated” by the
other invention, and each such claim is invalid. Google must prove by a preponderance of the
evidence that each such claim was anticipated by the other invention.
Here are two ways that Google can show that a patent claim was not new because the
invention described in such claim was first made by someone else:
First, if the claimed invention was already made by someone else in the United States before
the date of invention of the ’120 Patent if that other person had not abandoned the invention or kept
it secret; and
Second, if Bedrock and Google dispute who is a first inventor, the person who first conceived
of the claimed invention and who first reduced it to practice is the first inventor; if one person
conceived of the claimed invention first, but reduced it to practice second, that person is the first
inventor only if that person (a) began to reduce the claimed invention to practice before the other
party conceived of it and (b) continued to work with reasonable diligence to reduce it to practice
from a time just before the other party’s conception.
If the invention of a patent claim was first made or invented by someone else as explained
above, you must find the patent claim invalid.
Google may prove that claims 1 and 2 of the ’120 Patent are invalid by showing by a
preponderance of evidence that each such claim failed to meet one of several statutory provisions
in the patent laws. These provisions are called “statutory bars.” For a patent claim to be invalid
because of a statutory bar, all of its requirements must have been present in one prior art reference
dated more than one year before the effective date of the patent application.
Here is a list of ways Google can show that the ’120 Patent is invalid due to a statutory bar:
if the asserted claims of the ’120 Patent were already patented or described in a
printed publication anywhere in the world one year before the effective filing date of
the ’120 Patent, January 2, 1997.
A reference is a “printed publication” if it is reasonably accessible to those interested
in the field, even if it is difficult to find. An electronic publication, including an online or internet publication, is a “printed publication” if it is at least reasonably
accessible to those interested in the field, even if it is difficult to find.
if the asserted claims of the ’120 Patent were already being publicly or commercially
used in the United States one year before the effective filing date of the ’120 Patent
application, January 2, 1997, and that use was not primarily an experimental use
controlled by the inventor to test whether the invention worked for its intended
For a claim to be invalid because of a statutory bar, all of the claimed requirements must have
been either (1) disclosed in a single prior art reference or (2) implicitly disclosed in a single prior art
reference as viewed by one of ordinary skill in the field of the invention. The disclosure in a
reference does not have to be in the same words as the claim, but all of the requirements of the claim
must be described in enough detail, or necessarily implied by or inherent in the reference, to enable
someone of ordinary skill in the field of the invention looking at the reference to make and use at
least one embodiment of the claimed invention.
A prior art reference also invalidates a patent claim when the claimed invention necessarily
results from practice of the subject of the prior art reference, even if the result was unrecognized and
unappreciated by one of ordinary skill in the field of the invention.
If you find a patent claim failed to meet a statutory bar, you must find the patent claim
In this case, Google contends that all asserted claims of the ’120 Patent are invalid as
A patent claim is invalid if the claimed invention would have been obvious to a person of
ordinary skill in the field of the invention at the time the application was filed. This means that even
if all the requirements of the claim cannot be found in a single prior art reference that would
anticipate the claim or constitute a statutory bar to that claim, a person of ordinary skill in the field
of the invention who knew about all of the prior art would have come up with the claimed invention.
But a patent claim composed of several requirements is not proved obvious merely by
demonstrating that each of its requirements was independently known in the prior art. Although
common sense directs one to look with care at a patent application that claims as innovation the
combination of known requirements according to their established functions to produce a predictable
result, it can be important to identify a reason that would have prompted a person of ordinary skill
in the relevant field to combine the requirements in the way the claimed new invention does. This
is so because inventions in most, if not all, instances rely upon building blocks long since uncovered,
and claimed discoveries almost of necessity will be combinations of what, in some sense, is already
known. Accordingly, you may evaluate whether there was some teaching, suggestion, or motivation
to arrive at the claimed invention before the time of the claimed invention, although proof of this is
not a requirement to prove obviousness. Teachings, suggestions, and motivations may also be found
within the knowledge of a person with ordinary skill in the art including inferences and creative steps
that a person of ordinary skill in the art would employ. Additionally, teachings, suggestions, and
motivations may be found in the nature of the problem solved by the claimed invention, or any need
or problem known in the field of the invention at the time of and addressed by the invention.
Therefore, in evaluating whether such a claim would have been obvious, you should consider
a variety of factors:
Whether Google has identified a reason that would have prompted a person of
ordinary skill in the field of the invention to combine the requirements or concepts
from the prior art in the same way as in the claimed invention. There is no single
way to define the line between true inventiveness on one hand (which is patentable)
and the application of common sense and ordinary skill to solve a problem on the
other hand (which is not patentable). For example, market forces or other design
incentives may be what produced a change, rather than true inventiveness.
Whether the claimed invention applies a known technique that had been used to
improve a similar device or method in a similar way.
Whether the claimed invention would have been obvious to try, meaning that the
claimed innovation was one of a relatively small number of possible approaches to
the problem with a reasonable expectation of success by those skilled in the art.
But you must be careful not to determine obviousness using hindsight; many true inventions
can seem obvious after the fact. You should put yourself in the position of a person of ordinary skill
in the field of the invention at the time the claimed invention was made, and you should not consider
what is known today or what is learned from the teaching of the patent.
The ultimate conclusion of whether a claim is obvious should be based on your determination
of several factual issues:
You must decide the level of ordinary skill in the field of the invention that someone
would have had at the time the claimed invention was made.
You must decide the scope and content of the prior art. In determining the scope and
content of the prior art, you must decide whether a reference is pertinent, or
analogous, to the claimed invention. Pertinent, or analogous, prior art includes prior
art in the same field of endeavor as the claimed invention, regardless of the problems
addressed by the reference, and prior art from different fields reasonably pertinent to
the particular problem with which the claimed invention is concerned. Remember
that prior art is not limited to patents and published materials, but includes the
general knowledge that would have been available to one of ordinary skill in the field
of the invention.
You should consider any difference or differences between the prior art and the claim
Finally, you should consider any of the following factors that you find have been shown by
Factors tending to show non-obviousness:
commercial success of a product due to the merits of the claimed invention;
a long-felt, but unsolved, need for the solution provided by the claimed
unsuccessful attempts by others to find the solution provided by the claimed
copying of the claimed invention by others;
unexpected and superior results from the claimed invention;
acceptance by others of the claimed invention as shown by praise from others
in the field of the invention or from the licensing of the claimed invention;
disclosures in the prior art that criticize, discredit, or otherwise discourage the
claimed invention and would therefore tend to show that the invention was
You may consider the presence of any of the list factors A.1-7 as an indication that the
claimed invention would not have been obvious at the time the claimed invention was made.
Factors tending to show obviousness
independent invention of the claimed invention by others before or at about
the same time as the named inventor thought of it.
You may consider the presence of the factor B.1 as an indication that the claimed invention
would have been obvious at such time. Although you should consider any evidence of this factor,
the relevance and importance of it to your decision on whether the claimed invention would have
been obvious is up to you.
Google must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that a claimed invention was obvious.
If you find that a claimed invention was obvious as explained above, you must find that claim
LEVEL OF ORDINARY SKILL
Several times in my instructions I have referred to a person of ordinary skill in the field of
the invention. It is up to you to decide the level of ordinary skill in the field of the invention. You
should consider all of the evidence introduced at trial in making this decision, including:
the levels of education and experience of persons working in the field;
the types of problems encountered in the field; and
the sophistication of the technology.
Bedrock contends that a person of ordinary skill in the art of the ’120 Patent would have a
Bachelor of Science degree in Computer Science, where the degree program requires extensive
training and practice in computer programming.
Google contends that a person of ordinary skill in the art of the ’120 Patent would have a
Bachelor of Science degree in computer science or computer engineering, including practical
experience writing computer programs, or the equivalent.
Because it is your determination to make, you need not adopt either Bedrock’s or Google’s
contention of the level of ordinary skill in the art.
CORROBORATION OF ORAL TESTIMONY
Oral testimony alone is insufficient to prove prior invention or that something is prior art or
that a particular event or reference occurred before the filing date of the patents-in-suit. A party
seeking to prove prior invention or prior art also must provide evidence that corroborates any oral
testimony, especially where the oral testimony comes from an interested witness, or a witness
testifying on behalf of an interested party. This includes any individual or company testifying that
his or its invention predates the patents-in-suit, and also includes a patent owner seeking to prove
an earlier date of invention than the effective filing date stated on the face of the patent.
Documentary or physical evidence that is made contemporaneously with the inventive process
provides the most reliable proof that the testimony has been corroborated, but corroborating evidence
may also consist of testimony of a witness, other than an inventor, to the actual reduction to practice
or it may consist of evidence of surrounding facts and circumstances independent of information
received from the inventor. If you find that the party has not corroborated the oral testimony with
other evidence, you are not permitted to find that the subject of that oral testimony qualifies as prior
art or supports a prior date of invention.
I will now instruct you on damages. If you find that Google has infringed one or more valid
claims of the ’120 Patent, you must determine the amount of money damages to which Bedrock is
entitled. By instructing you on damages, I do not suggest that one or the other party should prevail.
These instructions are provided to guide you on the calculation of damages in the event you find
infringement of a valid patent claim and thus must address the damages issue.
The amount of damages must be adequate to compensate the patent holder for the
infringement, but it may not be less than a reasonable royalty. Your damages determination must not
include additional sums to punish Google or to set an example. You may award compensatory
damages only for the loss that Bedrock proves was more likely than not caused by Google’s
DAMAGES–BURDEN OF PROOF
Where the parties dispute a matter concerning damages, it is Bedrock’s burden to prove by
a preponderance of the evidence that its version is correct. Bedrock must prove the amount of
damages with reasonable certainty, but need not prove the amount of damages with mathematical
precision. However, Bedrock is not entitled to damages that are remote or speculative.
A royalty is a payment made to a patent holder in exchange for rights to make, use, or sell
the claimed invention. A reasonable royalty is the payment that would have resulted from a
negotiation between a patent holder and the infringer taking place just before the time when the
infringing sales first began. In considering the nature of this negotiation, the focus is on what the
expectations of the patent holder and infringer would have been had they entered into an agreement
at that time and acted reasonably in their negotiations. However, you must assume that both parties
believed the patent was valid and infringed. In addition, you must assume that the patent holder and
infringer were willing to enter into an agreement; your role is to determine what that agreement
would have been. The test for damages is what royalty would have resulted from the hypothetical
negotiation and not simply what either party would have preferred. You may consider expert
opinions as to what the amount of reasonable royalty should be.
In determining the royalty that would have resulted from the hypothetical negotiation, you
may consider real world facts including the following to the extent they are helpful to you:
Licenses involving comparable patents
The licensing history of the parties
Licensing practices in the relevant industry
Whether the patent owner had an established policy of refusing to license the patent
The relationship between the patent owner and alleged infringer, including whether
or not they were competitors
The significance of the patented technology in promoting sales of the alleged
infringer’s products and earning it profit
Alternatives to the patented technology and advantages provided by the patented
technology relative to the alternatives
The portion of the alleged infringer’s profit that should be credited to the invention
as distinguished from nonpatented features, improvements or contributions
Licenses or offers to license the patent at issue in this case
Any other economic factor that a normally prudent businessperson would, under
similar circumstances, take into consideration in negotiating the hypothetical license.
DAMAGES LIMITATION - NON-INFRINGING ALTERNATIVES
In determining a reasonable royalty, you may consider whether or not the Defendant found
to infringe had commercially acceptable non-infringing alternatives to taking a license from Bedrock
that were available at the time of the hypothetical negotiation and whether that would have affected
the reasonable royalty the parties would have agreed upon.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR DELIBERATIONS
You must perform your duties as jurors without bias or prejudice to any party. The law does
not permit you to be controlled by sympathy, prejudice, or public opinion. All parties expect that
you will carefully and impartially consider all the evidence, follow the law as it is now being given
to you, and reach a just verdict, regardless of the consequences.
It is your sworn duty as a juror to discuss the case with one another in an effort to reach
agreement if you can do so. Each of you must decide the case for yourself, but only after full
consideration of the evidence with the other members of the jury. While you are discussing the case,
do not hesitate to re-examine your own opinion and change your mind if you become convinced that
you are wrong. However, do not give up your honest beliefs solely because the others think
differently, or merely to finish the case.
Remember that in a very real way you are the judges–judges of the facts. Your only interest
is to seek the truth from the evidence in the case. You should consider and decide this case as a
dispute between persons of equal standing in community, of equal worth, and holding the same or
similar stations in life. All persons, including corporations, and other organizations stand equal
before the law, regardless of size or who owns them, and are to be treated as equals.
When you retire to the jury room to deliberate on your verdict, you may take this charge with
you as well as exhibits which the Court as admitted into evidence. Select your Foreperson and
conduct your deliberations. If you recess during your deliberations, follow all of the instructions that
the Court has given you about/on your conduct during the trial. After you have reached your
unanimous verdict, your Foreperson is to fill in on the form your answers to the questions. Do not
reveal your answers until such time as you are discharged, unless otherwise directed by me. You
must never disclose to anyone, not even to me, your numerical division on any question.
Any notes that you have taken during this trial are only aids to memory. If your memory
should differ from your notes, then you should rely on your memory and not on the notes. The notes
are not evidence. A juror who has not taken notes should rely on his or her independent recollection
of the evidence and should not be unduly influenced by the notes of other jurors. Notes are not
entitled to any greater weight than the recollection or impression of each juror about the testimony.
If you want to communicate with me at any time, please give a written message or question
to the bailiff, who will bring it to me. I will then respond as promptly as possible either in writing
or by having you brought into the courtroom so that I can address you orally. I will always first
disclose to the attorneys your question and my response before I answer your question.
After you have reached a verdict, you are not required to talk with anyone about the case
unless the Court orders otherwise. You may now retire to the jury room to conduct your
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