Mitchell v. Norfolk Southern Railroad

Filing 29

MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by District Judge Glen E. Conrad on 9/8/2015. (lml)

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clERrs OFFI U. DI COURT CE S. SX ATR- OKE, VA FIED L I TH E UN I N TED STATES D I STRI COU RT CT FOR THE W ESTERN DI STRI OF VI I I CT RG N A Bl STON E G AP D I I ON G V SI SEF 92 2 1 95 #U T; . D , D A V I JUELL M I D TCH ELL, Ci lA c i N o. 1 vi ton 2: 5CV00002 Pl i if a ntf , M EM O R AN D UM O PI I N N O By: on. l n E.Co ad H Ge nr Chi fUnie St t D it i tJ e e t d a es s rc udg N O RFO LK SOU TH ERN RA I A Y LW C OM PA N Y , D e enda . f nt Pl i ifDa d J l M ic l fl dt sa ton f ne i nc unde t Fede a antf vi ue l t he l ie hi c i or glge e r he rl Empl r 'LibiiyAc (TELA',45U. C.j51: sc.a i t at tve f src oye s a lt t ( ' ) S. 1 el nd,n he lemai , or tit , la lt u rt Ra l oa Saf t Appla e A c , 49U. C. 20301: s g.1a i tde e i biiy nde he ir d e y i nc t S. j 1 e , gans f ndant Norol Sout n Ral y Compa (( f k her iwa ny ( NSRC'. ' NSRC ha move t ta frt sacint t ) s d o rnse hi to o he UntdSttsDititCo r f rteNo tenDitit fGe r i p ru n t 2 U. C. 1 0 () ie ae src u t o h rh r src o o ga u s a t o 8 S. j 4 4 a . Fort r as s tf t be ow , hi m oton w ilbe de e he e ons e orh l t s i l ni d. Backzround Thef l ng f c sa epr s nt i t lgh mos f vor et M ic l t nonmovi olowi a t r e e ed n he i t t a abl o t hel, he ng nnon, Vigi a. pa t 2 M ic l i a r i ntofDunga ry. t he l s es de r ni NSRC i owne by Norol Sou he n s d f k t r C o po a i n,a V igi a c por ton wih ishe quare s l a e i N or ol Vi g ni N SRC i a r r to r ni or a i t t ad t r oc t d n f k, r i a. s com m on c ni r i ved i i e s a e c m e c by r ir d a ope a esover22, m ie of a e nvol n nt r t t om r e a loa nd rt 000 l s ' th l'a n e c mpan ctsti sauea te: 9U SC j2 1 l'Am. mp. 3 . we e,h t Mic els me d d o lit ie hs ttt s h & 4 00 . ' Co l! 5 Ho v rta saut i t Fede a Raloa Sae yAc of1 tt e s he r l ir d ft t 970. 2W h nr v e n amo i nt ta se u e j 1 0 ( ) t ec u t y c n i e e ie c o ti et ep e dng , Gu e e iwig to o r n f r nd r 4 4 a, h o r ma o sd r vd n e u sd h l a i s ç t b m us vi w a lf c si t lghtmos f vor bl t t pary opposng ta f . Pitbur h LoaitcsSvs.l v.C. t e l a t n he i t a a e o he t i r nser' ts a ' si . nc. R. En a d, n .No 0 - 0 6 2 1 W L l 0 03 a * ( . P . a .l 2 0 , e Tha v La dii, 6:2 aln l c, . 9 1 3 , 0 0 7 4 , t 2 W D. a J n 4, 01 ) s e me . wi a a No. 1 . CV-0 3 2 2WL 5 3 2 8 a #1( . Va Oc. 6 2 2 ( o , ,Cg ie ta Dee d n ber ah a y 0 0 9, 01 3 6 0 , t W D. . t2 , 01 ) Mo n J) tGlv n h t fn a t as e v bur en i op i t pl ntf schos f ru ,a t s r pr s d n posng he ai if en o m nd he tong e umpton i f vo oft pl i ifs c c of i n a r he ant f ' hoi e f r m, wi r v e t efc si t elg tmos f v r b et teplitf.)(n e n l i to sa dq t t n ma k o u I l e iw h a t n h ih l t a o a l o h an if' itr a ct i n n uoa i ' a o rs o te ) mitd . . r iwa i t e t r Unied Stt . a l y n he ase n t aes Att tmeoft ac i ntM ic lwase o byClcoCor r ton($ ec '. he i he cde , thel mplyed e po ai t o' On Cl ) J nuay 25, 2,NSRC wasS ki c ranr iso t ta ks, i l ngrpaii a a l 201 k ng e ti epar n he r c gl ncudi e rng ma s th'nTrn o , o ga Am. mp . 1 . RC n e e mo ema p we f r h p o e t wic 'i e t n Ge r i. Co l! 0 NS e d d r n o r o t e rj c a r ques e a tona w o ke sf om Cl c A c or ng y,Cl co s ntM iche la ot r t nd e t d ddii l r r r e o. c di l e e t l nd he s o hepNSRC wihte er p is At 1 t s NS man ane c mpeec nr l v r h p o e t l t h s e ar . ali , RC iti d o lt o to o e t e rj c, me i l ng t m eho ofr pa r,a s i d t eq pm e f t r par ,I a ton,M ic l nc udi he t d e is nd upple he ui nt or he e is n ddii thel w asunde t s pe v s on a c r ofN SRC s r i or a e pl es r he u r i i nd ontol upe v s s nd m oye . Du i t erparp o e tM ic el sdr ce t g t aNS s p l tuc , c wa rng h e i rj c, th lwa ie td o o o RC u py r k whih s l a e on t r ir d ta ks t obt n ma e i st twe enee d f t r par . hie oc t d he a loa r c , o ai t ral ha r de or he e is W l ci igd wn ald e a t era o t et c M ic eldel n fe. Am. mp . 2 . l n o mb a d r t h e r f h nlk, th l s l ma y e t' f ' Co l! 9 Durnghi f l, d a thi l t1g on t tuc a hi butoc a ba c ughtt e of i s al he t ugh s ef e c he r k nd s t ks nd ck a he nd t te on t g ound. I Onc on t gr he i s he r ' d. e ' he ound,M ic lnotc t ta s e w a m i s ng f om t hel i ed ha t p s s i r t tuc sl dde . tt tm e oft f l,M ic lw a ac i ca e uly a w asuna a e oft he r k' a r A he i he a l t hel s tng r f l nd w r he m i s ng s e l a ton, one, nc udi N SRC e pl s w a ned M ic la tt s i t p. n ddii no i l ng m oyee , r t hel bou he m i s ng s e A s ar s t M ic l s f r d a nl ur di c i hi ba k. s i t p. e ul, t he l uf e e pt ed s n s c M ic lfl d s tpr y a ns N SRC on J nu y 23, 5.On M a 29,20l ,N SRC t hel ie ui o ç gai t a ar 20l y 5 . . fldb t amo int d s s t c s , r u n lc o s be tmatr u idcin a damoin ie o h to o imis he a e ag i g a k f u j c te j rs ito , n to t t a f rve t t N o t r Di t i tofGeo gi On J 29, 5, he c tt r i t t o r ns e nue o he r he n s rc r a, une 201 t our e m na ed he moton t dim isa m oot gr nt lavef M ic l t fl a a e d c i o s s s , a ed e or t he l o ie n m nde ompl i ,a or r d ant nd de e M ic l t r pond t N SRC' m o i t t a f rvenue On J y 5, 5,M ic l fl d a t he l o es o S ton o r ns e . ul 201 t he l ie n a e d co pl i t by co m s l a l gi ne i nc unde FELA a i t a t r tve s r c m nde m a n , t e , le ng glge e r nd, n he le na i , ti t la lt unde t Rair Sa e y Appla A c .M ic l s eksc pe a o y da a i t i biiy r he load f t i nce t t he l e om ns t r m ges n he a ou of$1000, 00 f ,i e ai pan and s f rng, ta f ur me c lexpe e , m nt , 000. or ntr la, i ufe i pas nd ut e di a ns s pe m ane di a lt a l twage . r nt s biiy, nd os s The m oton t ta f rve ha be n f l bref d a i i o r ns e nue s e uly i e nd s now r pe f r vi w . i or e e Di scussi on Asat e hol ma tr t c t us dee m i whehe t c ec dbe br hti t hr s d te , he our m t tr ne t r he as oul oug n he pr ed a t r tve f um , he N o t r D it i tofGeo gi .Se Ra ne v. nki ,1 F. opos le na i or t r he n s rc r a e nki Ra ne 66 3d 3 3 1 9 W L 8 2 , t# ( t Ci. v. 3 1 9 )(n u ls dtbl d cso )(id n t a 3,98 08 03 a 1 4h r No 2 , 9 8 u p b ihe a e e iin fn i g h t t di t i tc te r d by notr qui i t m o ng pa t t f r te t bls t tt a t r tve he s rc our r e e rng he vi ry o i s s a ih ha he le na i f um i a t lya l e . ca eM ic lsa ci ntoc ure i Trntn,Ge gi,whihi or s cual vaiabl) Be us thel' c de c rd n e o or a c s l a e w ihi t N orhe Di t i tofGe gi ,t td s rc w oul be a a o i t ve asa oc t d t n he t m s rc or a ha i t i t d n ppr pr a e nue s tntal r oft e nso o s i gi ngrs t t cam occ rdt r .28U. C.j ubsa i pa t he ve t r misons vi ie o he li ure he e S. 1 (. 391a) NSRC' motont ta frve i br ug pu s ntt 28U. C.j1 a , c S i o rnse nue s o ht rua o S. 404() whih p o ie ta ûfo t ec n e e c o t ep risa dwin s e gn li teitr s o j sie a r vd s h t c j r h o v nin e f h a t n t e s s a d n h ne et f u tc , g e di ti tc tm a t a f ra ci lac i n t a ot rdi t i tordi s on whe e i m i ha s rc our y r ns e ny vi to o ny he sr c vi i r t ght ve be nbr e ought' 28U. C.j1 a .Thi saueSi i e dt pl edic ein i t ditit . ' S. 404() s ttt ds ntnde o ac sr to n he src c u to aj d c t moinsfrta se a c r i t a id vd aie c s - y c s o r t du iae to o r n f r c o dng o n n i iu lz d, a eb -a e cons de a i ofc i r ton onve e a f r s . St w a tOr .l v. i oh Cop . 487 U . 22,29 ni nce nd aine s' e r g. nc. R c ' , S. ( 988 (ntr cttona quottonmaksomitd) l de i ngwhehe t execs t s 1 ) i enal iai nd ai r te . n cdi t r o rie hi dic eim,c t t cal c i ranumbe offcor,i udi .( 1 pli ifsc c of sr tc ours ypi ly onsde r a t s ncl ng.k ) antf' hoie ( f um,()c ni eoft pa te ,( wine sc nve e a a e s a ( t i e etof or 2 onve enc he ris 3) t s o nince nd cc s , nd 4) he ntr s j tc ' Hei Kete Gmbl & Co. Raz USA.LLC,750F.Supp. 660,667( D.Va. usie. ' nz tlr ' l v. or 2d E. 20l .seas Roc nqha Prcat l v.Ameia l r sr t e- vlnd.nc.No. 0) e lo ki m e s.nc. , rc n nfatucur Mar a l , 5: 1 v 0 2 , 01 W L 5 26 9 a * ( . Va No .1 2 1.Th p ry s e igta se 1c0 0 4 2 1 5 0 2, t 2 W D. . v 4, 01 ) e a t e kn r n f r be st k a bur nofs ngt tt baa eofi ee t weghssr yi rtjfvori ar he ç vy de he howi ha he lnc ntrss i tongl n is a n amoi t ta fr'Arbinv. ton o rnse . a a Bowe 966F. 1 ,1 W L 15 ' n, 2d 441 992 4026,a *1( hCi.J y7, t 4t r ul 1 (mpubls dtbl opi on) Whe a yi j1 a ,hede sont ta fraca erss 992) t ihe a e ni . n ppl ng 404() t cii o r nse s et s oundl w ihi t di c e i n oft dit i tc t Br k v. r Com put rCt s . nc. 933 F. y t n he s r t o he s rc our . oc Ent e e r .l , 2d 1 1 ( hCi.1 ) S.Ry, v. a n, 5F. 1 201( h Ci.1 ;Si 253, 257 4t r 991; Co. M dde 23 2d 98, 4t r 956) mmons v.J on, 7: CV00053,2005W L 31 ohns No. 05 59555,a *1( . . . t W D Va Nov. 2005 . t 22, ) For he f l ng r a ons t c tc l olowi e s , he our onc udest tN SR C hasnotm e isbur ofs i t tt ha tt den how ng ha he N or he n D it i tofG e gi w oul be a m or c t r s rc or a d e onveni ntf u i t sc e e or m n hi as . 1. Pli tf sCh c o r m an i f' oie fFo u The frtf c ori t ta f ra yssi t pli if sc ceofve is a t n he r nse nal i s he antf hoi nue.'l tc cei t- hoi s -ha t cal e il t dubsa i lweght'e pecaly whe et c e f um i t pli ifs ypi ly ntted o s t nta i , s i l r he hos n or s he a ntf hom e f um orbe r a s t nta r a i t t c us ofa ton. H e nz K e te , 0 F.Supp. 1 or a s ubs a i l el ton o he a e c i ' i ' tl r 75 2( a 667( i Kohv.Mir e I '.l ,250F.Supp. 627,633( D. 2003) s as t quotng cotk ntl nc. 2d E. Va. ); ee lo Al r I v. duePhamaL. , 4F.Supp. 626,633( . Va.2009)(t pli ifs phama, nc. Pur r P.63 2d W D. t antf A c ceoff um des ve s tnta weg ,e ep when(1 t pli ifc e af eg hoi or er s ubsa il iht xc t () he antf hoos s orin fr m,a ( t c e ve ha ltl co to t t ca eofa ton.' ( i Ge o u nd 2) he hos n nue s ite nnecin o he us ci '' quotng n. ) Cr tonLLC v.Le pFr Entr.l ,1 2F. pp. 5 5 05( . Va 2002). eai a og essnc. 9 Su 2d 03, 04- W D. . ) l t s c e, he e i no di put t tt W es e n Di t i tofV i g ni Bi St G a n hi as t r s s e ha he t r sr c r i a, g one p D i s on,i M ic l' hom e f r .I hi c pl nt M iche ls a est the i a r s de of vi i s t he l s o um n s om ai , t l t t ha s e i nt Du g n o Vigni, ih i lc tdwi i t s u iil ititNSRC d sn tc n et h s n a n n, r i a whc s o ae t n hij dca d src. h oe o o ts t i poi Theref e,M ichel ' choi ofvenue i entted t iconsderabl def ence.'LeapFr nt. or t ls ce s il o d i e er ' og Ent s. l ,192 F.Supp.2d at505,see Rocki er . nc. . ngham Precas sI ,2011 W L 5526092,at*3 t nc. ( di t tt pli ifsde ii t fl s ti t W esenDititofVigi awa e ildt hol ng ha he antf' cson o ie ui n he tr src r ni s ntte o 'c i r bl deee ,'sncet dititwa t pli ifshomeeor .Bec us t sfr %onsde a e frnce' i he src s he antf f um) a e hi oum i M ic ls hom e f m , he c t s t hel' onz t our doesnotnee t e l t isco c i t t c us of d o va ua e t nne ton o he a e ac i i or rt de e m i whe he t gi M ic l ' venue c ce s t nta w ei ht Se ton n de o t r ne t r o ve t he ls hoi ubs a i l g . e Veos B. v. ntrDoucl .l ,806F,Supp. 592( D. 1 2)(sW l n.. r ol V. Hu e as nc. 582, E. Va. 99 ig he .a pl i ifc a ntf hoos s a f e gn f ' a t c us ofa ton be r ltl t no r a i t t tf u , e or i ol um nd he a e c i a s ite o el ton o ha or m t pl ntf sc e ve i note tte t s hs tnilweght')(mphai a d) he ai if hosn nue s nild o uc ubsa ta i . e ' ss dde . A c or ngl ba ed on t c r ntr c d,t c tc ude t tt sf c orwei a i t c di y, s he ur e e or he our oncl s ha hi a t ghs ga ns t a f r i t c e t t N orhe n D i ti ofG e gi r ns e rng he as o he t r srct or a. I1. Conv ni o heParis e ence ft te The s ond f c ori t a ys si t c ec a t n he nal i s he onve e e oft pa te . ow e r d w he ni nc he ri s H ve , i t n p an if fl s i i terh mefrl c n ne c t p risrr l,fe r o eae t j tf litfs ie ut n h i o o t o ve in e o a t aey i ve, p rts o usiy m, e tanse.' HenzKetlr 750F.Supp. a 668( i J Ta l .v. ,482F.Supp. r f r'' i te, 2d t quotng TH x. nc Lee 2d 731, ( D. 2007).M o e r ta fri nota o it whe iwilmerl s r et 738 E. Va. ) r ove,rnse s pprprae n t l ey e v o s f t baa eofi onv ninc fo onesdet a he .J hithe lnc nc e e e rm i o not r . Z I t sc s ,t Norhe Ditito Ge gi woul no beaco nintf um f n hi a e he t nz src f or a d t nve e or or M ichelt pur uehi c am sbec us hei ar i tofDunga t l o s s li a e s esden nnon, r ni whi i l a e Vigi a, ch s oc t d wi i ti j iil ititM o e v r NS i aVign ac r o ainwi ish a q re si t n h s udca d src. ro e, RC s r ii o p rto t t e d uatr n h h N o f k,Vigi a. r o e i woul a a t tt Norhe n DititofGe gi woul no be r ol r ni The ef r , t d ppe r ha he t r src or a d t a co ni ntf um f N SR C e t w he co pa e t t s dit i t W hieN SR C m a be c r t nve e or or iher n m r d o hi s rc . l y or ec i a gui t tm or r e nte de i l ca ed i Geo gi a o Al ba a t cour i n r ng ha e el va vi nce s o t n r a nd/ r a m , he ts cur enty unabl t concl t t r l eo ude hat ransf rng t case woul accom pls m ore t m er y er i he d ih han el s fi t ba anc ofi onve enc t t pl i if Se V S Te hs . hi tng he l e nc ni e o he a ntf . e c . LLC v.Tw it r l , o. te . nc. N 2: 1 3 2 1W L 1 0 4 91 a * ( D. . u e28 2 1 ($ ) i p o bet a mo e 1 CV4 , 01 1 7 2 , t 7 E. Va J n , 01 ) (lt s r ba l h t r ( r l va e denc i a m or pa t w ine s a e l t d i t N orhe n D i ti tofCalf ni . e e nt vi e s nd e r y t s es r oca e n he t r sr c ior a Howeve ,ta f i i ppr it whe ei r apli ifofhi c e f um a me el s fs r r nser s na oprae r t obs antf s hos n or nd r y hit t baa eofi onve e efom dee ntt pl nif' .nad ton, he lnc nc ninc r fnda o aitf ' l dii NSRC ha not ) s de onsr t t ti wilbedifc tt ta por doc e t r e de et Vigi a. e m taed ha t l fi ul o r ns t um n a y vi nc o r ni Se Roc ngha Pr ca t l , ki m e s . nc. 2011 W L 552609 a * ,s e al o Tia A ta M f l v.Sik, o. 2, t 6. e s t n l s g. nc. s N 111c 01 2011W L 36651 a *1 ( . Va Aug. 2011 ( i t tknmoden : v00 2, 22, t 7 W D. . 22, ) notng ha û i r ltga i doc e a y e de ei r adiy r pr duc d a ta pore fom onedititt ii ton, um ntr vi nc s e l e o e nd r ns td r src o a her' nd fndi de enda sf ie t de onsr t t t rdoc l e a yevi ncewou d be not 'a i ng f nt al d o m tae hat hei tm ntr de l s vol no ast ce t agea bur nont m) Acc di y,hi fcordoe no sr y o umi us o rae r t de he . or ngl t s a t s t tongl w e gh i f vorofta f r i t c e t t N orher Di ti tofG e gi . i n a r ns e r ng he as o he t n src or a IL I W ine s Conv e e andA cc s t s eni nc es The t r f c or w ines c hid a t , t s onve e e a a c s i t pr m a y f usofN SRC ' m o i ni nc nd c es , s he i r oc S ton t ta f rve o r ns e nue.Co t ha r c ni e t tt sf c ori d c i r bl i urs ve e og z d ha hi a t s t onsde a e mpora e'i t of tnc ' n he ta fra l i.Sa uncElc Co.Lt v. mbus I , F.Supp. 7 718( D. rnse nayss ms e s. . d. Ra . nc.386 2d 08, E. Va. 2005) Asage rlmatr howe r (aditnci i drwnbet e palya non- t . nea te , ve ,t si ton s a we n ' nd pary t winese .'1 dûcl t haverpe tdl e t s s' d. Cg ours e ae y mpha i dt ti c i rngwhehe t ta fra sze ha n onsdei t r o rnse ca eunde 28U. C.j1 a,t i onve e et apat wines i notafo de t sme s r S. 404() he nc ninc o ry t s s fr d he a w ei ast i onveni nc t non- r y w ine s .' Be on W i e es Sol i ns I v. ght he nc e eo pa t t s es '' ac r l s uto . nc. Gami l '.l ,No.5:1 v25, 1W L 47 r n ntl nc. 1 c 201 37404,a +5( . Va. t 5,2011 (uoi t W D. Oc. ) q tng U SA La pl .v.Bi Engi e ed Suppl e s& N utii l ,N o.1: bs nc o- ne r em nt rton. nc. 09CV 47,2009 W L 1 67, *4( D.Va Ma 4, ).W hiepat winesesar prs dt bemor wilng 2278 at E. . y 2009) l ry t s e e ume o e li t t t f i a difer f m ,t e i no such pr um pton f non- 'y w iness Sam s o es iy n f ent onl her s es i or pat t t es. ung, 6 3 6F. u p. da 71 . r o e,sl epat a s rigwi e sic n n e c h st eb r e t 8 S p 2 t 8 Mo e v r tth ry set g n t s n o ve in e a h u d n o n pr f ,by a fda to o he wi e s fc e de a l r pe tng t w ine s s a t rpo e i l ofer f i vi r t r s , uf i i nt t is es c i he t s e nd hei t nta t tm ony t e bl t co tt as e st m a e i iy ofe de e and t de e of esi o na e he ur o s s he t ralt vi nc he gr e i nve e '' c W ieesSol ins I .2011W L 47 404,a *5( i Kohv. nco nince.'Bea on rls uto .nc, 37 t quotng Mir ekI '.l ,250F.Supp.2d627,636( D, .2003). cot ntl nc. E. Va ) l t s c e, SRC as e t t ta num be ofnon- ry w ines esr i e i G e gi a or n hi as N s r s ha r pa t t s es d n or a nd/ Al ma, aba hundr dsofmie a e l s way fo Vigi a,a t r f e ltgai t sca e i Vigi a r m r ni nd he e or ii tng hi s n r ni woul bei onve e f rt s i vi l.Asa a tchme t ism o i t dim is N SRC d nc nint o he e ndi dua s n ta nt o t ton o s s , s it d a afi vi f om Li S. ur e r r N SRC' Di ti tC l i Age ,whi h s a e ubm t e n f da t r nda K z nbe ge , S sr c a m nt c tt s t tt t o pot talw ines esna ed i M ic ls tr tc pl i a e l a e i A l ba a.l ha he w en i t s m n t hel' i s om a nt r oc t d n a m n a ton,Kur nbe ge s a est ta ot r wine s who m a ha be n pr e a t tm e of ddii ze r r t t ha ny he t s es y ve e es nt t he i M iche lsf l woul as bel atd i Al ba Howe r i he a tda t Kur e ge does t l' al d lo oc e n a ma. ve ,n r fi vi, z nber r noti ca e t ti w oul be exte e y di r i f rt non- ry wine s st ta t ndi t ha t d r m l s uptve o he pa t t s e o r vel o V i gi a, does s s at t tlt g tng i V igi a w o d pu N SRC ata di adva t be aus r ni nor he t e ha ii a i n r ni ul t s n age c e t s wines esa ebe he e t s r yond t s he ubpoe powe oft sc tN SRC hasnotfld a a tona na r hi our. ie ny ddii l a fda t fom ise oyee r r ng t rpo e ilt si o t i fi vis r t mpl s ega di hei t nta e tm ny,he nconve enc f t m i ni e or he f r quie t ta lt Vigi at t tf a t i wilng s t ta lt Vigi a a e a e r d o r ve o r ni o esiy, nd he r li ne s o r ve o r ni bs nt s ubpoe Se M uli v. na. e lns Enuia I o.Se v . LLC, o.3: f x nf r s, N 05CV 888,2006 W L 1 40 a *8 21 24, t ( D.Va Apr 28, )(i-l mo ngpat mus d monsrt whehe t twine si wilng E. . . 2006 k fhe vi ry t e l tae t r ha t s s li t ta e t af r inj rs it n.)(nen l uoainmak o te ) I isrpyb ifNS o r v l o o eg u idci ' itr a q tto r s mitd .n t e l re, RC o ' doe e es c e n a s xpr s onc r boutt c pul or pr es be a e t na e i vi l r i ou s de he om s y oc s c us he m d ndi dua s esde t i t di t i and m or t 100 m ies f om t pl oft i .How ever,Vm er y as i t a he s rct e han l r he ace ral û el sertng hat w ines lves out i t s t si s de he ubpoenapow eroft courti notenough t tp t scal i f he s o i he es n avorof ta f r' Rocki m Pr ca t l ,2011W L 55 092,a #4;s eM uli ,2006 W L 1 4024, r ns e .' ngha e s, nc. 26 t e lns 21 a *8(t eel sai t tpotnta wine s r i be t k r y ttng ha e il t ses esde yondaf m' s M onl s ubpoe powe doe na r s ltl t a s s t c ti w e ghi t c ite o s it he our n i ng he onve e e oft w ine s a t ne es iy of ni nc he t s nd he c s t co s ypr es.).Agan,iwlt e de et tt ewine s saeunwilngt tsiy mpulor oc s' i d ihout vi nc ha hes t s e r g li o etf vol t r l t sf t be m esl s i por a . Roc ng m Pr c t l . 2011 W L 5526092, un a iy, hi ac or co es m t nt' ' ki ha e as . nc , a #4.Alhough lvet tmony i t p e e r d m o ofp e e i e de ,vi t pe t t i esi s he r f re de r s ntng vi nce deo a d de ii ofen a e s fci nt M uli ,200 W L 1 40 a *8.isom e ha l s w e ghti postons t r uf i e . lns 6 21 24, t t w t es i s gi n t w ines i nve enc whe a pa t i una e t d ons r t w ih a pa tcul r t t t ve o t s nco ni e n r y s bl o em t a e t ny ri a iy ha vi t ped de ii n t si deo a posto e tmony wilbe i de t ,a t tlvet tmony i c ii a . 1 I t s l na qua e nd ha i esi s rtc l' d. n hi ' c e N SRC doe nota guewhyde ii woul be i de t M or ove , ic l whos as , s r postons d na qua e. e r M t hel, e wines e m a bel t i Alba aa orGe gi c e t thewillkey r y on t s s y ocaed n a m nd/ or a, onc des ha l i l el s bmitngi t roga orest N SRC a tki de ii i or rt s u ti n e r t i o nd a ng postons n de o uppor hi c s . t s ae U po r vi w oft c r ntr c d, he co ti una e t c l t tN SRC hasm a a n e e he ur e e or t ur s bl o onc ude ha de s fc e s i i t s r ga d.Kur nbe g r safi vi doesnotc pelt c l i n t t uf i i nt how ng n hi e r ze r e ' fda t om he onc us o ha t non- ry wine s ,a1 ofwho M ic li n ii a hi o wines e ,wo d be he pa t t s es l m t hel de tted s s wn t s s ul c ompl t l unwilng t ta lt Vigi at tsiyabs ntas poe I t a t a fda t e ey li o r ve o r ni o e tf e ub na. ns e d, he fi vi me el sa e whe eM ic l' non- rywine s a elke y l a e a no hi a r y tt s r the ls pa t t s es r i l oc t d nd t ng bouthow t a i t V i gi a w oul i onve e e t e i vi sort i unw ilngnes t ta lt r velng o r ni d nc ni nc hos ndi dual he r li s o r ve o V i gi a a e a s r ni bs nt ubpoe . l o N SR C o f r d no e de e t ti w oul be a a diadva age na A s , fe e vi nc ha t d t s nt ba e on t l a i ofisnon- r y wine s , t i nveni nce f t e w ine s t sd he oc ton t pa t t s es and he nco e or hos t s es o tave t Vigi a I f c , SRC di note n i ntf a ot rnon- ry wines esbesdest r l o r ni . n a t N d ve de iy ny he pa t t s i he onest tM ic l i ntf e The f t i t s c s a e i si s bl f o M uli ,whe e t ha t he l de ii d. ac s n hi a e r ndi tngui ha e r m lns r he courtf ound t t def hat he endantonl provi a ls ofpot i w iness i i i by t y ded it ental t es dentfed he 8 pl i if a t wines e 'l a i ou sdeoft ditit a t f ie t m e tisbur n of antf, nd he t s s oc tons t i he src , nd hus a ld o e t de showi i ng nconveni ence t t non- t w iness 2006 W L 1214024,at*8. o he pary t es. Thi co tr c ni est tlt g tng i V igi a wili r s t cos a e s ur e og z ha ii a i n r ni l nc ea e he t nd xpens of e s c i w ines t tm ony f N SRC,a e M ic la w e l How e r a t s sa i t e ur ng t s es i or nd ven t hel s l. ve , t hi t ge n he pr e ngs i a a st tt a f ng t ca e w o d m e el s f t bur n t M ic l,who oce di , t ppe r ha r ns eni he s ul r y hi t he de o t he l i lkeyt ke wine s Se i a *8(kll soflvet tmonyofls c nta wine s i not s i l he y t s . e d. t igwos i esi e s e rl t ses s s gra aprcef honorngpli ifschoie. Ac r ngl t c t ncudest tt s o e t i or i antf c ' co di y,he our co l ha hi ). f c ordoe notsr l wei i f voroftans e r ng t c e t t N orher D it i tof at s tong y gh n a r f r i he as o he t n s rc G e gi or a. I trs o u tc n e et fl sie Th fn lfco i t eta se a ay i i tei tr s o j sie wh c i nc mp se e i a a tr n h rn fr n l ss s h ne et f u tc , ih s o a s s e publci e e tf t sam e a s tm ai i e iy a f r s . Bve s v.Eguia l o. i nt r s acor i d t yse tc nt grt nd aine s' r on ' f x nf Sevs.LLC, 7F.Su 2d6 6 ( D. .2006)(ntr cttona quottonmaks r . 46 pp. 27, 35 E, Va i enal iai nd ai r omitd) Reeva consdeai i l t cou tsfmiirt wiht a ia elw,doc t te . l nt i rtons ncude:he r' a laiy t he pplc bl a ke c to ,a e st pr m ie t tm i ha t beviwe t pos i lt ofa unf i ti ,t ondii ns cc s o e s s ha ght ve o e d,he sbiiy n ar ral he a lt t j nohe pa tes t posi lt ofha a s nt t pe nc ofar ltda to a biiy o oi t r ri ,he sbiiy r sme ,he nde y eae cin, nd t i e e ti ha ng l lco r ve s e de i d a hom e.Hei K e te ,750 F. he nt r s n vi oca nt o r i s c de t nz tl r Supp.2d a 670; t Bd.ofTr tesv.Bayl He tnc& Ai Condii nu.l .702F.Supp.1 1 ( D.Va. use or ai r toni nc, 253, 260 E. 1 . 988) l t i c s , ic el r ue t th itr s o j siewo l b sr e b ltg t t i n h s a e M th la g s ha te nee t f u tc u d e e v d y i ai hs i ng ca e i V i gi a.Fis , c e t tt l a i e es f t N orhe n Di t i tofG e gi i s n r ni r t he ont nds ha he oc l nt r t or he t r sr c or a s l .Second,M ichel s a est t i no conflctofl i uesbecause t s t i l ow t l t t hat here s i aw ss he ubs antve aw her i f e s ederall .M ichel doesnotr s any oft ot f or as l ng agai tt ansf aw t l aie he her act s eani ns r ening t c e.l ism o i t ta f rve he as n t ton o r ns e nue, NSRC doesnotdie ty a es t sf c or buti t a r cl ddr s hi a t , nse d f us s isa gtm en i f voroft a f r i t c e be us oft i onve e e ofno pary oc e t r l t n a r ns e rng he as ca e he nc ni nc n- t wines e . e ng t r c d i t lghtmos f vor bl t M ic l, hi diput i vesa t s s Vi wi he e or n he i t a a e o thel t s s e nvol Vignar sd n a d as b iir o aVign ac r o ain Th r f r,ç q i i n t c s i r i i e i e t n u sday f r ii o p rto . ee o e iths s o a a e n g whih t cii e oft W eser Diti tofVigi aw o dbebur ne wih ac r ve s t t c he tz ns he t n src r ni ul de d t onto ry ha bea s no r l ton t t di t i t' Roc naha Pr a k l ,2011 W L 55 r e a i o he s rc . ' ki m ec s nc. 26092,a *8;s a s t ee l o HenzKete,750F.Supp.a 670(mphaszngt ti r ni hasa i ees i pr di a i tlr t e ii ha t gi a vi n ntr t n ovi ng f m frisrsde st ltg t t rdipues'. r Vigi aha a i ees i p o di a onz o t e i nt o iiae hei s t ' Hee, r ni s n ntr t n r vi ng ) f um f ris r s de st ltga e di put s a i ts i are ofV igi a c or tons or o t e i nt o ii t s e ga ns ubsdi i s r ni om a i . Ac o d n l,heitr s o j tc fco d e n tsr n l weg i fvo o ta serngt i c r i gy t ne et f usie a t r o s o to gy ih n a r f rn fri hs c et t N or he n D it i tofG e gi as o he t r s rc or a. C onc us on l i Fort r a onssa e above t co tc l st tNSRC ha notme ishea bur n he e s tt d , he ur oncude ha s tt vy de ofpr ngt tt sc e s d beta f re t t Norhe n DititofGe gi M ic l' ovi ha hi as houl r ns e r d o he t r src or a. t he ls c c off tm ashi hom ef um i e ild t s t nta we g a N SRC hasnot hoi e orl s or s ntte o ubsa i l i ht nd de onsr t t tt ot rf c or tp t s al de i dl i isf vor Ass h, SRC' moton m taed ha he he a t s i he c es cde y n t a . uc N S i t t a f rve i de ed.The Cl r i die t t s nd c r ii d c pi s oft s m e o a um o r ns e nue s ni e k s r c ed o e e tfe o e hi m r nd opi on a t ac om pa ng or rt a 1c ns ofr c d. ni nd he c nyi de o l ou el e or ENTER:Th s ? N d yo Se tmbe, 2015. i a f pe r Chi fU nied St t sD i ti tJ e t a e s r c udge 10

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