Aviva Ltd. v. Carter Machinery Co., Inc.

Filing 30

MEMORANDUM OPINION. Signed by Judge Norman K. Moon on May 31, 2012. (sfc)

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eLERK' oFFg u,.51 coue . cc : st . ATk , ,. YNcHnuRq V A . .,. . .. ., I THE UNI STATESD I TRI C OURT N TED S CT FoR THE W ESTERN D I CT OF V I NI STRI RGI A LYNCHBURG Dl s oN vl l FI LED . MA 3 l2 1 t 22 JULt .' ). 'C RK t :out' 1 > * % : BY j ; DEPUW MLR EK . Cl LA CTI N O. 11 cvvl ON 6: - 00030 AVI LTD. VA, , Pl n;f ait f V. M EM OM NDUM OPN ON CARTER M ACHI NERY CO. I , , NC. M Dee d n. JUDGE N ORM AN K . OON fn a t Plitf Avv Lt i te s l o ro t eM I Chaa e (lo t ç h rd ' a 1 3' an if ia d. s h oe wne f h Y rd as he f aa e), 5 m ot ya htr git r d i t Ca n Il nds De e ntCa tr M a hi r i e ge i t or c e se e n he yma sa . f nda re c ne y s nga d n he bus ne s ofr paii m a nt i ng,a ove ha i m a i engi s a i l at d i Lync i s e rng, i a ni nd r ulng r ne ne , nd s oc e n hbur g. The c pl i ,ale ng br a h of c r c a ne i nc i a a ialy a m a ii e cl i om a nt l gi ec ont a t nd glge e, s n dm r t nd r tm am wi n t me nng o Ru e 9h o t Fe ea Rue o Cii o e u e a d i wihn t i t he a i f l () f he d rl ls f v lPr c d r n s t i hs hi c u tsa miat j rs ito p s a tt 28U. C. 1 3 . o r' d rly u idcin uru n o S. j 3 3 Def nda tl d a m oton t di m i s t ne i nce co ,on t gr und t t Pl i if s e nt i e i o s s he glge unt he o ha a ntf ale d e onom i l s s a e notr ove a e i t tbe us t ove ha e e ne t ha a e t l ge c c os e r ec r bl n or ca e he r ul d ngi s t t r he t s b e to panifsd ma edam' aeEh o j c o te c n rc, a tusPlitf c n s e u j c f li tf' a g i ' r t e b e t f h o ta t' nd h t ' an if a u onl f r br a h ofc r c . Them oton ha be n f lybref d a he r a i rpef de ii y o ec ont a t i s e ul i e nd a d nd s i or cson. Be us Pl i if has ale ca e a ntf l ged da a t t Cha a is f e iel a r f om t a l ge m ge o he r de t el, ntr y pa t r he le d da a t t ove haul e nes t m oton w ilbe de e . m ge o he r ed ngi , he i l ni d On Se e be 3,2008,Pli ifwied $1 000. t De e nt acceptng D ef ndants ptm r antf r 5, 00 o f nda , i e ' ofe ofAugus 28,2008, o c fr t t onduc a i hul ove ha oft Ca e pilr3304 Ge Se e i s t n n- l r ul wo t r la n t ng ne on t Cha a . Pli if al ge t t i e e e i o t s c r c ba e on De e nts he r de a ntf le s ha t nt r d nt hi onta t s d f nda ' r pr s nttonst ti wa f l quaii d and c pe e t pr ry r buid t Cha a s t e e e ai ha t s uly lfe om t nt o ope l e l he r de' wo ge r t r ,but t t De e nt tf ie t pe f r t wor i a worc nlke m a r'a ne a o s ha f nda tal d o ro m he k n lma i nne ' nd, td u t ful wo k ns i o t pa t fd fnd n ,hepo4a sabo r g n rt r o MI t l e o a t r ma h p n he r o ee a t t l nd tr ad e eao s f Y l y Cha a w e e da a d a ha ha a o ot rde e t a con i ng ove - ons pton ofoi r de r m ge nd ve d, m ng he f c s, tnui r c um i 1 Pr bl m o e ' ' Purua t Fed.R.Ci P. 1 b)6 , Defnda mo s t dimis Co t l,whih s nt o v. 2( ( )1 e nt ve o s s un 1 c ale ne i enc Cii Eas RierS. Co p.P Tr s lges glg e. tng t v S. r : an amerc Del al I . 476 U . 858, ia av , nc , S. 8 -2 (98 ) De e d n c ne dsta tth r i n t tr me y i maii lw f rp r l 717 1 6 , fn a t o tn h t t j ee s o or e d n rtme a o u ey l glge ror nc onta t or of sonal s r i e e vc s econom i l s sem m i fom ne i nt pe f m a e of a c r c f pr es i c os t ng r wher t es r i sa er l t d t t r parofave s .'l Defnda ' viw,t hef c ne s e hos e vce r e a e o he e i s el' n e nts e t our or r t oft Ame ed Compl ntm a cla t t i CountI,pl ntf i a t i t r cove pur l he nd ai kes e r ha , n 1 ai if s temptng o e r ey e nom i l s sse i fom Ca tr sa lge neglge pe f m a e oft r parc nta t' co c os e t mm ng r re ' le d i nt ror nc he e i o r c .' Plitf c u tr t a Co nt 1o t ec mp an t le e fv ( )dfee tn g ie ta t an if o n es h t u 1 f h o lit t lg s ie 5 ifr n e lg n cs a 1W he consderng am otont dim isf f l e t sa eacl m upon w hi r i can begr nt lappl n i i i o s s or aiur o tt ai ch elef a ed, y tepla i sa dadr fn dbyBel l i v Two y, 0U. 5 ( 7) a dAs c otv I ba , 56 h e dng tn r e ie lAt c . mbl 55 S. 44 200 , n h r. . q l 5 ant f U. 6 ,1 9S. .1 ( 09 .Se aloFe R. v. 1 b)6) Fe R. v. 8.Plitfsmus al g S. 62 2 Ct 937 20 ) e s d. Ci P. 2( ( , d. Ci P. anif tle e f ct t tsat a cl m t r left i pl bl on isf ' ie,f st çhavenudge t rcl m sa os a s hat çt e ai o e i hat s ausi e t ace,' .. act hat ç d hei ai cr s t lne fom concei c t plusi e.' Twom bl 550 U . at570. A c am i pl i e i t com pl nt he i r vabl o a bl ' y, S. l i s ausbl f he ai cont i lf ualcont t alow st cour t dr t r as ans çact ent hat l he t o aw he e onabl i er e t t def nda i labl e nf cnc hat he e nt s i e f t m i onduct alege ' and i t e i ç or t a s er pos i lt t a def ndant has a ed or he sc l d,' f her s ç e han m he s biiy hat e ct unlw f l ' I a uly.' qbal 556 U . a , S. t ,129 S.Ct a 1949. The f l i l hel r e silsands çl .t olow ng ong- d ul tl t : çn e lai aRue 1 b)6)moin t ds s,ac r a c pt a1welpldf csa tuea c nsr st s vau tng l 2( ( to o imis ou t c e s 1 l- e a t s r nd o tue he e f t i t lghtm os f abl t t pl ntf i w eghi t l ac s n he i t avor e o he ai if n i ng he egals fci y oft c pl nt' N e et uf i enc he om ai .' m Che r ltLt v Co s me af r.o I c, 1F. 25 25 ( t Ci. 09)( iainso te . v oe, d. . n u rfaisc m, n .59 3d 0, 5 4h r 20 ctto mi d) t whih we e t die t a pr m ae ca e of da a t Pli if' pr pe t ' I Pl ntf ' c r he r c nd oxi t us m ge o antf s o ry.' n ai ifs z vi w , G t Ri e i i pplca e t t c s a ba be us i does not add e s neg i nt e G Eas v r s na i bl o he a e t r ca e t rs lge pe f r a e ofs r c s r l t d t t r pa r ofa ve s .' r o m nc e vi e e a e o he e i s el' As Pl i ifpoi s out i Ea Ri e t pe ii r s a ntf nt , n st v r he ttone s oughtt hol t r ponde s rc l o d he es nt t i ty la e f r de i de e s i t hi pr s ur t r ne r ponde de i i bl o sgn f ct n he gh- e s e u bi s es nt sgned,m a a u e and nuf ct r d, i t l d. 47 U . a 859,8 . The Su e e Cour r c ze a ge r lt r of labiiy f r ns ale 6 S. t 61 pr m t e ogni d ne a heo y i lt e neg i nc i a ia t l , but s lge e n dm r ly aw ought t de er i whe he a ialy al o t nc po a es o t m ne t r dm r t s t or r t i prnc pl of pr i i es oduc s labii i udi s r c la lt ' 1 a 8 (mp a i a d d . The t i lt ncl ng ti t i biiy.' d. t 65 e h ss d e ) y, Co t l t t d t rsa e i ne i nceorsrctla lt nopr ur hed ha, t he tt d n glge whe ti i biiy, oducs labii c am le i t-i lt l i is n y 2Par gr ph 31 oft a ended com pl ntsat t idef a a he m ai t es hat ç endanthad t dut t us r onabl c e a he y o e eas e ar nd conductt wor i accor he k n dancewih gener l acce edpr tces'and Par aph 32 sat t t aly pt ac i y' agr t es hat Ej o c h u a r p i wo k pe fr d b dee a twa c duce ne ie ty a the v r a l nd e ar r ro me y fnd n s on td glg n l s f l s: olow ()pat weeno a s mblda c r i t s e iiai i patc a ,h i etwa a rs r t se e c o dng o p cfc ton,n riulr te ns r s l tt hi r uli i a i pr ry s i cylnderhea gas t and t pi on lne ef oo gh es tng n n m ope l ealng i d ke , he st i r pr r i dif encese otuson fer xceeded alow ed t e ancesperm a act ers fcai ; l olr nuf ur pecii tons ( ma hiewo kwa i o rypef r do c ntrb e, ndc une bo ewa b) c n r s mpr pel rome n ou e or a o tr r s cl ned by m ea ofs ng padson a dyegrnde ; ea ns andi i r ( )gflt e i wa n ds nte p irt und ra i t wo kalwi c s b -c he ngne s ot ima ld ro o e tkng he r lo ng at ç io fln t fl bewe nt j u na a dbe rngs ra e r n iigs o al t e he o r l n ai u f c ; ()q lt c tol sn manti ds hta wa t c s io flng weealwe c uaiy onr wa ot i ane uc h t se a tr n ii s r lo d t contm i et parsand m art s f s'and o a nat he t he urace , ( t e i wa n ce n dpr ryatrterpar d) he ngne s ot la e opel fe h e i. Paa rp 33sae t tçthi n gie c wa tedie ta dpoxmaec us o d ma e t pli ifs rg a h tts ha <l s e l n e s h rc n r i t a e f a g s o antf g g p o et, a paa rph 3 sae ta,çb yr a o oftea o , antf h sb e da g d i te s o r p ry' nd rg a 4 tts h t ç l e s n h b ve pli if a e n ma e n h um f ' g $195, nopa tofwhi ha beenpai at 023, r ch s d lhough dul de a y m nded.' ' Paa rp 9o tec mpli sae ta,toj S ptmbe 2 2 8 d fn nt e a (he e gn o eh u rg a h f h o ant tts h tt n e e r , 00 , e e da b g n t l n ie v r a l l wor .. .but f l t per or t wor i a wor anlke m a r A 1 ove haul pa t w e e i ale by k aied o f m he k n km i nne . l r ed rs r nst ld def endant Fr t tm et over . om he i he haulw a c pl ea t s pw a putba i se vi ,i w a clart tdef t s om et nd he hi s ck n r ce t s e ha ecs e sed. xit ' ' a miat whe t e o y ij r came i e o o cl s. d a 8 6 (mp a i a de ) Th d r ly n h nl n u y li d s c n mi o s' . t 7 e h ss d d . e '1 Cou tnot t e do notr c t i s w he he a ca e ofa t o c n e r be s a e i a ialy r ed, t W ea h he s ue t r us c i n a ve t t d n dm r t w he t o y da a s n he nl m ges oughtar e no i ' 1 a 871 n.6. e co m c. d. t ' Pl i if m a nt i t t i E a ntf i a ns ha t t does not c e t def nda neglge l des g d o ont nd hat e nt i nty i ne r m a a t r a pr nuf c u ed ny oduct'a t ,be a e i t snota s ri a pr ' nd hat c us t t i s e tng oduc s la lt cl m ,'t t-ibiiy ai ' he i t ntm a t rE sc e ry di tngu s bl f om Ea tRi n' ns a te t l a l s i i ha e r i s ve ' I r pons ,Defnda poi s o t t i Eas Ri r t Supr m e Cour sa e t tta n es e e nt nt ut ha, n t ve , he e t tt d ha $ m a a ur r i a co m e c a r a i hi has no d y unde e t r a neglge nuf ct e n m r i l el tons p ut r ihe i nce or s rc ti t p o ucsl b l yt e l t p e e tap o uc fo ij rn is l. 1 a 8 . Dee d n a d , r d t i ii h oy o rv n r d t r m n u ig tef' d. t 71 fn a t d s a t ' t so wh r a p o uc,ie,o j c ofa c n rc,c u e d ma e o y t is l,a a g iv d d l , ee r d t .. b e t l o ta t a s s a g s nl o tef n g re e pa t s ul us br a h of conta t a w a r nt a i . Cii Eas Ri er 476 U . a 8 ry ho d e e c r c nd r a y ctons' tng ' t v , S. t 72. Dee d n sae ta,tint ec s a ba,h o jc o tec nr c wa t r p i o g n rtr fn a t tts h t < j h a e t r te be t f h o ta t s he e ar f e eao s g a di i to eg n r tr t a aet es be t fp anifsd ma ecam . n t s h s e eao s h t r h u jc o litf' a g li ' ' I I. ça j e a pr d t t j e is l be a s o o i c mp n n p rs i d fcie a çW h n l o uc i urs tef c u e ne f t o o e t a t s ee t , n s v plr l ec m i l s r s t t t owne f w hi h no a ton i t tw ille ' Se se e r v ze y ono c os e uls o he r or c c i n or l i .' n nbr nne . Ru t Orig & Ne l,Ar h tcs I c,2 6Va 41 4 4 ( 98 )(ii Ea tRie ,4 6U. a s, ln ae c ie t, n . 3 . 9, 2 1 8 ct ng s v r 7 S. t 8 9 8 4. tf e e o o c l sd crn s r e a abai' f rdsi us ngbewe n dams 6 , 71) t h c n mi os o tie e v s s ss' o it ihi t e i ng s undi i t tand t e s o ng n or hos oundi i c r ct Pr nc s Cr s s I v Ge r El t i Co. ng n onta . i e s ui e , nc. . ne al ec r c , 9 0 F. u p.1 1 1 6 ( D. .1 6 , e W o o h rgr u d ,1 3 F.d 8 ( t Ci.1 9 ) 5 S p 5 , 5 E. Va 99 ) r v n t e o n s 4 3 28 4h r 9 8 ; s ealoMaeskLi Lt v Car ,271F.Supp. 81 823( D. 2003) e s r ne d. . e 2d 8, E. Va. . Tor l w i not de i d ...t c pe a e pa te f l s s s f r d a a r s t ta s s gne o om ns t ri s or os e uf e e s e ul of a br a h of dutes a s ec i s umed onl by a e m e . Tha t of c y gr e nt t ype ompe ai n ns to ne e s t t s a a l i of t da a s whi h w e e w ihi t co e pl t o of c s ia e n na ys s he m ge c r t n he nt m a i n t pa te w he f a i t i a e m e . I r m ai t pari ul r pr vi e of he ri s n r m ng he r gr e nt t e ns he tc a o nc t l w ofc r c s he a ont a t . Se e e , Va.a 425( t i omitd) ns nbrnner 236 t ciaton te . l a pl ntf doe not a l ge a br a h of a dut out i t t i pos d by t c r t f ai if s le ec ny y s de ha m e he ontac , n rd ma et a p o e t o a ohe ij r oh rt a d ma et t o j c o t ec nr c, o a g o ny r p ry r ny t r nu y te h n a g o he b e t f h o ta t t n t pli ifmus çsek r ovey unde t c nta t Any ot r r ul ( d)f rhe he he antf t te ec r r he o rc. he es t woul u t r diut qt r eofcontac lw i olrlgals tm. M ae s ,271F.Supp.2d a 823,s ealo l el he ol r t a n z e yse ' ' rk t .e s Nat e Shi n I v Ge al e .Co.I ,932 F. 366,368( t Ci.1 )( aitf' hanil ppig, nc. . ner Elc , nc. 2d 5h r 991 pl nifs rg t ao ei c n rc,h n n g ie c cam) ih s r s n o ta tt us o e lg n e li . I ti c s ,t e Ch rd i no alg d t h v <ij r l) is l b c us o e o is n hs a e h aa e s t l e o a e ç nu ed tef e a e n f t e s c ompo ntpa t ( s defci ';rt r t Cha a is l i aleg t ha bee ha dby ne rs wa ) e tve' ahe, he r de tef s l ed o ve n nne D e e nt s def c i ha i of one ofis c pone pa t . Pl i i falege ha m s c us d by f nda ' e tve ndlng t om nt rs a ntf l s r a e br c s of dute not c em pl t d by t c r c ,pa tcul r y alegi ha m s done t t ea he is ont ae he ont a t ri a l l ng r o he Vchaa so rtons't t ma q'ofti a atnton fo t c pti a hi ce ' ç rde' peai , he û ndl' tme nd te i r m he a an nd s rw,' ' de t t et idla c l' fEh o rsus a d e j y n o t ey c t't eç u pl'o d d iin l h t n rn e'o s e wne ' e n no me t f h a h , h t p y' f t dto a h t ' s a oi . . . d t t ove c um pton' a l ge y c us d by D e e nt s ne i nc t r ve t l ue o he r ons i ' le dl a e f nda ' glge e, t a l o t r pa r s t s a de e nt s r que t' a t ç e i ie t f nda ' e s ,' nd he t docka ,el c r ca ,a s r c 'r uie td i ge e t i l nd e vi e' eq r d t ur ng r par. As I pr viusy obs r e Count 1 of t c ai t lge fve () difrnt e is' ' e o l e v d, 1 he ompl nt t e s i 5 fee al neg i nta t whih we e t diec a pr xi t c us of da a t Pli ifspr pe y ' lge c s c r he r t nd o ma e a e m ge o a ntf o r ' 3 a e bisa tc d t t c nd xhi t ta he o he ompli a e iil i op or t d by r e e i o t a nded ant nd xplcty nc ae efr nce nt he me c pl i doc e t da a s t t do no a a t ha bee t ihi t cont m pl ton of om a nt um nt he m ge ha t ppe r o ve n t t n he w e ai 3se n. 2,su e pra. tepate wh n fa n t era e n . S n e b e e ,2 6 Va a 42 ( i t n o te ) h ris e rmi g h i pe me t' e s n rnn r 3 . t 5 ct i mitd . ' ao The eda ge aes ii asf l s ma s r pecfed olows: ttrvelt Fl i at( e nts rqu tf rpar t ya o grda Defnda 'j e es or e is l t be ma ,'Sg oc el ( ( lcrca & ( al sr ce d i ( fnda 'j r par,' o de' tdj kag %1 eqe ti l dliy e vi urng Dee nts e is' t ad i o lolc t'tad ii n lma - o mo i rn c t'( l dto a ma ho rce nng t j dt na i os, t j d to a n h ur nt ig os ' a d iin l n- u la i l i 'l o c t'a tlj tonalc r ce ce ni t rmoves . os ' nd taddii onta td la ng o e oot' ' l s ,a conta y t Def nda ' as e to Pl i if s ne i nce c ai doe not s e n um nd rr o e nt s s r i n, a nt f ' glge lm s ek e o mi ls e frd ma et t eg neao st a weet eo j c oft erparc n rc; ah r c no c o s s o a g o h e rtr h t r h b e t h e i o ta t r te , Pl i if ha a l ge da a t t Cha a is l ,e iel a r f om t a l ged da a t t a ntf s le d m ge o he r de t e f ntr y pa t r he le m ge o he ove ha ed e nes Acc di y, Pl i if has s fci nty a l ged neg i nc t s v ve r ul ngi . or ngl a ntf uf i e l le lge e o ur i D e e nts m oton t dim i s c f nda ' i o s s ount1 oft a e 1 he m nded c pl i . om a nt 111 . Fort sae ras ,t moton ( ke no.21 t dimiscount1 oft ame d he ttd e ons he i doc t )o s s 1 he nde c pl i w ilbe de ed. An a o i t or ra o pa e t sm e o a om a nt l ni ppr pr a e de cc m ni s hi m r ndum o ni pi on. En e e t s31 tda ofM a 201 t r d hi s y y, 2. NO K .M OO UNI TED STA TES D I STRI J GE CT UD

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