Schultz v. Elsevier STM Incorporated et al
COMPLAINT. Filing fee received: $350.00, receipt number PHX 0970-5665322, filed by Marilou Schultz (submitted by Patricia Ferguson). (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit, # 2 Civil Cover Sheet)(REK)
A. Luisa Birchwood, An Expert Navajo Weaver
by Luisa Birchwood
Cover, @Pete Saloutos/CORBIS; p.3, @Carl & Ann Purcell/CORBIS; p.4-5, p.7, p.9, @Paul Conklin/
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23 45 6 7 8 I
10 985 12 11 1009 0B 07 06
Morilou Schultz is o Novojo weover. She knows oll
obout Novojo rugs ond blonkets, Thol's becouse she's
been oround lhem her whole life. Her mother wos o Novojo
weover. So wos her grondmother. Her greot-grondmother
wos, too. Even her greaÍ-greal-grandmoÍher wos o Novojo
weover! "Weoving hos olwoys been port of my life,"
Morilou become inspired to moke her own Novojo
weovings. She begon to do so while just o child. lbdoy she
is on experl weover. She weoves beoutiful Novojo blonkels
ond rugs, ond she leoches others how to weove. She corries
on the Novojo weoving trodition.
Morilou wos born in Sofford, Arizono, in lq5q. She grew
up in Leupp, Arizono, which is on the Novojo reservotion.
Morilou remembers being woken up once os o child by the
sounds of her mother weoving.
Morilou leorned to weove by woTching her mother.
Morilou become more ond more skllled over time. She wos
olreody weoving complete Novojo rugs when she wos in
elemenlory school. She wos even oble to sell the rugs to
eorn money. As she grew older, she continued to moke
ond sell weovings. This ollowed her to support herself.
Todoy Morilou's fomily weov¡ng trodition
continues. Her son weoves, os do her nieces
ond nephews. In foct, her niece Krystol
Schultz won on oword for her Novojo weoving.
"Novojo weoving hos olwoys been ond
conïinues fo be possed on ¡n my fomily,"
The Novojo hove been moking blonkets
for o long time. At first, the Novojo people
lived in Conodo. About 1,000 yeors ogo, o
group of Novojo seltled in the southwestern
oreo of whoï is now the United StoTes" They
The Pueblo people lived in thot region.
They knew how to weove ond moke cloth.
They used cotton ond grosses lo weove
blonkets. The Pueblo tought the Novojo how
to weove ond build looms. Looms ore simple
mochines used for weoving.
Severol hundred yeors loter, Sponish
people come ond brought sheep with them
from Spoin. The hoir thot grows on sheep
is colled wool. The Novojo leorned how to
weove blonkets from wool.
A student weaver
Getting the wool is the first step in moking o Novojo
blonket. The troditionol Novojo woy to do this wos to let the
wool grow on the sheep, The Novojo woiÌed until the wool
wos long ond thick. They hod to poy close oïtenTion to the
wool becouse sometimes it would become infested with
insects. Once lhe wool wos long, f hey would delicotely
sheor the sheep. To sheor meons "to cut off the wool."
Next, the Novojo cleoned the wool. First, they shook
it to remove ony lwigs, ond then it wos woshed. This
would get rid of most of the oil on lhe wool. Then lhe
Novojo would let the wool dry in the sun. This mode the
wool fluffy. Finolly, the wool wos "corded" to untongle it.
Cording is similor to combing.
Morilou usuolly buys yorn for her own weov¡ng.
Sometimes for speciol projects, though, she octuolly
storts with wool ond spins it into yorn, just like her
oncestors did. She spins the wool using o spindle. The
spindle is o stick thot hos o wooden circle on the end of
it. Morilou wrops some wool oround the spindle. Then
she rolls the circle on her leg, which stretches ond twisls
the wool into Thin slronds. Someïimes Morilou will spin
the yorn three or four times.
Next, Morilou dyes the yorn so lhot her blonket will
hove color. Like her Novojo oncestors, she moy use
noturol herbs, roofs, or vegetobles lo moke the dyes.
Her oncestors would grind up things such os gropes,
prickly peor coctus, or thistle, ond then odd woter to
form o dye. Then the yorn wos dipped into
dye. This bonded the color to The yorn.
The octuol weoving of the blonket tokes ploce on o
loom. Novojo weovers work on verlicol looms. This meons
Íhot the loom stonds upright, unlike horizontol looms,
which lie flot on the ground. To set up fhe Novojo loom, two
thin pieces of wood ore plonted into lhe ground oboul five
or six feeï oport. A thin bronch is then hung ocross the top.
The yorn is hung from This thin bronch so thot the blonket
hongs in front of the weover.
Morilou first hongs long pieces of yorn from the top
of Ìhe loom. These stretch oll the woy to the boltom of
the loom. She keeps odding the pieces of yorn until there
is yorn honging oll f he woy ocross the lop of the loom.
She then ottoches these pieces to the bottom port of the
loom to hold Them in ploce. These pieces of yorn thoT run
verticolly, or up ond down, ore colled the worp.
Morilou tokes out o thin piece of wood colled o bolten.
The botten is like o long ruler. She corefully posses the
botten through the worp yorn, She first posses it over one
piece of yorn, then under the next piece of yorn, then over
the following piece of yorn, ond so on.
Now the botten is in ploce. This ollows the weover to
poss yorn eosily through the worp threods. She tokes o
piece of The yorn ond begins
poss it through the worp
Threods. Becouse of the boften, the threod goes over one
Threod, underneoth the next, ond so on. These pieces of
threod thot poss through horizontolly, or side to side, ore
colled |he wefÍ. The botten creotes on opening in the worp
threods, ond the weff threods poss through this opening.
The weft threods, or yorn, give the blonket colors or
potterns. If the weover wonts block running horizontolly
ocross her blonkeï, she'll use block threod. She will run this
block weft threod through the worp threods ond lhen top it
down with o weoving fork. Becouse the work is so detoiled,
weovers often work in short intervols.
This is o newly-woven Novojo blonket. It hos been mode
look just like the eorly Novojo weovings. Most of the eorly
Novojo blonkets were striped. In foct, when young Novojo
women first leorned to weove, their first project wos usuolly
to moke o simple striped blonket.
The threods for these eorly blonkels were colored with
noTurol dyes, so they were noï very colorful. The blonkets
were usuolly white wifh block, brown, or groy stripes. In lhe
eorly I 800s, though, the Novojo begon to purchose clothing
or blonkets thot come from Spoin ond were mode of red
cloth. The Novojo unroveled the clothing or blonkeTs to get
red threod. Then they used the threod in their weovings.
As o resull, the Novojo weovings become more colorful,
This is colled o Chief Blonket. As the Novojo become
better weovers, they begon to moke Chief Blonkets. Chief
blonkets hove much thicker stripes. Most of them hove
wide white, block, ond red stripes. Loter Novojo weovers
begon to odd diomonds to their Chief Blonkets. Over the
yeors, the diomonds become lorger ond lorger.
They become known os "Chief Blonkets" becouse they
were often given to Notive Americon leoders, os well os to
Americon militory leoders. Mony people wonted
one of lhese beoutiful, but very expensive, blonkets.
Somelimes the Novojo weovers would cut o slil in the
center of o Chief Blonket. This mode the blonket more
flexible in its use becouse people could ploce their heods
through the hole ond weor the weoving like o poncho.
This type of Novojo weoving is colled on "Eye-Dezzler"
becouse il "dozzles the eye" with colors ond unique
potterns. The Novojo begon to moke blonkets like these in
the | 880s. It wos ot thot time thot the Novojo begon lo buy
wool from o mill in Pennsylvonio. This wool wos bright ond
colorful, so the Novojo weovers begon to moke blonkets
hot hod brilliont reds, blues, ond yellows in them. The
weovers olso storted to moke more complicoted poÌÎerns.
The Novojo sold mony of their weovings to troding
posls. In order to sell more of their weovings, the Novojo
begon to moke them thicker ond heovier. People bought
these heovier weovings ond used them os woll hongings
or rugs insteod of using them os blonkets.
Morilou is proud to help preserve the Novojo woy of
weoving. "The techniques I use ore the troditionol woys of
weoving Novojo rugs, ond this sets them oport from other
weoving Troditions," she soid.
Morilou disploys ond sells her weovings of the Heord
Museum Indion Foir ond Morket. This event is held eoch
yeor in Phoenix, Arizono. She hos won owords of the foir
for her weovings four times! She olso ollends the Sonto
Fe Indion Morket. Hundreds of ortists from mony different
Americon Indion groups come to this morket lo show their
works. Morilou hos shown her weovings there for over
"l weove becouse of my love of weoving ond lhe
chollenge of creoting unique weovings," Morilou once
soid. Given her fomily history, she will llkely weove for
mony more yeors. After oll, her grondmoïher wove until
she wos in her mid-90s!
'1. What does the author think about Navajo
2. How d¡d the traditional Navajo people get the
wool they needed for their weavings?
3. What is a word that means almost the same
thing as unique does on page 13?
4. What is one opinion stated in this story?
5. What are some details from this story that
interested you? Why?
Drqw ond Color o Chief Blqnkef Look back at some of
the blanket designs in this book. Draw an outline of a blanket.
Then design your own blanket in the Navajo style. Color it with
markers or colored pencils.
School-Home connection Tell a family member
about how the traditional Navajo people got the wool
for their weavings. Then have a discussion about why people
might want to preserve old traditions.
Word Count: 1,517 (1,529)
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