Johnston v. One America Productions, Inc. et al
Johnston v. One America Productions, Inc. et al
Doc. 7 Att. 4
Page 1 of 13
WORLD CHRISTIAN ENCYCLOPEDIA
A comparative study of churches and
religions in the modern world AD 1900- 2000
. EDITED BY
DAVID B. BARRETT
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 1982
Jackon Metropolitan Librar
;;t Cwiih' ;' s ail' ii;e' noun or adjective ref 06/20/2007 Christians of stil Case 2:07-cv-00042-WAP-EMB Document 7-5 organized in a particular diocese; the diocesan Fileders here to charismatic Page 2 (I) 13 within Pentecostal denominations, and (2)
church; sometimes called the local church. Partners in Mission. A scheme within the Anglican Communion whereby an autonomous church invites a number of sister churches or provinces to confer with it on discharging its mission in its own
partcular church. In Koman LaIllOIlC u ag" \" c.!;. in Vatican II documents), the universal church as
pasak, pasika (Shona and other African languages). Passover, Easter communion service in certain
or accredited church worker whose main work is Christian ministry but who is also engaged in part- time secular work for his livelihood; in contrast to spare- time or full- time
worker. A recognized
African indigenous churches , attracting scores of
mainline. non" those in Non-White indigenous pentecostal denominations. Pentccostl Apostolics. Pentecostals differing from other Pentecostals in stress on complex hierarchy of living apostles , propl:ets and other charismatic offcials. Global membership, including Non-White indigenous bodies: (1970) 77 denominations with 607 churches and 1, 192 900 adult members; total community (1970) 2 402 200 , (1980) 3, 719, 900
(1985) 4, 455,
Paschal communicants. Roman Catholic Easter communicants (qvJ; all who actually take communion at Easter over a 4-week period.
thousands of members. workers.
entecostal World Conference (PWC). The major Pentecostal world communion, mainly a . triennial conference (since 1947) with minimal continuity. Global constituency: (1980) 25, 155, 400 total community.
fession/ member bodies:
pascalisants (French). See Paschal communicants.
passver. Annual Jewish religious festival commemor-
Pentecostalism. A Christian confession or ecclesiasdistinctive teaching that all Christians should seek a post-conversion
tical tradition holding the
religious experience calIed the Baptism with the
the abilty to prophesy, practice divine healing,
symbolic uf Christ s atonement for sin. pastor. A clergyman , priest or minister
for the cure of souls.
ating deliverance from Egypt; for Christians
Holy Spirit , and that a Spirit- baptized believer may receive one or more of the superratural gifts known in the Early Church: instantaneous sanctification,
speak in tongues (glossolal a), or interpret tongues.
appearil issues serials;
pastoral centres. In Roman Catholic usage, parishes, quasi-parishes , mission stations and a few other categories. World totals (1976): 322 887 centres (200 116 parishes and quasi-parishes, 83 380 mission increase stations, 39, 391 other centres), being an
pastoral council. In Roman Catholic usage , a diocesan
from 297 046 in 1973.
Periphen with ab
an epis( does no
or a nation-wide,
religious and laity.
bishops , priests,
pasoral region. See apostolic region.
pastoral reorganization. An updating or modernizing
Roman Catholic Church in a country, in the interests of more realism ,. better pastoral cae , new urban situations , etc. pastoralia. The study of pastoral work in the church.
rearrangement of traditional jurisdictions in the
conferences. Protestant conferences for pastors and clergy in developing countries , held
tion , h: milIom
freuently , under sponsorship of World Vision. , patrch. The supreme bishop of an autocephalous church , especially Catholic or Orthodox.
of an exarch under a patriarch.
patrchal diocese. A diocese administered by a
patriarch. patriarchal exarchate (symbol PE). The jurisdiction
vicariate (symbol VP). A vicariate , usually
PENTECOSTALS. In the orante
witness individl personne and of! worker:
in another city, of one of the traditional patriarchates.
(praying) position (France),
or see of a patriarch. Global total: (1980) 31 trad-
Total (1975): 12 Roman Catholic. patriarchate. The offce , dignity, jurisdiction , province
itional Catholic (13) and Orthodox (18) patriarchates,
and over 100 more of
to a p
Pentecosta. FoJloweJs of Pentecostalism (qv), a
recent establishment and
unsupported historical claim. Patristics. Patrology (qv).
major world tradition. originating around 1900. Global membership in aJl Pentecostal and pentecostal denominations (including Non-White indigenous: (1970) 36
evange people Phanar.
patrology. The science or scientific study of the teach-
ings of the Fathers of the Church, defined as in the
West all Christian writers up to Gregory the Great
(died 604), and in the East to John Damascene
pexipublishers. In Jehovah' s Witneses ma mum number ' any given year. pedobaptist. Pedobaptist churches baptize children
' usage, the of publishers (qv) in action in
240 denominations, (1985) 58, 999, 900. Pentecstals: Onenes (Jesus only). Se OnenessPentecostals: 2-cis-experience. See Baptistic-Pentecostals. PentePentecstals: 3-crisis-expeence. See Holinesscostals. Pentectals: 4-crisisxperience. See PerfectionistPentecostals.
(1980) 51, 167, 200
causes logical phylum, physical tivenes measu: mortal
Christian familes becuse they
believe that in doing so they are faithful to the
aJl Pentecstal-charismatics. A blanket term forand Pentecostals , pentecstals, nea- pentectals ,
charismatics (qv). Global totals (1980): (a) active
teaching and practice of Christ and his apostles and of the Church from the earliest times; -they do not receive or give any second baptism, since baptism is by its very nature unrepeatable;they respect the convictions of fellow-Christians in the Baptist
traditions (baptizing adults only) and desire fellow-
regularly- involved persons, 62 200,
charismatics, over 100 milion worldwide. people. (I) A collection of persons who are linked by a common past or a common culture, or who have
persons professing or claiming to be Pentecostal-
00; (b) aJl
when comm Pietism ing in izede\ forma Pietists
ships and unity with them.
Pedobaptists. Christians in traditions that baptize infants. Global total: (1970) 1, 041, 265, 000 , (1980) 217, 519, 000 , (1985) 1, 311 851 000; i.e. 92% of
global church membership. Some 3. 3% of these are doubly-affliated, i.e. also members of non- Pedobaptist churches and traditions.
linguistic people (qv) or ethnolinguistic sub- family. people ditance. Cultural distance (qv). people group. A people (qv). people movement. A large-scale movement to Christ and into the church by a fair proportion of a people,
acting as a group and with a group decision. people s palace. In Salvation Army usage, a moder-
a common affnity for one another. (2) An ethno-
peetrtion. The extent of evangelization into a s culture and life, usually overcoming diffcultes or resistance or opposition. Pentecost. Christian festival on the 7th Sunday after Easter commemorating descent of the Holy Spirit;
called Pentecost by Roman Catholics, Whitsunday
ately-priced hotel in Australia, New Zeland or
by Anglicans and others. Pentecostal. With a capital '
, the noun or adjective
France. per capita. Per head, per person; usual1y used of some national attribute (GNP, etc) divided by the total population (men. women, children and infants). per capita income. See national income per person. percentage. A proportion in a hundred.
Case 2:07-cv-00042-WAP-EMB Document 7-5 Filed 06/20/2007 Page 3 of 13
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GEOFFREY WAINWRIGHT KAREN B. WESTERFIELD TUCKER Editors
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Page 5 of 13
Pentecostal and Charismatic Worship
The litugy of P ntecostal churches and charismatic communties is deeply indebted to the nieteenth-centu America Wesleyan Holiness tradition that focued on a second blessing" of sanctifyg grace upon believers. Because of Pentecostalism
origis in Holiess Christianty and its decades of cutual isolation , often but not always self-imposed, Pentecosta and charismatic worship for much of the twentieth centU remained relatively unaffected by the fudamentalist-modernist controversy that was formative for American Protestant liberals and evangelicals. Despite Pentecostasm s partial assimation into evangelicalsm since the 1970S and charismatic Chrstiarty s partal assimation into the Protestant and Catholic maistream since the 1960s, the tradition has remaied a vita thd force in America spirtuality, and an explosive force in Chrstian spirtuality thoughout the world.
The Pentecosta Movement
Pentecostals have usually narrated their revival as in Midwestern Holiness cicles at the of the twentieth centu though the career of Charles Fox Parham and matug at WiliamJ. Seymour s revival meetigs at the Azsa Street Mission in
Los Angeles in 1906. However, since the 1950S revisionist histories have suggested an
older history reaching back into the
nieteenth century. At any rate, it was at the
Apostolic Faith Mission in Los Angeles that the movement gaied the sythesis of featues that contiues to characterize it: "restorationism , revivalism, divie healing, sanctified holy living or a ' higher life,' and mienarianism '" The movement drew substatially from both black and white lower- class American church traditions, though racism , cultual inerta, and "upward mobilty" have often kept Pentecostal denominations ethcally segregated. Whe its most famous practice has been glossolalia or "speaking in tongues," in fact glossolalia predates the Pentecostal revival (e.g. , in some nieteenth-centu Wesleyan Holiess circles), and Pentecostalism has many distictive featues beyond ths one. These are rooted in various strands of Protestantism. Pentecostasm reproduces specific Wesleyan convictions regarding Jesus Christ as savior, healer, baptizer with the Holy Spirit, and coming kig, as well as the Wesleyan Holiess movement's vocabulary of baptism in the Holy Spirit and its dual focus on cleansing and power
Page 6 of 13
Pentecostal and Charismatic Worship 575
two effects of the Spirit s work following justification and regeneration. Pentecostalism also draws on Refonned and Keswick convictions about atonement and sanctification
Spirit it invites, and contiued dependence on Christ for moral power); Pietist practices of prayer and faith-healing, restorationist primitivism , and Dispensational eschatology, as well as the black-church practices of its Azusa Street origis. However , even if the individual featues of Pentecostal spirituality are precedented , its
chroniclers contend that the combination is new.
(the latter emphasizig the strengtenig of surrender to God , the fillg
More recent historical contiuities notwthstadig, in Pentecostal remembrance the decisive historical influence has been the origial apostolic church , particuarly as depicted in the book of Acts. From their Pentecostals have idealzed and imitated the Early Church as " Christ-centered , Spirt-domiated , and Word- based. The movement took its name from a widespread conviction that its founding experience was an eschatological restoration of the presence of the Spirit of the original apostolic church that was increasingly lost in later centues. Its signs and wonders and distictive litugical fonns reflect that conviction. The charsm of tongues is promi-
nent in the movement not as an end in itself but as evidence of the baptism in the Holy Spirit promised in Peter s Pentecost sennon (Acts 2:38) and subsequently delivered to the ends of the eart (Acts 8:17, 10:4-45, 19:6).
At fist Pentecostas fonned strong sectarian communties , not least because of ostratices crossed over into other communties and adapted to practically every Chrstian litugical tradition. This history is conventionaly dated to 1960, when Denns Bennett an Episcopal rector , announced his " baptism in the Holy Spirit " to his Los Angeles
subsequent trauma made national headlies.
cism , although some , such as Foursquare Pentecostals , were ecuenically friendly. In the later charismatic revival (sometimes called the " second wave ) Pentecosta prac-
congregation. The church' s
In infiltrating non-Pentecostal communties , Pentecosta litugical practices have both transfonned and supplemented litugical forms. Many charismatics (not al) report greater appreciation not only for Pentecostal practices , but for the traditional
tical tiaditions that formed around it, but has been transfonnative for adherents of church catholic. Far from being merely an existential movement or modern revival of mysticism the charismatic renewal is a prophetic renewal movement 4 callng all Christians to a whole way of faith and order, life and work. Its forcefuess has generated poth division in local churches and
nearly every ecclesiastical tradition of the
stasy-as manfestations of the immanent Kigdom of God. Thus , while "litte distingushes Pentecostasm other than its spirituality, 3 the special quality of Pentecostal spirituality has not only been decisive for the ecclesias-
practices of their traditions. Charismatic movements have met with mied receptions the coolest from Southern Baptists and Missour Synod Lutherans , the wannest from nondenomiational independents. A recent and influ ntial movement in the trdition has found evidence of the Spirt's eschatological outpourg beyond Seymour s " baptism in the Holy Spirit with the necessar evidence of tongues. " The Vineyard Christian Fellowship, founded by John Wimber , represents ths " thrd wave " of Pentecosta spirituality, which focuses on signs and wonders " of divie power-healig, prophecy, mercy, exorcism , and ec-
Page 7 of 13
Oxford Hisory of Chriian
denomiations, especially early on, and
ecuenica convergence among long estranged
traditions and loc fellowships, especialy over
Pentecosta Liturgical Featues
The varety of Pentecostal
al but impossible
the tyical Pentewide, but many featues of its distict litugies are
spread across the trdition.
extemporaeous litugy featues midweek The daiy litugy is a tyical evangelica , and prayer and personal , Bible-centered devotional. The weeklyfamily evenig event healg, a prayer, fellowship, and accommodate all meetigs for Bible study, Sunday servces. In churches too large to servce may alo be morng one or more djstictive the traditional Sunday sparse. Chrstmas and Easter worshipers on Sunday morng, evenig. The anual litugy is Chrstian feasts and held Satuday or Sunday are taken seriously, civi holidays are observed casually, and otherStates, Halloween In the United
Protestat pattern of
A Pentecosta' s
as a harest festival if at all. fasts (includig Pentecost!) are usualy neglected. of its occut featues and celebrated increasingly strpped to death centers on conversion in both " from
litugy disticdy Pentecosta ways.
tyicay Wesleyan and
Sunday Corporate Worship
emphasizes the sovereign power other On the one hand, the whole servce Chrst in the Holy Spirt. On the presence, and personal mystical experience of 6 it recognzes the contiued power of hand , in par because of its premiennalm, Sata in parcuar, whom the worshiping church battes in healg-superGod' s defeated enemies, thus secues and celebrates the God effects in , and bodilyspirtual warare. Pentecosta worship social, psychological sense of Pentecosnatual and natual, spirtual, . Key biblical text for communcatig the of the Lord is, there is freedom, the present dispensati an 3: 17, "where the Spiri ta worship are 2 Cori for freedom Chrst has set us free. routized servces, they and Gaatians 5: have well- defied litugical forms and connotations of the word Whle Pentecostals ritualsm. " (Ideed, the ritualistic ceremony. ) By rituare suspicious of litugical " the equivalent word litugy" cause many Pentecostals to prefer litugical forms that"are alen to the spiri
alsm Pentecostals usually mean loyalty to
of Pentecostal worship, seem to operate independendy of personal faith, fal to supexperientati , prove inflexible to ces , resist creativity and port Pentecostal practi the worship event, promote congregational passivity,
or divorce the physical from the as thoroughly personal. It stresses of the Pentecostal liturgy is thoroughly social as well charismatic empowerig genfu congregational parcipation by the widespread among ethcities, the have charsmatics Holy Spirt, an empowering that break down boundaries whie Pentecostas and ders, social classes, and clergy and laity. Yet the early reputati was someties well pary because even authoritarian a reputati for disorder (and tyically exercise strong and encouragig condeserved), in fact church authorities maita communal order whie
pastoral and litugical leadership to
s role in noncharismatic rismata of all the worshiping faithfu. Wherein less happy cases, a soloist), in Penthe pastor conductor (and
trditions might be likened to a
. The charisma of leadership is
taen as seriously as the cha-
Page 8 of 13
Pentecostl and Chariatic Worship
tecostal and charmatic litugy it is closer to the leader of a jazz band. Whle men may dominate in political and litugical leadership, women have also been promient, especially in the movement's early days. In many Pentecostal polities all roles are formally open to women. Architectue vares widely, not least because Pentecostals have a strong conviction that a church is people rather than buildings and prioritize buiding budgets accordingly. Nevertheless Pentecostal architectue tends to appropriate from Reformed and Baptist styles. Congregations often avoid traditional churchly language (preferrg lobby" to "narex platfonn " and "stage" to "chancel"). Congregational attention focuses on a central lectern or pulpit, with the communon table in front or to one side , backed by a choir or praise band. The table may be removed durg weeks without the Lord's supper. Where space penrts there is often room between the pulpit and the fist rows of pews or seats for prayer and healg with respondents to altar calls. Iconography is sparse or absent, though a cross or Bible verse may be prominent. Dress and conduct can be sacral (ltugical robes), formal (dresses and business suits in the West), or casual. Yet verbal imagery and bodily movement suggest rich awareness of sacred space. Hands are often raised during times of praise, held when a congregation prays, and
laid on or extended toward the objects of prayer. Worshipers experience the
eschatological presence of God and God' s cloud of witnesses as the Spirit fues temporal and spatial horizons. God's presence transforms a pritive storefront church
sanctuary into the heavenly thone room into which the nations are gathered and from which prophets and apostles are sent to proclaim the good news. The Bible is formally and materially central as the livig voice of God and the congregation s caonical authority. Even in servces where biblical practice is less explicit, for instace where preachig is topical rather than expository, the Word norms the message. Likewise, where congregational prophesyg, tongues, words of knowledge , and wisdom are promient, all these thgs are tested with the canon that alone governs the unversal church. A tyical Pentecostal servce has thee phases: "worship, " sermon, and response. Servces begin with neither silence, a prelude, nor a processional, but with conversation among the congregation interrupted by the call to worship. In the first phase, a
per:s in cos1m,
supIe to vity,
genhave well arian concha:- .
Pentecosta Church. Worship at a Cambria Ilinois , Pentecostal church
PHOTOGRAHS DMSION LIBRAY OF CONGRES/
PHOTOGRAH BY LEE RUSSELL
Page 9 of 13
The Oxfrd Hisory of Christan Worship
worship leader " leads the congregation in an extended introductory time of -sing and participatory praise by introducing songs , invitig response , and leading in spontaneous prayer. Partcipants may rely on hymals , overheads , slides, or often memory alone. Though an outline is generally developed in advance , the leader adjusts the litugy to the demands and opportties of the moment. He or she may call attention to particular themes and lyrics , repeat stanzas and choruses , initiate unplaned song, pause for congregational prayer , call for applause or spoken praise to the Lord (sometimes in tongues), or interrupt to invite or offer prophetic words of knowledge. part of the servce may last anywhere from minutes to hours , lengtening especialy
outside the West.
may express themselves with raised hands , applause, laughter , cheerig, open dilays
The leader and congregation diect
exuberant worship toward God.
of emotion , calls and responses reminiscent of the black church tradition , and stading and movig individually and corporately durng ties of praise and prayer. These acts may be spontaneous or directed. So long as they seem to edify worshipers personally or collectively and do not become disruptive to congregational order, they are understood as movements of the Holy Spirit. The sung liturgy end with a pastoral welcome (the pastor s first offcial act), a just passed meditation and prayer rather like a collect that draws together the and points forward to the sermon , a call to greeting, intercessory prayer as a body or in small groups , announcements , and an offering. Either withn the "worship tie " (that is, the sung litugy; the charismatic renewal seems responsible for defing worship in terms of music) or soon afterward often comes an interval of ecstatic charismatic " utterances : praying and sometimes singig in tongues, speakg in tongues , interpretation , and intercession. Pentecostas disti" Both are reguted by gUsh between "prayig in tongues " and "speakig in tongues. done decently and in order" (1 Cor. Paul's call to the Corithans that " all thgs be
14:4 ), but in different ways. The former is devotional in natue , the latter prophetic. Prayer in tongues is directed to God alone. It may be private or public, individual
or corporate ,
spoken or sung. It need not be accompaned by interpretation, but it
must not be disruptive (for instace , interruptig a sermon). Speakng in tongues happens individualy, but it is diected to the whole gatherig.
One worshiper speaks with the gift of tongues , rarely in a human tongue unown to him,or her (for instace , a Chinese speaking Hebrew) or more commonly in an " angelic " tongue unown to anyone. Then the congregation waits until another, with the gift of interpretation, rises to interpret the word in the language of the congregation. Al , partcularly those with the spiritual gift of discernment, then weigh the mesmaterially sage to confi its prophetic content and thus its authority. It must be , and/or acknowledged biblical , authored by the Holy Spirt, spoken in the Holy Spirit as such by those with discernent. The whole process is a harmonious interplay of spirtual gift (1 Cor. 12-14) aimed at edifyng the body of Christ. prae and In the second phase , a long and dynamic sennon follows the time of ilwnnation gude both the preacher prayer. Strong doctrnes of both inspiration and and the congregation in their biblical interpretation , both in prior study and in delivery. Whether the message is focused exegetically, morally, or topically, the goa are evangelism, edification , and revival. A Pentecostal preacher " does not make a speech Vibrant congregational responses , in changed lives even if but presents a challenge. not in visibly enthusiastic reception , confirm homiletical success. Messages may be punctuated with applause , songs, and other practic es.
Page 10 of 13
Pentecostal and Charismtic
The litugical consumation of a servce is a call to commtment or recommtment, often delivered as the conclusion of the sennon. This thrd phase serves the
goals of personal and congregational repentance and revival. Pentecostas adapt the classical evangelical " altar call" as a tie for people to come forward who need not
just salvation , but also baptism in the Holy Spirit, deliverance and liberation, healig, and intercessory prayer. Some Pentecostals practice foot washing as a sign of humble recommtment to al others. Pentecostals also adapt the Lord' s supper as a time of rededication to Chrst. Practiced occasionaly, it often uses crackers and grape juice
(at least in the West) and is accompaned by congregational singig.
Habits var widely.
An "open table " that invites all to partcipate is tyical. Pentecostals may have either a Zwiglian " theology that taes the Lord's supper as a mere co:memoration of Chrt's atoning death or a more sacramental account of eucharist. Either way, they understad the rite as a means of powerf divine presence and savig work. that follows these times of recommtment is still conWhether or not the
sidered part of the servce, it too may last anywhere from minutes to hours. It is an intense time to begin what Orthodox Christians call "the litugy after the litugy," in which disciples imediately tae up the servce s divie power, word, and gift in miistr. The fonnallitugy signes and empowers congregational mistr around the
alta and beyond the sanctar thoughout the coming week. "Going" in mission and mercy is taen as seriously as "gatherig" in worship.
Smal Group Worship
Midweek gatherigs of smal groups are importat in Pentecosta and charismatic communties. They may meet in homes or church classrooms. They are strctued similarly to Sunday litugies but with briefer and more intimate introductory singing, "teaching" (usually Bible study) rather than "preachig, " extended intercesory prayer and
spiritual warfare (prayer and prophecy against
powers and pricipalities and the devil , someties including exorcism), accountabilty and recovery, and general fellowship. Like the Sunday litugy, they express the essentially social as well as personal character of Pentecostal life.
n to an/Vth
The Liturgical Lifetie
Worship servces , chidren s
and small group activities all aim to tae , remem-
elivs are ech
ber; and build on the basic steps in Pentecostal life passages. Like evangelical Wesleyans , Pentecostals center their stories on the personal experience of conversion , also called salvation or new birt. This is signfied but not accomplished by baptism , which is admnistered to new believers rather than infants or yoUng children , often but not necessarily in the context of Sunday worship servces. (pentecostals refer to "water baptism" in
Layig on of hands. A worship servce of the
Elim Pentecostal Church. The Elim move-
ment began in 1915 in the United Kingdom but quickly spread abroad. The largest church in the movement is Kensington Temple in London. PHOTOGRAH BY DAVI BUTCHER!
ART DIREGrORS AN TRIP
Page 11 of 13
The Oxfrd Hisory of Christan Worship
order to distingush it from " Spirit baptism. ) Like " Second Blessing" Holiness C;hris, tians, Pentecostals understand conversion to be only the first of several decisive steps
of transformation. The second most signficant step is a " baptism in the Holy Spirit an " ope1Uess to the presence and power of the Spirit" that empowers fu Pentecostal spirituality. IO Spirit baptism is accompaned and evidenced by the gift of tongues , which are then practiced in personal devotion , intercession, spiritual warfare , and assembled worship. But Spirit baptism is understood to yield furter frit in sanctification, assurance , other gift, and spiritual matuty. In "thrd wave " communties Spirit baptism is less prominent than spiritul giftng in general , and tongues less prominent than signs and wonders in general.
Though Pentecostals often reject the fonnal category of sacrament, the various
spiritual and litugical practices of Pentecostal life demonstrate a conviction that God works powerfuly in physical events. This lends a sacramental sensibility to the tradition and to its rites of baby dedication , intercessory prayer , healig, exorcism , confession and conversion , communion, water baptism , Spirit baptism , ordination, foot washig, renewal , and marrage. All these are outward signs of inward grace , by which God bestows salvation.
Charsmatic Litugical Features
Charismatic renewal has entered and found some acceptance in practically every litugical tradition. Its characteristic themes match the themes of Pentecostasm: hun-
ger for and acknowledgement of Christ s presence in the Holy Spirit, sign of God' redemptive power, and joyf praise. The renew is legitimately labeled charismatic in understanding itself as a Spiritdriven prophetic movement aimed at renewig churches by restoring neglected gift to their rightf places in communty life. Yet in ths context the label has the unfortuate C01Uotation of describing only " enthusiastic " practices as gift of the Holy Spirit, seemigly relegatig traditional practices of word and sacraments , and even the church itself, to the "uncharismatic. " Identifyg charism with enthusiasm plays
precisely into the kinds of abuses-abuses by both enthusiasts and antienthusiaststhat Paul's charismatic theology opposes.
Because the charismatic renewal cae to fellowships that already had established litugies, it presented a chalenge to church order in ways Pentecostasm had not. Broadly speakg, charsmatic litugy reflect a sythesis of Pentecosta practices and other communties ' litugical practices. The combination is not merely an incorporation of the one into the other , because Pentecosta practces are rooted in a Wesleyan Holiess tradition that may be foreign or even hostie to other traditions. For instace Lutheran
and (Nort American) Baptist communties appropriate Pentecosta practices much more crticay than Methodist , Presbyterian, Anglica, Catholic, and Ortodox communties. Whch Pentecostal practices are appropriated , how they are redefied and appro-
priated , and what practices they displace are matters negotiated in each trdition.
Charismatic litugical patterns generally honor the basic framework of the sponsoring traditions , modifyng and supplementig them rather than replacing them. Charismatics have exerted the most pressure for modifyg prior litugica, traditions
in several ways.
Firt, charismatic stress
on personal conversion as a decisive moment in one s litugiFirst
Augustian sacramenta practices.
, it highlghts discrepan-
Page 12 of 13
Pentecostl and Chariatic
cies between God' s supposed work in the sacraments and its exitential and ethca appropriation in the believer s life. Second Spirit baptism" suggests a moment of fonnation after conversion that does not yet clearly have a sacramenta sign. (The closest analogue would seem to be ordiation , not water baptism nor confation. ) Positive consequences of ths pressure include renewal of faith , hope, and love among those who describe their fotmerlives as " cold" or " dead " checks on fonnalsm , greater zeal for
i'i:ediscovery of the roles oflaity in the life of their communties. Nega-
tive consequences include charges and fears of elitism among charsmatics, inecuty among noncharsinatics , and priviegig of existential over sacrenta speech.
A related challenge concern charismatic leadership. Charismatic renewal can build
spiritual hierarchies that may interfere with or even contradict fonnal hierarchies. If Spirit baptism is -an anointig to servce and leadership that comes sovereigny irespective of ordiation , then it presses litugies that have long restricted rites of healing, exorcism, ordination, proclamation, or eucharstic presidency to ordained clergy. Second , charismatics have reconcied the spiritual , local ecuenism of classical Pentecostalism With the fonnal , strctual ecuenism of the ecuenical movement to which Pentecostals have generay been hostie. Cooperation , frendship, and communty among charsmatics of dierent traditions have broken down barers to visible unty, and ths has softened litugical as well as doctrnal and political batte lies at both the local and global levels. This has not always mollfied ecuenists who regard charismatic convergence as a surrender to spirtualsm and experientialsm. Yet it has reinforced the trend of litugical appropriation and cooperation across traditions that has characterized litugical reform over the last half centu. Thid , charsmatics press traditional litugies with their habits of spontaeous and expressive praise. (I Lati America , for instance, charsmatics are someties known pejoratively as " allelulias. ) On the one hand , both charismatic inroads and the incultuation of Ortodox , Catholic, and Protestat litugies in Afcan, Lati American , and Asian context have demonstrated that the charismatic worship style is profoundly compatible with most trditional litugical strctes. On the other hand charsmatic styles may be much more theatenig to the cutues of local congregations , both Western and non-Western. Thus it is not so surrising that traditions loyal to a unversal , fied litugy have reportedly been more successfu at incorporatig charsmatic practices , for instace in the eucharist and in litaes of specific intercession , than churches with " free " litugies habituated to the local cutue. Charsmatic renewal demonstrates that locay free liturgies may be constrictive as well as liberating, and denomiationally fied litugies may be liberatig as well as constrctive. Still , in the decades since the charismatic renewal began , intial disruptions, early confrontations , and splits in many congregations have gradually given way to toleration and even welcome of a contigent of members who raise hands, applaud the Lord , whisper in tongues , stad spontaneously, prefer choruses tD fonnal hyms , and speak of baptism by the Holy Spirt. Their presence spreads other habits of expression , participation, and informalty thoughout their congregations. This is tre in both free and fied liturgical traditions. At supplementa gatherings , charsmatic worship patterns are more pronounced and distictively Pentecostal. These take fonns such as midweek small group meetings , charismatic worship servces , Sunday school classes, revival meetigs and harvest festivals , and chapels in charsmatic institutions and covenanted communties. There worshipers raise hands , speak in tongues, pray for healig, preach forcefuy, prophesy, and wage spiritual warare. Other charismatic liturgy takes place at the
Page 13 of 13
The Oxfrd Hisory of Chriian
, token partcipati on Sundays. However its special practices, sacramental margializig the congregational Sunday servce and of the Spirit. Since which some to the work
, and witreadig, private prayer in tongues personal level, such as devotional Bible nessing in the workplace and marketplace. offerig more opportuReliance on supplementary litugies hasamong laity accustomed to passive roles or the advantage of parcipation nities for profound litugical , along with ths comes the danger of
charismatics may see as unmportt liturgies and practced by the clergy, practi ces have long been concentrted in Sunday ' charismatic and sacramental problems of sunderig churches effectively ths raises the further
life and divorcing the rites of the clergy from the work of the laity, and
spiritual gift from other members of the body.
Albrecht, Danel E. tulity.
, 1999. Sheffeld: Sheffeld Academic Press Anderson , Robert. Vison of the Disinherted: The Making of Amercan Pentecostalis. , 1979. New York: Oxford University Press , eds. Pentecostal Cur, Russell P. Spitder, and Grant A. Wacker , 1999. Blumofer, Edith L. Urbana: University of ilois Press Chariatic rents in Amercan Protestanti. B. McGee , eds. Dictionary of Pentecostal and , Staey M., and Burgess Libra, 1988. Grand Rapids , Mich. : Regency Reference Movements. Metuchen , N. : Scaecrow, 1987. TheoloficalRootsofPentecostlis. Dayton , Donald W. Orleans, Mass. : Paraclete , 1986. Simple and Profound. , David. du Plessis Cleveland , Tenn. : Pathway, 1974. USA. Knght, Cecil B. , ed. Pentecostl Worship. of Early Pentecostlis in the
Rites in the Spirit: A 'ltualApproach to
The Black Roots and White
York: St. Mart' s, 1988. Charitic Presene, Power, Praise: Documents on the , Kian, ed.
vols. Collegevie, Mi. : Litugical Press
'Danel Albrecht Rites
'Burgess and McGee, eds.,
in the Spirit, 35.
'Roberto McAister, from
A eserCn Pentecostl-
Dicon of Pentecostl
Preachg, a Pentecos-
A base biblica e teoMgi de Pentecostliso
Richard Schaul and Waldo Cesar,
cited in Pentecostlis and
" by R . Hughes.
the FutUre of the Chrian Chalknge (G:radJ api
Cburches: Proises, Limi-
Presence, Power, Praise
Burgess and McGee,
sAlbrecht , 124.
Theological Roots of Pentecost,
tecostal, " by H. D. Hunter. 9Hunter Ordiance, Pentecostal."
MOTION to Dismiss for Failure to State a Claim
by One America Productions, Inc., Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation. (Attachments: # 1
Exhibit 1# 2
Exhibit 2# 3
Exhibit 3# 4
Exhibit 4) (Henegan, John)
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