Hunter v. Salem, Missouri, City of et al
MOTION for Leave to File in Excess of Page Limitation by Plaintiff Anaka Hunter. (Attachments: # 1 Proposed memorandum in support)(Rothert, Anthony)
IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT
EASTERN DISTRICT OF MISSOURI
BOARD OF TRUSTEES, SALEM PUBLIC
LIBRARY, et al.,
) No. 4:12-CV-4 ERW
MEMORANDUM IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFF’S MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT
Plaintiff moves for summary judgment that Defendants‟ past policy, practice, and custom
of blocking Internet content based on viewpoint is unconstitutional under the Free Speech Clause
and Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
In July 2010, the Plaintiff began researching Native American tribes and their spirituality
at the Salem Public Library. Statement of Uncontroverted Material Fact (“SUMF”) at ¶ 19.
While conducting Internet research on the library‟s computers, she discovered that the websites
she wanted to access were blocked by the filtering software as “occult” or “criminal skills.” Id. at
¶¶ 20-21. In contrast, patrons seeking access to websites about mainstream religions faced no
such barriers. Id. at ¶¶ 105-108. Hunter brought the improper viewpoint-discriminatory filtering
to the attention of Glenda Wofford and the Board of Trustees for the Salem Public Library. Id.
at ¶¶ 22, 50-51.
Her initial complaint elicited from Wofford and the Board a refusal to do anything. Id. at
¶¶ 23-24, 51-52. Subsequent efforts, including reaching out to the State Library, resulted in a
tracking of Plaintiff‟s visits to the library, research, complaints and interactions with people (id.
at ¶ 28), and temporary unblocking of some web pages. Id. at ¶¶ 35-38. Despite having the
capability to permanently disable the entire web filtering system, the “occult” or “criminal
skills” filters, websites, or web pages (id. at ¶¶ 33, 84, 87, 88, 91), Wofford never did so for
Hunter. Id. at ¶ 33.
Plaintiff challenges the policy, practice, and custom in effect when, beginning in July
2010, she conducted research at the Salem Public Library. She seeks nominal damages for the
past violation of her constitutional rights and a permanent injunction preventing Defendants from
employing an unconstitutional filtering policy, practice, or custom in the future.
Summary judgment standard
This Court should grant summary judgment to Plaintiff because, viewing the
uncontroverted evidence in the light most favorable to Defendants, there is no genuine issue of
material fact and Plaintiff is entitled to judgment as a matter of law. FED. R. CIV. P. 56(a); Grey v.
City of Oak Grove, 396 F.3d 1031, 1034 (8th Cir. 2005). The moving party has the initial burden
of demonstrating the absence of a genuine issue of material fact. Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477
U.S. 317, 323 (1986). Once that burden is met, the nonmoving party must come forward and
establish specific material facts in dispute to survive summary judgment. Matsushita Elec. Indus.
Co., Ltd. v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. 574, 588 (1986). “Although a party moving for
summary judgment has the burden of demonstrating the absence of any genuine issue of material
fact, a nonmoving party may not rest upon mere denials or allegations, but must instead set forth
specific facts sufficient to raise a genuine issue for trial.” Rose-Matson v. NME Hospitals, Inc.,
133 F.3d 1104, 1107 (8th Cir. 1998).
As set forth in Plaintiff‟s Statement of Uncontroverted Material Facts, which is filed
herewith, there are no disputed material facts in this case. As a result, this case turns on
questions of law.
Count I – Free Speech Clause
“The Free Speech Clause of the First Amendment provides that „Congress shall make no
law... abridging the freedom of speech[.]‟” Neighborhood Enterprises, Inc. v. City of St. Louis,
644 F.3d 728, 736 (8th Cir. 2011)(quoting U.S. CONST. AMEND. I). The First Amendment applies
to the states and their subdivisions through the Fourteenth Amendment. See Gitlow v. New York,
268 U.S. 652, 666 (1925); Lovell v. City of Griffin, Ga., 303 U.S. 444, 450 (1938).
Defendants‟ past practice, policy, and custom of blocking, based on viewpoint, websites
beyond what is required by the Children‟s Internet Protection Act, 20 U.S.C. § 9134(f)(“CIPA”)
or MO. REV. STAT. § 182.827.3, harmed Plaintiff because she was both prevented from accessing
and deterred from seeking access to constitutionally protected content. The Supreme Court has
recognized in a variety of contexts, including libraries, that the constitutional “right to receive
information and ideas” is “an inherent corollary of the rights of free speech and press that are
explicitly guaranteed by the Constitution[.]” Bd. of Educ., Island Trees Union Free Sch. Dist.
No. 26 v. Pico, 457 U.S. 853, 866-67 (1982)(citing Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S. 557,
564(1969)); Kleindienst v. Mandel, 408 U.S. 753, 762-63 (1972)). It is that right Plaintiff seeks
to vindicate here.
Supreme Court precedent does not tolerate the use of filters to engage in intentional
viewpoint discrimination. In United States v. Am. Library Ass’n (“ALA”), 539 U.S. 194 (2003), a
fractured Supreme Court rejected a facial challenge to CIPA‟s requirement that public schools
and libraries receiving certain federal funds use filtering software to block access to
pornographic websites. A plurality opinion joined by four Justices concluded that Internet access
at public libraries is not a traditional public forum, and, thus, the law was not subject to
heightened judicial scrutiny. ALA, 539 U.S. at 205-06 (plurality). Instead, the plurality reasoned
that the purpose of a library is “to facilitate research, learning, and recreational pursuits by
furnishing materials of requisite and appropriate quality,” and that libraries have wide discretion
to make content-based decisions in determining which materials meet those criteria. Id. at 206.
The plurality concluded that in light of a library‟s “traditional role in identifying suitable and
worthwhile material” and the fact that “[m]ost libraries already exclude pornography from their
print collections,” it was “entirely reasonable” for libraries to block categories of content
categorized as “pornography” without reviewing each website individually. Id. at 208.1
The reasoning of the ALA plurality is consistent with the Supreme Court‟s earlier
decision in Bd. of Educ., Island Trees Union Free Sch. Dist. No. 26 v. Pico, 457 U.S. 853 (1982)
(plurality). A public librarian‟s discretion to make content-based judgments when selecting
“material of requisite and appropriate quality for educational and informational purposes,” ALA,
539 at 211, is analogous to the discretion of a school official to remove books based on
legitimate criteria such as “educational suitability,” or “appropriateness to age and grade level,”
Pico, 547 U.S. at 871. Just as in Pico, that discretion to make content-based decisions in
applying legitimate selection criteria does not also empower school or public librarians to censor
otherwise appropriate materials through viewpoint discrimination. See ALA, 539 U.S. at 236
(Souter, J., dissenting) (noting without contradiction that a library‟s practice of “excluding books
because their authors are Democrats or their critiques of organized Christianity are
unsympathetic” would be something that “even the plurality would consider to be illegitimate”);
see also Am. Council of the Blind v. Boorstin, 644 F. Supp. 811, 816 (D.D.C. 1986) (holding that
As described below, the post-ALA cases refer to the plurality opinion. The narrower
concurring opinions of Justice Kennedy and Justice Breyer, which require that improperly
blocked sites be unblocked immediately, would seem to be controlling. See Marks v. United
States, 430 U.S. 188, 193 (1977) (“When a fragmented Court decides a case and no single
rationale explaining the result enjoys the assent of five Justices, the holding of the Court may be
viewed as that position taken by those Members who concurred in the judgments on the
narrowest grounds.” (quotations and citations omitted)).
Librarian of Congress impermissibly removed Braille version of magazine that had “consistently
met the selection criteria established by the Library of Congress” because of political pressure
from member of Congress).2
Thus, although the ALA plurality upheld the constitutionality of reasonable and
viewpoint-neutral web filtering, nothing in ALA supports the constitutionality of viewpoint-based
web filters like those employed here. Unlike the removal decision in Pico, none of the filtering
practices considered in ALA discriminated on the basis of viewpoint. As the Solicitor General
explained to the Supreme Court, “the commercial filtering products used by public libraries draw
distinctions based on whether the material falls into a category such as „Pornography,‟ not on the
basis of any viewpoint about sexuality.” Br. of Solicitor General in ALA, 2003 WL 145228, at
*31 (2003) (citation omitted); see also id at *12 (noting that “there is no allegation of viewpoint
discrimination here”). The plaintiffs in ALA argued that those viewpoint-neutral filters for
pornography accidentally “over blocked” non-pornographic websites, but there was no allegation
that the filtering software treated websites about sexuality differently based on the viewpoints
The distinction between legitimate content-based selection criteria and illegitimate
viewpoint discrimination is also reflected in the subsidized-speech cases cited in the plurality
opinion. For example, the Court in Nat’l Endowment for Arts v. Finley, 524 U.S. 569 (1998),
reaffirmed that “even in the provision of subsidies, the Government may not “ai[m] at the
suppression of dangerous ideas.” Id. at 587 (internal quotation marks and citations omitted).
The National Endowment for Arts may therefore use content-based criteria such as artistic merit
when funding private speech, but cannot use criteria that are “utilized as a tool for invidious
viewpoint discrimination” or that “in practice, would effectively preclude or punish the
expression of particular views.” Finley, 524 U.S. at 582-83. Similarly, in Arkansas Educational
Television Comm’n v. Forbes, 523 U.S. 666 (1998), the Supreme Court held that a public
broadcaster can use editorial discretion to make content-based distinctions when deciding which
candidate to allow to participate in a televised debate, but the broadcaster “cannot grant or deny
access to a candidate debate on the basis of whether it agrees with a candidate‟s views.” Id. at
676; see also id. at 682. In each of these cases, “[t]he Court recognized that it was essential to
the functioning and traditional missions of the organizations involved in American Library
Association, Forbes, and Finley to allow them to make value-based, and thus content-based -but not, importantly, viewpoint-based-decisions.” ACLU v. Mineta, 319 F. Supp. 2d 69, 85
they expressed. See ACLU v. Mineta, 319 F. Supp. 2d 69, 86 (D.D.C. 2004) (explaining that, in
ALA, “[t]he blocking of protected material was an unintended side effect of the application of the
filter” and that “[t]hough content-based, the restriction was viewpoint-neutral”). In this case, the
library drew distinctions between mainstream religious viewpoints and non-mainstream religious
viewpoints. Here the blocking is viewpoint discriminatory and not accidental.
Extending ALA to sanction a viewpoint-based filtering system would be a dramatic and
unprecedented restriction of speech. The Supreme Court has warned that viewpoint
discrimination is the most “egregious” type of speech restriction because “[w]hen the
government targets not subject matter, but particular views taken by speakers on a subject, the
violation of the First Amendment is all the more blatant.” Rosenberger v. Rector & Visitors of
Univ. of Va., 515 U.S. 819, 833 (1995); accord Perry Educ. Ass’n v. Perry Local Educators’
Ass’n, 460 U.S. 37, 62 (1983) (Brennan, J., dissenting) (stating that “[v]iewpoint discrimination
is censorship in its purest form”). The government thus bears a much heavier burden when
justifying viewpoint discrimination. The Supreme Court has even stated that a compelling
governmental interest that justifies content-discrimination might not be enough to justify
discrimination on the basis of viewpoint. See Good News Club v. Milford Cent. Sch., 533 U.S.
98, 112-13 (2001) (“We have said that a state interest in avoiding an Establishment Clause
violation „may be characterized as compelling,‟ and therefore may justify content-based
discrimination. However, it is not clear whether a State‟s interest in avoiding an Establishment
Clause violation would justify viewpoint discrimination.” (citation omitted)).3
See also R.A.V. v. St. Paul, 505 U.S. 377, 391 (1992) (even when speech may be criminalized
as obscene or unprotected “fighting words,” government still may not discriminate on basis of
viewpoint); id. at 430 (Stevens, J., dissenting) (“[W]e have implicitly distinguished between
restrictions on expression based on subject matter and restrictions based on viewpoint, indicating
that the latter are particularly pernicious.”); Finley, 524 U.S. at 587 (allowing NEA to make
content-based decisions when awarding grants but not to discriminate on the basis of viewpoint);
In short, ALA “does not stand for the proposition that no constitutional protections apply
to Internet computers at public libraries.” Miller v. NW Region Library Bd., 348 F. Supp. 2d
563, 569 (M.D.N.C. 2004). Web filtering must still satisfy the minimum requirements of
reasonableness and viewpoint neutrality that apply to other library removal decisions.
In the time since ALA, appellate courts in California and Washington and the United
States District Court for the Western District of Missouri have considered the constitutionality of
library policies restricting Internet access. Each court expressly adopted the reasoning of the
ALA plurality while at the same time reaffirming that such policies must be reasonable and
In Bradburn v. North Cent. Reg’l Library Dist., 231 P.3d 166 (Wash. 2010), the
Washington Supreme Court considered an issue left open in ALA: whether a library must
unblock the filter for pornography upon request. The library in Bradburn would unblock
individual websites if the sites were accidentally blocked by the pornography filter, but the
library refused to disable the entire pornography filter for individual users upon request. The
Bradburn court endorsed the reasoning of the ALA plurality and held that the Washington
Constitution “is not violated by a public library‟s Internet filtering policy if it is reasonable when
measured in light of the library‟s mission and policies, and is viewpoint neutral.” Bradburn, 231
P.3d at 180. The court held that the library‟s pornography filter “is viewpoint neutral because it
makes no distinctions based on the perspective of the speaker.” Id. (citing Members of City
Council v. Taxpayers for Vincent, 466 U.S. 789, 804 (1984)). The court also reasoned that the
pornography filter was reasonable in light of the library‟s “mission is to promote reading and
lifelong learning.” Id. In light of that traditional mission, the court concluded that a public
Boos v. Barry, 485 U.S. 312, 319 (1988) (distinguishing between discrimination based on
content and discrimination based on viewpoint).
library “has traditionally had the authority . . . to legitimately decline to include adult-oriented
material such as pornography in its collection. This same discretion continues to exist with
respect to Internet materials.” Id. at 181.
In Crosby v. South Orange County Cmty. Coll. Dist., 172 Cal. App. 4th 433 (2009), the
California Court of Appeal applied the same standard when it considered the constitutionality of
a library policy restricting Internet access. The plaintiff challenged a state college‟s policy of
limiting “computer use to educational and employment purposes.” The court adopted the
reasoning of the ALA plurality and held that the college‟s restriction was constitutional because
the restriction was “reasonable and not an effort to suppress expression contrary to the views of
school officials.” Crosby, 172 Cal. App. 4th at 437; accord id. at 443 (concluding that the
restriction “does not represent a public official‟s effort to silence opposing viewpoints”).
Most closely analogous to this case is Parents, Families, & Friends of Lesbians & Gays,
Inc. v. Camdenton R-III Sch. Dist., 853 F. Supp. 2d 888 (W.D. Mo. 2012)(“PFLAG”). In
PFLAG, a school district maintained an Internet filter that blocked favorable information about
lesbian, gay, and transgender (“LGBT”) persons while allowing negative information about
LGBT issues to be viewed without interference. Id. at 891-92. The court held that Pico, not
ALA, provides the correct standard of scrutiny because the library did not decide to exclude all
resources on the subject of LGBT issues, but rather employed an Internet filter to exclude one
viewpoint on the subject. Id. at 901. But the court also noted that, even under the ALA
plurality‟s standard, there was no evidence that a “decision to systematically block access to
websites expressing a positive viewpoint toward LGBT individuals is reasonable in light of a
librarian‟s „traditional role in identifying suitable and worthwhile material.‟” Id. Further, the
court determined that the availability of a procedure to request a website be unblocked did not
cure the First Amendment problem, finding “consistent with the plurality decision in ALA” that
“a procedure, burdening only one viewpoint in a debate … chills speech in a viewpointdiscriminatory fashion, which is the antithesis of the First Amendment.” Id. at 898. Such a
procedure is also constitutionally problematic because it “stigmatizes protected speech.” Id.
These cases reflect the consensus view that restrictions on library Internet access must
meet the basic requirements of reasonableness and viewpoint-neutrality. This Court should
apply the same requirements when evaluating the filtering practices at issue here.
The Netsweeper filters for “occult” and “criminal skills” are different than the filtering
systems previously considered by courts, other than PFLAG. Unlike other filters, but like the
filter in PFLAG, the “occult” and “criminal skills” filters that Defendants chose to employ (a) are
not viewpoint-neutral, and (b) do not target content that is subject to CIPA. No court has upheld
a library‟s use of filtering software with these two features, and this Court should not be the first.
A. Salem’s “Occult” and “Criminal Skills” Filter Is Not Viewpoint-Neutral
“[T]he First Amendment forbids the government to regulate speech in ways that favor
some viewpoints or ideas at the expense of others.” Taxpayers for Vincent, 466 U.S. at 804;
accord Lamb’s Chapel v. Ctr. Moriches Union Free Sch. Dist., 508 U.S. 384, 394 (1993);
Bradburn, 231 P.3d at 180; PFLAG, 853 F. Supp. 2d at 902 (“Viewpoint discrimination by a
state actor is antithetical to the First Amendment, one of our country‟s most cherished
constitutional rights.”) Viewpoint neutrality means that “if government permits the discussion of
a topic from [one] perspective, it may not shut out speech that discusses the same topic from [a
different] perspective.” Child Evangelism Fellowship of New Jersey Inc. v. Stafford Twp. Sch.
Dist., 386 F.3d 514, 528 (3d Cir. 2004); cf. Byrne v. Rutledge, 623 F.3d 46, 56-57 (2d Cir. 2010)
(Vermont engaged in “facially impermissible viewpoint discrimination” in issuing vanity license
plates because “[w]hatever its stated intent, Vermont‟s ban on religious messages in practice
operates not to restrict speech to certain subjects but instead to distinguish between those who
seek to express secular and religious views on the same subjects”).
Many websites that Plaintiff attempted to access were blocked because of their inclusion
in the “occult” and “criminal skills” categories. SUMF at ¶ 21. The “occult” and “criminal
skills” filters used by Defendants systematically discriminate against websites supportive of
minority religious views on the basis of viewpoint. Id. at ¶¶ 27, 40, 51, 104-111, 116-118. This
viewpoint discrimination is different than the unintentional and viewpoint-neutral overblocking
at issue in ALA. As explained above, in ALA, “the commercial filtering products used by public
libraries dr[e]w distinctions based on whether the material f[ell] into a category such as
„Pornography,‟ not on the basis of any viewpoint about sexuality.” Br. of Solicitor General in
ALA, 2003 WL 145228, at *31(citation omitted); see also Bradburn, 231 P.3d at 180 (stating that
library‟s pornography filter “is viewpoint neutral because it makes no distinctions based on the
perspective of the speaker”).
In contrast, Netsweeper, the Internet filtering solution used by Defendants, works by
grouping large collections of websites together by category. SUMF at ¶¶ 73-75. Customers
select entire categories to “block.” Id. at ¶¶ 78-79. When a category is blocked, users cannot
view any website within that category. Only three Netsweeper categories are required to be
blocked to comply with CIPA and Missouri law. Id. at ¶ 76. Defendants knew this. Id. at ¶ 77.
Yet, Defendants chose to employ additional filters, not related to CIPA, including “occult” and
“criminal skills.” Id. at ¶¶ 97, 101-118.
Plaintiff does not challenge the use of viewpoint-neutral filters designed to block
pornography or other CIPA-related content. Instead, Plaintiff challenges the use of the “occult”
and “criminal skills” filters, neither of which purports to target pornographic content or be
related in any way to compliance with CIPA.
The filters employed here are viewpoint discriminatory. Choosing to filter the “occult”
category blocks “websites involving the study of secret or hidden knowledge such as: cults,
supernatural forces and events, occult lore, vampires, astrology, witchcraft, mysterious symbols,
and other phenomena beyond ordinary understanding” are placed in the “occult” category along
with “websites about these topics that are historical or factual in nature and/or promote such
practices.” Id. at ¶ 107. The “occult” category blocks non-mainstream beliefs such as Wicca
and Native American Spirituality. Id. at ¶ 106.4 Some websites that Plaintiff attempted to access
on these viewpoints were blocked because of their inclusion in the “criminal skills” category. Id.
at ¶ 21. Websites about mainstream religious beliefs such as Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are
categorized as “religion” or “general” and were never blocked. Id. at ¶ 108. Furthermore,
Netsweeper also categorizes Internet content discussing these mainstream religions‟ views about
minority religions, religious practices, and beliefs as either “religion” or “general.”5 Id.
For example, Netsweeper categorizes the following websites as “occult”: (a) About.com:
Paranormal Phenomena (paranormal.about.com), a viewpoint-neutral portal to news and
discussions of paranormal issues; (b) All About Spirituality (www.allaboutspirituality.org), a
website discussing from a neutral viewpoint numerous topics in spirituality, including angels,
astrology, meditation, paganism, shamanism, and yoga; (c) Astrology.com
(www.astrology.com), a website discussing astrology and offering horoscope readings and
similar services; (d) The Church and School of Wicca (www.wicca.org), the official homepage
of the Wiccan Church; (e) Cult FAQ (www.cultfaq.org), a viewpoint-neutral discussion of the
cult phenomenon, including links to resources such as counseling and support for cult (ex-)
members and their families; (f) Encyclopedia of Death and Dying (www.deathreference.com),
containing viewpoint-neutral discussions of various cultures‟ and religions‟ ideas of death and
death practices; (g) Wikipedia: Wicca (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wicca), a viewpoint-neutral
discussion of the Wiccan Church; and (h) WitchVox (www.witchvox.com), an overview of
pagan belief systems, such as Druidism, Haitian Voodoo, Neopaganism, and Wicca. SUMF at ¶
The viewpoint discrimination was especially insidious because, while blocking nonmainstream religious viewpoints about religion, Defendants did not block mainstream religious
views about non-mainstream beliefs. Astrology and Horoscopes: The Bible and Christian
View (http://www.northforest.org/ChristianTopics/Astrology.html), a discussion of astrology
from a Christian viewpoint is categorized as “general.” Catholic Encyclopedia: Paganism
(www.newadvent.org/cathen/11388a.htm), a discussion of Paganism from a Catholic viewpoint,
Therefore, blocking the “occult” category results in content –and viewpoint– discrimination
against non-mainstream religions and beliefs. Id. at ¶¶ 27, 40, 51, 104-111, 116-118.
This viewpoint discrimination is like the unconstitutional viewpoint discrimination in
Lamb’s Chapel. The public school in Lamb’s Chapel allowed its facilities to be used by outside
organizations for films and lectures, but refused to allow a Christian group to show a film series
that discussed family values from a Christian perspective. The Supreme Court held that the
exclusion constituted viewpoint discrimination because the subject matter of family and childrearing “is not one that the District has placed off limits to any and all speakers.” Lamb’s
Chapel, 508 U.S. at 393. Rather, “all views about family issues and child rearing except those
dealing with the subject matter from a religious standpoint.” Id.
In this case, the roles are reversed but the viewpoint discrimination remains the same.
Library patrons could generally access viewpoints about “religion” from Christian, Jewish, or
Muslim perspectives, but were blocked from receiving information about non-mainstream
religions. SUMF at ¶¶ 104-111. What is more, for example, library patrons were allowed to
access the Catholic view of Paganism, but not a viewpoint-neutral discussion at
www.witchvox.com. Id. at ¶¶ 105, 108.
Defendants engaged in viewpoint discrimination that was not necessary, and Defendants
knew it was not necessary, to achieve a compelling government interest. Id. at ¶¶ 56-68, 76-77,
101-102, 113-114. Accordingly, Plaintiff should be granted summary judgment against
Defendants on Count I.
is categorized as “religion.” Christian Paranormal Answers
(christianparanormalanswers.com), a site that describes itself as “Answers about the Paranormal
from a Christian viewpoint,” is categorized as “general.” What does the Bible say about
Voodoo? (www.gotquestions.org/voodoo-Bible.html), a discussion of Voodoo from a Christian
viewpoint, is categorized as “religion.” SUMF at ¶ 108.
Salem’s use of the “occult” and “criminal skills” filters is not
reasonable in light of the traditional role of libraries.
Defendants‟ decision to use the discriminatory filters is not reasonable in light of the
traditional role of a library. See Legal Services Corp. v. Velazquez, 531 U.S. 533, 543 (2001)
(“Where the government uses or attempts to regulate a particular medium, [courts] have been
informed by its accepted usage in determining whether a particular restriction on speech is
necessary for the program‟s purposes and limitations.”).
The American Library Association Code of Ethics, passed initially in January 1939 and
amended over time, is the most critical document articulating the principals and values affecting
the practice of librarianship. SUMF at ¶ 16. Those principles which stand out relative to the
delivery of services to library users are:
We provide the highest level of service to all library users through appropriate and
usefully organized resources; equitable service policies; equitable access; and accurate,
unbiased, and courteous responses to all requests.
We uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts to censor library
We protect each library user's right to privacy and confidentiality with respect to
information sought or received and resources consulted, borrowed, acquired or
We distinguish between our personal convictions and professional duties and do not
allow our personal beliefs to interfere with fair representation of the aims of our
institutions or the provision of access to their information resources.
When the Supreme Court in ALA upheld the facial constitutionality of a statute requiring
libraries to filter pornographic web content, the plurality noted that the filtering did not distort
the usual functioning of the library “because public libraries have traditionally excluded
pornographic material from their other collections.” ALA, 539 U.S. at 212 (plurality). Similarly,
in Bradburn, the Washington Supreme Court reasoned that a public library “has traditionally had
the authority . . . to legitimately decline to include adult-oriented material such as pornography in
its collection. This same discretion continues to exist with respect to Internet materials.”
Bradburn, 231 P.3d at 817.
There is no similar tradition of libraries censoring particular viewpoints or excluding
materials that provide viewpoint-neutral or positive information about non-mainstream religions.
SUMF at ¶¶ 16-17. The “occult” and “criminal skills” filters did not block pornography or other
content required by CIPA. Id. at ¶¶ 56-68, 76-77, 101-102, 113-114. The decision to track and
record Plaintiff‟s use of the Internet and to provide this information to the police is also contrary
to the accepted public library standard. Id. at ¶¶ 28-29.
The American Library Association‟s Library Bill of Rights reinforces this view.6 SUMF
at ¶ 17. Article II of the Library Bill of Rights states that “[l]ibraries should provide materials
and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues.” Id.; ALA,
Library Bill of Rights (available at
http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/index.cfm (last visited Feb. 22,
2013)). Article V provides, “A person‟s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged
because of origin, age, background, or views.” Id. Indeed, rather than engaging in viewpoint
discrimination, “[l]ibraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility
to provide information and enlightenment.” SUMF at ¶ 17; Library Bill of Rights. Similarly,
ALA Policy Statement 53.1.11 provides that library collections should include “materials and
resources that reflect a diversity of political, economic, religious, social, minority, and sexual
issues,” and ALA Policy Statement 53.1.15 provides that “librarians have an obligation to resist
Defendants recognize the validity of the ALA‟s Library Bill of Rights. SUMF at
¶¶ 17-18. The Salem Public Library Statement on Intellectual Freedom incorporates the Library
Bill of Rights into its own Bylaws. Id.
efforts that systematically exclude materials dealing with any subject matter, including sex,
gender identity or expression, or sexual orientation.” ALA. ALA Policy Manual (available at
edom (last visited Feb. 22, 2013)).
Defendants‟ viewpoint discrimination was intentional. Defendants intended to
discriminate based on viewpoint because they continued to use the “occult” and “criminal skills”
filters long after being given notice by Plaintiff of the viewpoint-discrimination. Plaintiff first
brought the viewpoint-discriminatory blocking to the attention of Wofford in or about July 2010.
SUMF at ¶¶ 22-23. Wofford responded to Plaintiff‟s initial request to unblock certain blocked
websites by saying that there was nothing she could do and that it was up to the filtering system
which websites library patrons could view. Id. at ¶ 24. Wofford‟s assertions were not true, and
she knew they were not true. Id. at ¶¶ 78-96.7 Hunter then called Barbara Reading at the
Missouri State Library in October 2010 to complain about Salem Public Library‟s viewpointdiscriminatory web filtering. Id. at ¶ 25. Reading then called Wofford on October 29, 2010. Id.
at ¶ 26. During this call Reading articulated to Wofford that Hunter complained about Salem
Public Library‟s web filtering discriminating based on viewpoint. Id. at ¶ 27. After receiving a
call from Barbara Reading, Library Development Director at the Missouri State Library, Wofford
met with Plaintiff in the library meeting room for approximately fifty minutes that same day and
explained that Wofford could override the filter allowing Plaintiff to view websites currently
Wofford and the Board had policymaking authority to determine which categories to
block or unblock. SUMF at ¶96. Wofford had the ability to permanently or temporarily change
the blocked category list, permanently or temporarily unblock individual websites, and
permanently or temporarily unblock web pages (and had done so previously). Id. at ¶¶ 78-96.
The library and Wofford had complete control over filtering configuration and implementation,
knew they had complete control, and had a policy that overblocked content well beyond what is
required by CIPA that resulted in discrimination by unnecessarily filtering out specific
viewpoints within topics or categories. Id. at ¶ 78-118.
blocked. RFA. Id. at ¶¶ 30-31. Subsequent to her discussion with Wofford, Plaintiff again
sought to have particular websites pertaining to Native Americans unblocked. Id. at ¶ 32.
Despite having the capability to permanently unblock the “occult” or “criminal skills”
filters or websites or web pages, neither Wofford nor any other Salem Public Library employee
ever did so in response to Hunter‟s requests to unblock Internet content. Id. at ¶ 33. Despite
having the capability to temporarily unblock entire websites for up to one hour, neither Wofford
nor any other Salem Public Library employee ever did so in response to Hunter‟s requests to
unblock Internet content. Id. at ¶ 34. Instead, they only unblocked some websites for short
periods. Id. at ¶¶ 35-37. Furthermore, in response to Hunter‟s requests to unblock Internet
content, Wofford or other Salem Public Library employees sometimes unblocked entire domains
(e.g., www.witchcraft.com), but other times only unblocked single pages to some websites (e.g.,
www.crystalinks.com/sundance.html), which caused other sections of those same websites to
remain blocked. Id. at ¶ 38. It was the custom, policy, and practice of Defendants to require
Plaintiff to repeatedly request overblocked Internet content be unblocked. Id. at ¶ 39. It was also
the Defendants‟ policy, practice, and custom to impose substantial burdens for patrons seeking to
unblock Internet content that was over blocked by the Salem Public Library‟s ICF. Id. at ¶ 119.
Subsequently, Hunter raised the issue of filtering again with Wofford, telling Wofford
that the viewpoint-discriminatory filtering of the Internet content she tried to view was improper
and burdensome and that the classification of Native American cultural and religious history and
practices as the “occult” and “criminal skills” was misleading and derogatory. Id. at ¶ 40.
Wofford responded that it was up to the filtering system which Internet content library patrons
could view and that she only allows people to view blocked Internet content if it pertains to their
job, if they are writing a paper, or if she determined that they otherwise have a legitimate reason
to view the content. Id. at ¶ 41.8 Additionally, Wofford also told Plaintiff that Wofford had an
“obligation” to call the “proper authorities” to report those who were attempting to access
blocked sites if she thought they would misuse the information they were attempting to access.
Id. at ¶ 43. Wofford‟s assertion that she would be obligated to notify authorities caused Plaintiff
to be reasonably concerned that she would be reported to the police if she continued to attempt to
access Internet content about Native American cultural and religious history and the Wiccan
Church. Id. at ¶ 44.9
Plaintiff also notified the Board. At the Salem Library Board Meeting on November 8,
2010, Plaintiff voiced her concerns about the viewpoint-discriminatory filtering to the Board. Id.
at ¶¶ 50-51. There Plaintiff raised the issue about the policies, practices, and customs that block
religious content based upon its viewpoint. Id. at ¶ 51. She stated that the filtering was unfair.
Id. A member of the Board responded to Plaintiff that the Library‟s Internet Content Filtering
system would not change, adding, “If that‟s all, we have business to discuss.” Id. at ¶ 52. In
spite of knowledge, the blocking of the “occult” and “criminal skills” categories remained in
place until August 1, 2011. Id. at ¶¶ 97-98.
When a public library chooses to restrict Internet resources, it must select a reasonable
and viewpoint-neutral method of doing so. Defendants cannot demonstrate that their decisions to
Wofford‟s belief that she had the authority to allow, or not allow, patrons to view websites
was consistent with the Defendants‟ written “Public Access Microcomputer Policy” which states
that states that “[t]he use of the Internet system is a privilege which can be revoked by the library
at any time for abusive conduct[,] [with the] Salem Public Library [as] the sole arbiter of what
constitutes abusive conduct.” SUMF at ¶ 42.
On or about December 9, 2010, Wofford did call the Salem City Police about Plaintiff‟s
complaints regarding Internet filtering. SUMF at ¶ 45. When the police came to the Salem
Public Library, Wofford disclosed the log that she had maintained describing in detail Hunter‟s
activities and research at the Salem Public Library between October and December 2010. Id. at ¶
46. Prior to Wofford calling the Salem Police, Hunter had last visited the library on December 2,
2010. Id. at ¶ 47. After the Salem Police were called on December 9, 2010, Hunter has chosen
not returned to the Salem Public Library. Id. at ¶ 48.
enable the “occult” and “criminal skills” filters were reasonable methods of complying with
CIPA and cannot demonstrate that it had a sufficiently compelling reason to justify viewpoint
discrimination. Id. at ¶¶ 56-68, 76-77, 101-102, 113-114. Blocking websites that Netsweeper
categorizes as “occult” or “criminal skills” is not required by the Children‟s Internet Protection
Act or by MO. REV. STAT. § 182.827.3. Id.
Defendants‟ intentional viewpoint discrimination was not reasonable in light of the
traditional role of libraries, so Plaintiff is entitled to summary judgment on Count I.
Salem’s Filtering Stigmatized and Burdened Access to NonMainstream Religious Viewpoints Despite a Procedure Allowing
Individual Webpages to Be Temporarily Unblocked Upon Request
It is no defense for Defendants that they required a patron request before they temporarily
unblocked individual websites. Requiring Plaintiff and others who seek positive information
about non-mainstream religions to make repeated requests to the library for websites to be
unblocked (and then only temporarily) stigmatizes and places a burden on Plaintiff‟s right to
receive information. SUMF at ¶¶ 22-24, 32-48, 50-52 119; See PFLAG, 853 F. Supp. 2d at 89495. “First Amendment freedoms would be of little value if speakers had to obtain permission of
their audiences before advancing particular viewpoints.” Bolger v. Youngs Drug Products Corp.,
463 U.S. 60, 80 (1983) (Rehnquist, J., concurring); see also Watchtower Bible v. Vill. of Stratton,
536 U.S. 150, 166 (2002) (requiring a permit -- even one granted without cost or waiting period - as a prior condition on the exercise of the right to speak imposes a burden on speech); Lamont
v. Postmaster General, 381 U.S. 301, 307 (1965) (requirement that individuals request
permission to receive mail on disfavored subjects had an unconstitutional “deterrent effect” on
First Amendment right to receive information). Requiring library patrons to request special
access to websites about non-mainstream religions sends a stigmatizing message that the
websites are somehow different or less acceptable than comparable websites that condemn nonmainstream religions. See Pratt, 670 F.2d at 779 (by restricting access to films, the school had
impermissibly “used its official power to perform an act clearly indicating that the ideas
contained in the films are unacceptable and should not be discussed or considered”); Counts v.
Cedarville Sch. Dist., 295 F. Supp. 2d 996, 999 (W.D. Ark. 2003) (requiring student to
affirmatively request access to Harry Potter book sends a message that it is “a „bad‟ book” that
students should not read); PFLAG, 853 F. Supp. 2d at 895 (“when a student is required to ask
permission to access information, „even if it‟s anonymous that still the student feels stigmatized,
that he‟s less than worthy, and the information that he‟s seeking is less than worthy.‟” ).
To be sure, the plurality in ALA stated that, even though the “pornography” filters
mistakenly blocked non-pornographic content, there are no constitutional concerns if library
patrons can request that the filter be turned off. But the intentional and avoidable viewpoint
discrimination practiced by Defendants is very different than the unintentional and unavoidable
over-blocking at issue in ALA. Unlike the pornography filters at issue in ALA, neither the
“occult” nor the “criminal skills” filters targets pornographic content; rather, they operate in a
manner that blocks content supportive of non-mainstream religions even though the content is
not sexually explicit. Moreover, at the time ALA was decided, there was no alternative filtering
technology that could efficiently block pornographic websites without over-blocking the
protected content. See ALA, 539 U.S. at 209 (Breyer, J., concurring in judgment) (“[N]o one has
presented any clearly superior or better fitting alternatives.”); id. at 207 n.3 (plurality). In light
of these technological limitations, it was “reasonable” for libraries to use filtering software that
engaged in unavoidable over-blocking. Id. at 208. Unlike the libraries in ALA, Salem Public
Library has readily available alternatives that would allow it to filter out sexually explicit
content, as required by CIPA, without posing the same First Amendment problems. SUMF at ¶
ALA noted that an individual could request that a filter be disabled. Yet despite
Plaintiff‟s requests to conduct research into Native American spirituality without viewpoint
filtering or the burden of having to repeatedly ask to have individual sites unblocked (id. at ¶¶
22-24, 32, 35-40), and despite the library having the capability to permanently unblock the
“occult” or “criminal skills” filters, neither Wofford nor any other Salem Public Library
employees ever did so for Hunter. Id. at ¶ 33. Instead, Defendants imposed substantial burdens
for patrons seeking to unblock Internet content that was over blocked by the Salem Public
Library‟s ICF (id. at ¶ 119) and then, at best, access to specific websites was sporadically, and
only temporarily, allowed. Id. at ¶¶ 35-38.
* * *
Defendants engaged in intentional viewpoint discrimination that did not further a
compelling government interest. Accordingly, Plaintiff is entitled to summary judgment on
Count I of her complaint.
Count II – Establishment Clause
“The First Amendment provides in relevant part that „Congress shall make no law
respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.‟ U.S. CONST.,
AMDT. 1. The Religion Clauses apply to the States by incorporation into the Fourteenth
Amendment. See Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296, 303, 60 S.Ct. 900, 84 L.Ed. 1213
(1940).” Elk Grove Unified Sch. Dist. v. Newdow, 542 U.S. 1, 8 fn.4. (2004); Americans United
for Separation of Church & State v. Prison Fellowship Ministries, Inc., 509 F.3d 406, 423 (8th
Cir. 2007)(citing Santa Fe Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Doe, 530 U.S. 290, 301 (2000)); ACLU Nebraska
Found. v. City of Plattsmouth, Neb., 419 F.3d 772, 775 (8th Cir. 2005).
In this case, Defendants intentionally maintained a filtering practice that blocked access
to information about non-mainstream religions while permitting access to information about
mainstream religions. SUMF at ¶¶ 27, 40, 51, 104-111, 116-118. In addition, Defendants‟
imposed substantial burdens for patrons seeking to unblock Internet content that was over
blocked by the Salem Public Library‟s ICF. Id. at ¶ 119. These policies, practices, and customs
gave preferential treatment to mainstream religions and disfavorable treatment to nonmainstream religious views, such as Wicca and Native American Spirituality. “The „clearest
command of the Establishment Clause‟ is that the government must not treat any religious
denomination with preference over others.” O’Brien v. U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services,
4:12-CV-476 CEJ, 2012 WL 4481208, *9 (E.D. Mo. Sept. 28, 2012)(quoting Larson v. Valente,
456 U.S. 228, 244 (1982)).
Defendants‟ filtering policy violates that clear command. Because it “discriminates
among religions, it can survive only if it is „closely fitted to the furtherance of any compelling
interest asserted.‟” See, e.g., Awad v. Ziriax, 670 F.3d 1111, 1127 (10th Cir. 2012) (quoting
Larson, 456 U.S. at 255). As noted above, Defendants‟ discriminatory filtering policy cannot
even meet the test of reasonableness, let alone satisfy strict scrutiny. It, therefore, fails under the
Establishment Clause for that reason alone.
Alternatively, Defendants‟ filtering policy also violates the traditional test from Lemon v.
Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971). A “government practice is permissible for purposes of
Establishment Clause analysis only if (1) it has a secular purpose; (2) its principal or primary
effect neither advances nor inhibits religion; and (3) it does not foster an excessive entanglement
with religion.” Plattsmouth, 419 F.3d at 775 (citing Lemon, 403 U.S. at 612-13. Put another
way, “[u]nder the Lemon analysis, a statute or practice which touches upon religion, if it is to be
permissible under the Establishment Clause, must have a secular purpose; it must neither
advance nor inhibit religion in its principal or primary effect; and it must not foster an excessive
entanglement with religion.” County of Allegheny v. Am. Civil Liberties Union Greater
Pittsburgh Chapter, 492 U.S. 573, 592 (1989). “Courts have frequently treated the „excessive
entanglement prong‟ of the Lemon test as part of the inquiry into a statute‟s principal or primary
effect.” Commack Self-Serv. Kosher Meats, Inc. v. Hooker, 680 F.3d 194, 205 (2d Cir. 2012)
The Salem Public Library‟s intentional blocking of non-mainstream religious viewpoints
while permitting mainstream religious viewpoints, including mainstream religious viewpoints
about non-mainstream religions, and imposition of substantial burdens for patrons seeking to
unblock Internet content that was over blocked by the Salem Public Library‟s ICF. violates the
Establishment Clause. The undisputed facts here demonstrate that Defendants, with no valid,
secular purpose, determined to advance mainstream religions and inhibit non-mainstream
Defendants have offered no secular purpose for their viewpoint-discriminatory blocking
other than compliance with CIPA. “When a governmental entity professes a secular purpose for
an arguably religious policy, … it is nonetheless the duty of the courts to distinguish a sham
secular purpose from a sincere one.” Santa Fe Indep. Sch. Dist. v. Doe, 530 U.S. 290, 308
(2000)(citations omitted); see also, e.g., McCreary County, Ky. V. American Civil Liberties
Union, 535 U.S. 844 (2005) (“[T]he secular purpose required has to be genuine, not a sham, and
not merely secondary to a religious objective.”). Here, the only evidence is that employment of
the “occult” and “criminal skills” filters was not necessary to comply with CIPA or Missouri
law. SUMF ¶¶ 56-68, 76-77, 101-102, 113-114. Wofford admits as much. Id. at ¶¶ 57-58, 6061, 76-77. In the absence of a non-sham secular purpose, the practice plainly violates the
Although Defendants‟ failure to meet Lemon‟s first prong ends the constitutional inquiry,
see, e.g. Edwards v. Aguillard, 482 U.S. 578 (1987) (“State action violates the Establishment
Clause if it fails to satisfy any of [Lemon‟s] prongs.”), Defendants‟ filtering practice falls short
under Lemon‟s second prong: The primary effect of the viewpoint-discriminatory filtering
practice was both to advance mainstream religions and to inhibit non-mainstream religions. “For
a law to have forbidden „effects,‟ it must be fair to say that the government has advanced religion
through its own activities and influence.” Am. Civil Liberties Union of Minnesota v. Tarek ibn
Ziyad Acad., 788 F. Supp. 2d 950, 963 (D. Minn. 2011)(citing Stark v. Indep. Sch. Dist., No. 640,
123 F.3d 1068, 1074-75 (8th Cir. 1997)). Here the public library allowed patrons to access the
Internet on the library‟s computers. When they accessed a website about a mainstream religion,
patrons faced no barrier. Id. at ¶ 108. But when, like Plaintiff, they sought positive information
about non-mainstream religions, they were blocked. Id. at ¶¶ 21, 105-107.
Providing access to
information about religion might be admirable as a general matter, but here Defendants were not
The viewpoint-discriminatory blocking excessively entangled Defendants with religion.
“Not all entanglements, of course, have the effect of advancing or inhibiting religion.”
Agostini v. Felton, 521 U.S. 203, 233 (1997). Here, however, discretion was given to Wofford to
determine the legitimacy of Plaintiff‟s, or others‟, requests to access websites presenting a nonmainstream religious viewpoint. SUMF at ¶¶ 11, 24, 31, 41-46, 80-96. Wofford had the
authority and ability to permanently unblock the “occult” and “criminal skills” filters so that
information with non-mainstream religious viewpoints could flow freely. Id. at ¶¶ 33, 84. She
did not do so for Hunter. Id. at ¶ 33. Instead, Wofford warned Plaintiff that she had an
“obligation” to call the “proper authorities” to report those who were attempting to access
blocked sites if she thought they would misuse the information they were attempting to access.
Id. at ¶¶ 43, 119. The employment of the filters by Defendants guaranteed an excessive
entanglement between the government and religion.
Defendants‟ filtering practice resulted in preferential treatment for mainstream religious
viewpoints and disfavorable treatment for other viewpoints. Id. at ¶¶ 101-118. Defendants have
advanced no non-sham secular purpose for the practice, the practice had the effect of advancing
mainstream religious viewpoints while inhibiting non-mainstream religious viewpoints, and the
practice required Wofford to be excessively entangled with religion. For these reasons, Plaintiff
is entitled to summary judgment on Count II of her complaint.
“The very essence of civil liberty certainly consists in the right of every individual to
claim the protection of the laws, whenever he receives an injury.” Marbury v. Madison, 1 Cranch
137, 163 (1803).
An award of nominal damages is appropriate in this case. “[N]ominal damages must be
awarded when a plaintiff establishes a violation of the right to free speech.” Lowry ex rel. Crow
v. Watson Chapel Sch. Dist., 540 F.3d 752, 762 (8th Cir. 2008)(internal citations omitted).
Similarly, “[a]n award of nominal damages is an appropriate remedy for a violation of the
Establishment Clause.” O’Connor v. Washburn University, 416 F.3d 1216, 1222 (10th Cir.
2005). A party is entitled to an award of nominal damages when a constitutional right is violated
because of the “importance to organized society that those rights be scrupulously observed.”
Carey v. Piphus, 435 U.S. 247, 266 (1978); see also Farrar v. Hobby, 506 U.S. 103, 112 (1992)
(“Carey obligates a court to award nominal damages when a plaintiff establishes the violation of
his [constitutional] right ... but cannot prove actual injury”).
To obtain a permanent injunction, Plaintiff must show the following: (1) actual success
on the merits; (2) that she faces irreparable harm; (3) that the harm to her outweighs any harm to
others; and (4) that an injunction serves the public interest. Bank One, Utah v. Guttau, 190 F.3d
844, 847 (8th Cir. 1999) (“The standard for granting a permanent injunction is essentially the
same as for a preliminary injunction, except that to obtain a permanent injunction the movant
must attain success on the merits”); Dataphase Sys., Inc. v. C.L. Sys., Inc., 640 F.2d 109, 114
(8th Cir. 1981) (preliminary injunction standards).
Actual Success on the Merits
As explained, supra, Plaintiff is entitled to summary judgment on Counts I and II of her
complaint. A grant of summary judgment constitutes actual success on the merits.
Plaintiff, and others, will suffer irreparable harm if an injunction does not issue.
Although the “occult” and “criminal skills” filters were disabled on August, 1, 2011, this was
through no action on Defendants‟ part. SUMF at ¶¶ 97-98. The change on August 1, 2011, was
because MOREnet emailed Defendants to notify them that absent specific step by Defendants
the “occult” or “criminal skills” filters would no longer be effective. Id. at ¶ 98. Absent an
injunction, nothing prevents Defendants from reemploying the viewpoint-discriminatory filters.
Id. at ¶¶ 97-100.
It is well-settled law that a “loss of First Amendment freedoms, for even minimal periods
of time, unquestionably constitutes irreparable injury.” Elrod v. Burns, 427 U.S. 347, 373 (1976)
(plurality opinion). Because Plaintiff has established success on the merits of her First
Amendment claim, she has also established irreparable harm as a result of the deprivation. See
Marcus v. Iowa Pub. Television, 97 F.3d 1137, 1140-41 (8th Cir.1996).
Balance of Harms
The use of the “occult” and “criminal skills” filters” harmed Plaintiff and unknown others
who were chilled. “The balance of equities … generally favors the constitutionally-protected
freedom of expression.” Phelps-Roper v. Nixon, 545 F.3d 685, 690 (8th Cir. 2008) overruled on
other grounds by Phelps-Roper v. City of Manchester, Mo., 697 F.3d 678 (8th Cir. 2012).
There is no harm to Defendants. Even though it took longer than a year, the offending
filters have, for now, been disabled and not yet re-enabled. Prohibiting Defendants from
returning to their unconstitutional conduct would impose no harm on them.
“It is always in the public interest to protect constitutional rights.” Nixon, 545 F.3d at
689. Because Plaintiff has demonstrated that she is entitled to succeed on the merits, the public
interest is served by preventing enforcement of the unconstitutional practice. The public interest
supports an injunction that is necessary to prevent a government entity from violating the
Constitution. Doe v. South Iron R-1 School Dist., 453 F.Supp.2d 1093, 1103 (E.D.Mo. 2006),
aff'd 498 F.3d 878 (8th Cir. 2007).
For the foregoing reasons, Plaintiff is entitled to summary judgment on Counts I and II of
her complaint, an award of nominal damages, and a permanent injunction. Nominal damages
should be in the amount of $1.00. The permanent injunction should prohibit Defendants from
enabling the “occult” or “criminal skills” filters on Netsweeper so long as the content of those
categories does not include sexually explicit material.
/s/ Anthony E. Rothert
ANTHONY E. ROTHERT, #44827MO
GRANT R. DOTY, #60788MO
AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNIONOF
454 Whittier Street
St. Louis, Missouri 63108
Fax: 314/652- 3112
AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION
915 15th Street NW
Washington, DC 20005
Phone: (202) 675-2330
FAX: (202) 546-0738
Attorneys for Plaintiff
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
I hereby certify that on February 25, 2013, I electronically filed the foregoing with the
Clerk of the Court using the CM/ECF system and a copy was made available electronically to all
electronic filing participants.
/s/ Anthony E. Rothert
Disclaimer: Justia Dockets & Filings provides public litigation records from the federal appellate and district courts. These filings and docket sheets should not be considered findings of fact or liability, nor do they necessarily reflect the view of Justia.
Why Is My Information Online?