J.T. Colby & Company, Inc. et al v. Apple, Inc.
DECLARATION of Claudia T. Bogdanos in Support re: 77 MOTION to Preclude the Testimony of Defendant's Rebuttal Expert Witness Stephen M. Nowlis.. Document filed by Ipicturebooks LLC, J.Boyston & Company, J.T. Colby & Company, Inc., Publishers LLC. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit A, # 2 Exhibit B, # 3 Exhibit C, # 4 Exhibit D, # 5 Exhibit E, # 6 Exhibit F, # 7 Exhibit G, # 8 Exhibit H, # 9 Exhibit I, # 10 Exhibit J, # 11 Exhibit K)(Chattoraj, Partha)
Pew Internet & American Life Project
a project of the
NwReseardiC, (, i ► i (, ►
APRIL 5, 2012
The rise of e-reading
of Americans have read an e-book. The increasing
availability of e-content is prompting some to read more than in
the past and to prefer buying books to borrowing them.
Director, Pew Internet Project
Research Specialist, Pew Internet Project
Associate Director for Research, Pew Internet
Senior Research Specialist, Pew Internet Project
Web Coordinator, Pew Internet Project
Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project
1615 L St., NW — Suite 700
Washington, D.C. 20036
http://I ibra ri es.pew i me rnet. o rg/2012/04/04/the - rise-of-e-read i ng/
Summary of findings
One-fifth of American adults (21%) report that they have read an e-book in the past year, and this
number increased following a gift-giving season that saw a spike in the ownership of both tablet
computers and e-book reading devices such as the original Kindles and Nooks. 1 In mid-December 2011,
17% of American adults had reported they read an e-book in the previous year; by February, 2012, the
share increased to 21%.
The rise of e-books in American culture is part of a larger story about a shift from printed to digital
material. Using a broader definition of e-content in a survey ending in December 2011, some 43% of
Americans age 16 and older say they have either read an e-book in the past year or have read other
long-form content such as magazines, journals, and news articles in digital format on an e-book reader,
tablet computer, regular computer, or cell phone.
Those who have taken the plunge into reading e-books stand out in almost every way from other kinds
of readers. Foremost, they are relatively avid readers of books in all formats: 88% of those who read ebooks in the past 12 months also read printed books.' Compared with other book readers, they read
more books. They read more frequently for a host of reasons: for pleasure, for research, for current
events, and for work or school. They are also more likely than others to have bought their most recent
book, rather than borrowed it, and they are more likely than others to say they prefer to purchase books
in general, often starting their search online.
The growing popularity of e-books and the adoption of specialized e-book reading devices are
documented in a series of new nationally representative surveys by the Pew Research Center's Internet
& American Life Project that look at the public's general reading habits, their consumption of print
books, e-books and audiobooks, and their attitudes about the changing ways that books are made
available to the public.
Most of the findings in this report come from a survey of 2,986 Americans ages 16 and older, conducted
on November 16-December 21, 2011, that extensively focused on the new terrain of e-reading and
people's habits and preferences. Other surveys were conducted between January 5-8 and January 1215, 2012 to see the extent to which adoption of e-book reading devices (both tablets and e-readers)
might have grown during the holiday gift-giving season and those growth figures are reported here.
Finally, between January 20-Febuary 19, 2012, we re-asked the questions about the incidence of book
reading in the previous 12 months in order to see if there had been changes because the number of
device owners had risen so sharply. All data cited in this report are from the November/December
survey unless we specifically cite the subsequent surveys. This work was underwritten by a grant from
the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
A fifth of American adults have read an e-book in the past year and the number of e-book readers
grew after a major increase in ownership of e-book reading devices and tablet computers during the
holiday gift - giving season. A pre-holiday survey found that 17% of Americans age 18 and older had read
an e-book in the previous 12 months and a post-holiday survey found that the number had grown to
American adults age 18 and older, as of February 2012.
Americans age 16 and older, as of December 2011.
21%. This coincides with significant increases in ownership of e-book reading devices and tablet
computers over the holiday gift-giving season. Ownership of e-book readers like the original Kindle and
Nook jumped from 10% in December to 19% in January and ownership of tablet computers such as
iPads and Kindle Fires increased from 10% in mid-December to 19% in January. In all, 29% of Americans
age 18 and older own at least one specialized device for e-book reading — either a tablet or an e-book
The average reader of e-books says she has read 24 books (the mean number) in the past 12 months,
compared with an average of 15 books by a non-e-book consumer. Some 78% of those ages 16 and
older say they read a book in the past 12 months. Those readers report they have read an average (or
mean number) of 17 books in the past year and 8 books as a median (midpoint) number.
Those who read e-books report they have read more books in all formats. They reported an average of
24 books in the previous 12 months and had a median of 13 books. Those who do not read e-books say
they averaged 15 books in the previous year and the median was 6 books.
For device owners, those who own e-book readers also stand out. They say they have read an average of
24 books in the previous year (vs. 16 books by those who do not own that device). They report having
read a median of 12 books (vs. 7 books by those who do not own the device).
Interestingly, there were not major differences between tablet owners and non-owners when it came to
the volume of books they say they had read in the previous 12 months.
Overall, those who reported reading the most books in the past year include: women compared with
men; whites compared with minorities; well-educated Americans compared with less-educated
Americans; and those age 65 and older compared with younger age groups.
30% of those who read e-content say they now spend more time reading, and owners of tablets and
e-book readers particularly stand out as reading more now. Some 41% of tablet owners and 35% of Breading device owners said they are reading more since the advent of e-content. Fully 42% of readers of
e-books said they are reading more now that long-form reading material is available in digital format.
The longer people have owned an e-book reader or tablet, the more likely they are to say they are
reading more: 41% of those who have owned either device for more than a year say they are reading
more vs. 35% of those who have owned either device for less than six months who say they are reading
Men who own e-reading devices and e-content consumers under age 50 are particularly likely to say
they are reading more.
The prevalence of e-book reading is markedly growing, but printed books still dominate the world of
book readers. In our December 2011 survey, we found that 72% of American adults had read a printed
book and 11% listened to an audiobook in the previous year, compared with the 17% of adults who had
read an e-book.
There are four times more people reading e-books on a typical day now than was the case less
than two years ago. On any given day, 45% of book readers are reading a book in one format or
another. And there has been a shift in the format being used by those who are reading on a
typical day. In June 2010, 95% of those reading books "yesterday" were reading print books and
4% were reading e-books. In December 2011, 84% of the "yesterday" readers were reading print
books and 15% were reading e-books.
Those who own e-book readers and tablets are avid readers of books in all formats. On any
given day, 49% of those who own e-book readers like the original Kindles and Nooks are reading
an e-book. And 59% of those e-reader owners said they were reading a printed book. On any
given day, 39% of tablet owners are reading an e-book and 64% were reading a printed book.
E-book reading happens across an array of devices, including smartphones. In our December survey we
found that e-book readers age 16 and older were just as likely to have read an e-book on their
computers as had read e-book reader devices specifically made for e-book consumption. Cell phones are
reading devices, too:
• 42% of readers of e-books in the past 12 months said they consume their books on a computer
• 41% of readers of e-books consume their books on an e-book reader like original Kindles or
• 29% of readers of e-books consume their books on their cell phones
• 23% of readers of e-books consume their books on a tablet computer. 3
In a head-to-head competition, people prefer e-books to printed books when they want speedy access
and portability, but print wins out when people are reading to children and sharing books with others.
We asked a series of questions about format preferences among the 14% of Americans age 16 and up
who in the past 12 months have read both printed books and e-books.
As a rule, dual-platform readers preferred e-books when they wanted to get a book quickly, when they
were traveling or commuting, and when they were looking for a wide selection. However, print was
strongly preferred over e-books when it came to reading to children and sharing books with others.
When asked about reading books in bed, the verdict was split: 45% prefer reading e-books in bed, while
43% prefer print.
Many people said they consumed e-books on several devices, so these numbers add up to more than 100%.
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Source: Gallup surveys and Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Reading Habits Survey, November 16-
December 21, 2011. N =2,986 respondents age 16 and older. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and
on landline and cells. The margin o f error for the sample is +/- 2 pe r ce n t age points.
Our question was somewhat different from Gallup's in that we asked respondents whether they had
read any books in the past 12 months in print, via audiobook, or an e-book. We also asked 16- and 17year-olds. Some 78% of those 16 and older had read at least one book in any format in the previous 12
months, compared with 88% in the 1978 Gallup survey of adults. In our December survey, looking at the
general population, 72% of Americans age 16 and older read at least one book in the past year in print;
16% read at least one e-book; 11% listened to at least one audiobook. The figures for adults 18 and
older in that survey were the same, except it was 17% who had read an e-book.
When we re-asked the question of adults 18 and older in a survey from January 20-February 19, 2012,
the number of readers of e-books in the previous year had increased to 21%.
In their technology profiles, these different categories of readers have somewhat different ownership
and use levels. Medium and frequent readers are more likely than infrequent readers to own e-book
readers. Medium readers are also a bit more likely than infrequent or frequent readers to be internet
users, and slightly more likely to own cell phones.
In their reading habits, frequent readers are more likely than others to read for pleasure: 74% of
frequent readers read for pleasure every day, compared with 43% of medium and 23% of infrequent
readers who read for pleasure that often. Medium readers are more likely than others to read
frequently for work or school. At the same time, frequent and medium readers are equally as likely to
read every day to keep up with current events and to read for purposes of researching specific topics
they are interested in.
Some 45% of book readers say they read a book in the past day - and the
number of adults reading e-books on any given day has jumped dramatically
In our full sample from December 2011, including 16- and 17-year-olds, 45% of the book readers said
they were reading the book the day before we contacted them in the survey. We often say that survey
results like this present a picture of a "typical" or "average" day. If we only include those ages 18 and
older in the sample, 44% of adults who read books were reading a book on a typical day — a figure that
has changed little from the figures collected among book readers by the Pew Research Center for the
People & the Press since 1994.
Still, there has been a noteworthy change in the formats of the books being read on any given day. 11 In
June 2010, 95% of the book readers "yesterday" were reading print books and 4% were reading e-books.
By December 2011 in our survey, 84% of the "yesterday" readers were reading print books and 15%
were reading e-books. The shift toward e-book reading on a typical day is being driven by those who are
college educated, those living in higher-income households, and those ages 30-49. Those groups
disproportionately report they were reading e-books yesterday.
The latest figures were collected in a June 2010 survey. Pew Research Center for the People and the Press.
Question wording for book readers was "There are different ways people read books these days. Yesterday, did
you read a printed book, an electronic or digital book, or listen to an audiobook?" Available at:
Data in this paragraph is for adults age 18 and older.
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