Wisconsin Interscholastic, et al v. Gannett Company, Incorporated, et al
Original record on appeal filed electronically. Contents of record : 20 vol. of pleadings.   [10-2627]
Wisconsin Interscholastic, et al v. Gannett Company, Incorporated, et al
Doc. 26 Att. 8
LINITED STATES DISTRICT COURT WESTERN DISTRICT OF WISCONSIN
WISCONSIN INTERSCHOLASTIC ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION and AMEzuCAN-HIFI. INC.. Plaintiffs,
GANNETT CO, INC,, and WISCONSIN NEWSPAPER AS SOCIATION. INC..
DECLARATION OF CHARLES C. SCHMIDT IN SUPPORT OF MOTION OF ARIZONA INTERSCHOLASTIC ASSOCIATION, INC. FOR LEAVE TO FILE AMICUS BRIEF AND SI'PPORTING DECLARATION
I am the Chief Operating Officer of the Arizonalnterscholastic Association,
Inc. ('.AIA"). I make this declaration on the basis of my personal knowledge.
AIA is a non-prof,tt Arizona corporation, with its principal office located in
Phoenix, Arizona. Established
AIA is a voluntary
association of public and
private high schools that serves to supplement the overall aims and objectives of
by organizing, developing, directing and regulating
activities among member schools.
to initiate and pursue policies that will
contests and cultivate cooperation, friendship and
good sportsmanship among member schools.
seeks to encourage maximum student
H:\DOCS\022487\00000 l\00385782 DOCX
to organize events in a manner that ensures fair and equitable
competition. AIA also seeks to ensure the safety of high school youth who participate in
athletics and other interscholastic activities and to prevent the commercial and other exploitation of student participants.
has 275 member schools, who in turn have an enrollment
3l 1,893 students.
are financed in part by membership dues and participation
fees. In addition to paying annual dues and fees, AIA members must agree to abide by
all AIA rules and regulations as a condition of membership. This includes rules on
student eligibility, practices, non-school participation, recruitment, use of drugs, alcohol
and tobacco, and other rules and regulations designed to protect the health and safety student participants.
conducts state tournaments
tournaments typically consist of several rounds of play, resulting in the "crowning" of a state champion. State tournaments require significant coordination and funding.
doubtful that Arizona high school athletes would be able to participate
tournament play absent the resources that AIA makes available.
Like the WIAA, AIA has established a policy relating to media coverage of
it sponsors. A true and correct copy of the policy is attached as Exhibit A.
The current policy was adopted in 2008, with input from Gannett Co., Inc., one of the
defendants in this case.
AIA tries to
ensure that those who receive credentials are reputable
individuals or entities. Each year, AIA receives hundreds of requests for credentials. Not
all requests are granted. Rather, AIA carefully reviews each request in accordance with
to ensure that the member of the media making the request is
affrliated with a properly accredited agency that has a legitimate media-related function in connection with the event at issue.
Credentials are not issued, for example, to members of the media who are
not reporting the news, but who instead wish to use the photos they take for commercial
purposes (e.g., selling mugs, t-shirts and the like
with images of student
Similarly, persons looking for the opportunity to take photos they can post in chat rooms
or on message boards will not be granted credentials, nor will recruiters desiring to sell highlight tapes to students or their parents. Walk-ins are not permitted and credentials
are checked at the events.
10. If anyone could attend and broadcast any event, AIA would not be able to
put these safeguards in place.
11. The AIA credentialing
sponsored by the
to all competitive activities
AIA maintains the right to control media access to
competitive academic events, as well as competitive sporting events.
has been broadcasting tournament games via
live streaming and on-demand streaming over its own website, AIA365.com. In addition
to streaming tournament games, the website is used to permit schools to stream regular
if they wish to do so. The AIA365.com website not only permits students,
their parents and other fans to view games they might not otherwise be able to view, but
also serves as a significant source of revenue to AIA, given AIA's ability to sell
sponsorships and advertising space
on the website. Revenue from sponsors and
advertisers since September,2009 totals close to $150,000.
it is still relatively 4ew, the website is heavily utilized.
December,2009, the website recorded 1.6 million streams.
In recent years, an additional and significant source of revenue for AIA was
a contract that it had with Cox Broadcasting, an Arizona broadcasting company, for the
rights to television broadcasting of certain AlA-sponsored athletic events. In exchange
for granting Cox the exclusive right to produce and broadcast state tournament
AIA was able to obtain signifrcant consideration from Cox, both in cash and in-kind. Inkind consideration included the commitment by Cox to produce and broadcast
popular tournament events that otherwise would have received no live video coverage at
all (like volleyball and softball), the production and broadcasting of promotional
of and attendance at the games, and broadcasts of post-game
productions for various state toumament events.
15. AIA also was able to control the advertising
that would be shown in
connection with broadcasts to ensure that it did not promote alcohol, gaming or any adult
entertainment products or services.
It is unlikely that Cox would have provided this additional consideration
AIA had not been able to grant Cox exclusive broadcasting rights.
17. 18. 19.
AIA's contract with Cox expired in mid-2009. AIA continues to explore
the possibility of granting television broadcasting rights for its tournament games.
Exclusivity adds value. If AIA cannot market exclusive broadcast rights, it
will not be able to obtain nearly
high a price as it can obtain for exclusive rights.
AIA's ability to sell advertising on its own website also would be harmed
significantly if another party could enter the market and stream live or on-demand video
of AlA-sponsored games, thus diluting AIA's viewership.
Having suff,rcient funding in place permits AIA to improve its programs
and to increase access to athletic and other interscholastic activities. to the benefit of all
students who attend member schools.
Revenue generated from the exclusive video streaming
AIA365.com website has enabled AIA to present live-streaming of tournament games in 22 sports.
AIA's business model, at the end of each school year, AIA's
net revenues are rebated back to its member schools, including member schools who
were not participants in the state tournaments. The schools are free to use this money to
defray athletic fees that they would otherwise charge student athletes or for other
pulposes, as they see fit.
23. AIA's ability to help member schools and their students in this fashion
would be reduced if AIA did not have the ability to grant (or retain) exclusive rights to
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over the internet or to grant exclusive television broadcast
Based on past experience,
AIA believes that both its website streaming of
events and its abilitv to license internet and television broadcasts on an exclusive basis
will be increasine sources of revenue for AIA in the future.
goals is to ensure that high school students who participate in
athletic and other activities can do so in a safe environment. Being able to control access to events and the broadcast rights for those events has helped
achieve this goal.
The high demand for media access to high school events has raised safety
in turn, have
AIA to impose limits on the number of media
will be granted for any particular event. The risk of injury to a player or a
referee, for example, from running into a television camera is much higher
multiple cameramen covering an event or if the cameramen are not restricted to areas that
have been set aside for members of the press.
Several years ago, a participant in an AlA-sponsored event collided with
television cameraman, causing series injury to the cameraman.
AIA's ability to grant exclusive rights to live broadcasts allows it to
sure that only a safe number of media credentials are issued for any particular event and that television or video cameras are restricted to safe locations.
One of the reasons
AIA instituted its credentialing policy was to address
safety issues relating to the inappropriate use of photos taken at high school events. For example, the San Diego news reported
in 2008 that photos of dozens of
high school boys water polo players were found on five gay-oriented websites. Attached
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B is a true and correct copy of an article posted on the web concerning this
Attached as Exhibit
C are two articles that were posted on the web
concerning a female California high school pole vaulter who became the target of lewd internet banter as a result of a photo "strewn across babe forums" on the web (Ex. C, p.
1). This internet exposure resulted in large numbers of individuals who had no interest in
reporting the event, but who could best be characteized as stalkers, showing up at track
meets to take additional photos. This raised obvious concerns about safety and sexual
hopes to be able to avoid subjecting its high school student athletes to established
similar abuse by limiting media credentials to only those who have
themselves as reputable members of the media.
While amateur photography by a fan could create similar issues, amateur
photographers are not granted access
areas as are members of the media.
to the same prime viewing and
Requiring those receiving credentials to abide by the limitations AIA has
placed on the use of images taken at AlA-sponsored events also may serve as a deterrent
by assisting AIA in pursuing legal action against those who seek to exploit high school
athletes through inappropriate use of such images.
were unable to restrict access to its events and to limit the use of
images captured at those events,
it likely would not be able to obtain any agreements
H:\DOCS\022487\00000 l\00385782.DOCX 0121101347
limiting its liability or requiring indemnification from ķose who are granted media
I decla°e under penaĢ of perjury thŅtthe foregoing is true and correct.
Executd on January zŅ-r 2010, in Phoenb°, fuizona,
Charles C. Schmidt
NOTE: Acceptance and possession of an AIA media credential constitutes agreement to the following conditions placed on their use.
Arizona Interscholastic Association, Inc. - July 1, 2009 - June 30, 2o1o
This working credential is issued as a courtesy to an accredited agency for the sole purpose of providing facility access to the accredited agency's employee who has a legitimate working function (media) in connection with Arizona Interscholastic Association (AlA) athletic and activity events. This credential is non-transferable and may be revoked at any time without cause. Any unauthorized use of this credential subjects the bearer to immediate ejection from the facility and prosecution for criminal trespass or other legal action, and potential terminate this credential upon notice to the organization and to change the terms and conditions for issuaŮce of
loss of all privileges for the organization to whom this credential is issued. The AIA reserves the right to
any subsequent credential to the organization. Furthermore, the permission granted below shall not be
assigned, transferred or disposed of to any third party.
Subject to all restrictions contained in this credential, this credential authorizes the agency's use, primarilv for news and editorial coveraoe of the event, of the descriptions, accounts, photographs, films, audio or video recordings, or drawings of or relating to the event (including, without limitation, any interviews, press conferences or other facility activities relating to the event) taken, made, created, or compiled by the agency's employee (collectively "Agency Materials"). For the avoidance of doubt, Agency Materials may not be eiploited by the agency for commercial purposes. Agencies may sell photographs to ultimate consumers who agree not to resell the photographs or use them in any way for a commercial purpose. Photographs obtained during an AIA event by credentialed media personnel that are sold to an ultimate consumer must contain acknowledgement that it was so obtained at and with the permission of AlA. Any other use or attempted use by the employee of the Agency Materials, including any distribution of Agency Materials to third parties other than ultimate consumers (e.9. newspaper readers) and other media outlets through a shared content distribution platform (for example, the Associated Press) at any time and for any purpose, is expressly prohibited, unless the agency has obtained the advance written permission of the AIA Executive Staff for sucŮ other use. As between the agency or the employee and the AlA, the AIA shall remain the exclusive owner of all copyrights, trademarks, and other proprietary rights in its names, logos and uniform designs. Any film, video, or digital video of a portion of the event, not to exceed five (5) minutes, which includes footage
of the game and interviews taken at the event, may only be used by the individual's organization for news broadcasts, dedicated highlight shows, weekly coach's shows and athletic/activity specific shows, and may be streamed and posted on news information websites. Except for other media outlets participating in shared content distribution programs such as the Associated Press, only the specific organization to which this credential is issued may stream, post or air such video, audio, pictures, photographs, or other non-text based accounts or descriptions of the event in any media Use of film, video, or digital video in any other manner or on any other media distribution platform without the advance written permission of the AIA is expressly
The transmission and distribution of any broadcast on a live basis or any live audio or video description of any game action while it is still in progress without rights granted in accordance with a specific written contract witŮ AIA is strictly prohibited. This prohibition does not apply to reports on the non-event activities (other than on a live basis from inside the facility) for broadcast within a newscast and is not precluded from reporting or updating a score of a contest while it is in progress except from courtside/field side. The agency accepting this credential assumes all risk incident to, and hereby releases the AIA from any and all liability arising in connection with, attending the event and creating and using Agency Materials. The agency agrees to indemnify, defend, and hold harmless the AIA from and against all liability, loss, damage or expense arising out of the issuance of this credential, the employee's presence in the facility, or any otheiactivity of the agency or employee in connection with the event (including without limitation, any claims that Agency Materials infringe the intellectual property rights, publicity rights, or any rights of any third party). In no event shall the AIA be liable to the agency or employee for any incidental, special, indirect, punitive, oi consequential damages arising out of or relating to this credential. Acceptance of this credential constitutes agreement by the individual accepting the credential, the bearer, and the agency to abide by the foregoing conditions. Thank you for your cooperation.
Adzons Inlo…cholŚ°tlc A66ocial°on. lhc
Pictures Of Teen Water Polo Players Found On Gay Porn Sites - Print This Story News St... Page
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Pictures Of Teen Water Polo Players Found On Gay Porn Sites
POSTED: 11 24 am PST January 20 2008 UPDATED: 6:02 pm PST January 22, 2008
Related To Story
IRVINE, Calif. --
San Diego County parents are outraged Sunday at the news that secret photos ofyoung water polo athletes have turned up on gay porn Web sites, it was reported Sunday,
Police at UC Irvine said the photos may be the work of a UCI police dispatcher, and have notified parents that the photos are on the Vy'eb. Unauthorized photos of dozens of apparently-unsuspecting high school boys water polo players, some as young as 14, were found on five gayoriented Web sites, the Orange County Register reported. The boys are from least 11 Orange County high schools, and well as schools in Los Angeles and San Diego counties.
Video: Local Athletes Upset Their Photos Turn Up On Gay
"It's disgusting ... No high school athlete should worry about their picture being taken during the game," said one Orange County coach, who confirmed photos on a Web site included members of his team. UC Irvine police confirmed to the Register that they are investigating whether the photos are the work of Scott Cornelius, a UCI police dispatcher.
Comelius was granted a photo credential to the 2007 Junior World Water Polo Championships at Los Alamitos last summer, said Joan Gould, an intemational water polo offrcial and spokeswoman for a group of Orange County water polo parents.
UCI police said Cornelius remains on active duty.
A university police department detective, Shaun Devlin, sent an e-mail to several parents last week confrrming that
police were investigating the matter, the Register reported.
Peter Yu, director of Drake University's Intellectual Property Law Center, said photos taken at public events like high school sports competitions are generally protected by the Constitution.
to inflict harm on children.
"This is why we have to enact some stricter laws to protect our kids," said Assemblyman Cameron Smyth, R-Santa Clarita, in an interview with the Register. Smyth has authored a bill that would make it illegal to use Intemet images
The proposed Surrogate Stalker Act was prompted by Jack McClellan, who last year photographed children at California schools and playgrounds and placed them on a Web site described by law enforcement officials as popular with pedophiles.
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Sexual Assault Via the Internet: The Case of Allison Stokke
How Internet Blogs Wrecked the Life of a Teenage Girl
By Michael LuE Gan clicking on a link to a picture or video of an attractive woman constitute assault? For Takeaways the majority of women's images on the internet, there is an unwritten code of consent that Allison Stokke became an governs voyeurism; women in various states of (un)dress willingly post pictures of themselves to be viewed by others. However, there are exceptions to this rule, such as overnight celebrity for the wrong the case of Allison Stokke. reasons Ms. Stokke, if you haven't heard by now, is a 4.0+ student at Newport Harbor School, where she brokefive national records in pole vaulting and earned a scholarship to the university of california, according to a recent article inihe washington However, the article that appeared in the Post, and other press appearances by Stokke, had little to do with her athletic and scholarly achievements. The real story here was about sexual norms, the internet, and law in the United States.
High řoii ' Ms.
, __ her
Her photograph was used without
consent but she could not take
legal action to stop it
Photographs of Ms. Stokke were originally taken by a track and field journalist for a California track website, according to the Post article. These photos circulated on athletic websites with relatively small viewerships until making their way to withleather.com, a sports blog with a readership of over one million per month. According to the Post article, "more than 20 message boards and 30 blogs" linked to the picture of Stokke, and before long the photo was all over the internet, being leered at by hundreds of thousands.
The photos themselves are nowhere near sordid; indeed, the content is tame. At the same time, the elements of the photo seem to question where the border of "acceptable" voyeuristic behavior lies. Stokke is dressed in standard athletic gear, being at a track meet. While such uniforms are not particularly revealing, they are very form fitting-presumably to reduce wind resistance. Even the most evenhanded descriptions of the photos, however-like the one in the Washington Post article-take time to note Stokke's "olive skin" and "bared midriff " In addition, Stokke herself is l8-a fantasy age of perverts, old enough to "legally" be considered an adult, but just barely. However, some of the photos were taken when she was younger
In addition to questioning cultural norms of sexuality, the unwanted circulation of the photographs brings up complicated legal questions. In an article for the L.A. Times, Eugene Volokh, a UCI-A professor of 'lst Amendment law, notes that ""lf somebody puts up a picture taken by someone else, the photographer can sue - though it's not clear he'd always win - butAllison Stokke can't sue." Stokke herself noted that "Even if none of it is illegal, it just all feels really demeaning." Even if the law cannot help Stokke control the use of her own image, it seems that there is a glimmer of hope that the right thing will be done A phone call and a letter from the Stokke family succeeded in shutting down the unofficial Allison Stokke fan page, which now reads, "Farewell. Sorry for having contributed to the unwanted attention, Allison. We think you're a phenomenal athlete and wish you the best of luck in your academic and athletic endeavors."
Additionally, on the message boards of Letsrun.com, one of the earliersources of the Stokke photos, posters mulled the negative consequences of their actions in relation to the Washington Post article. One poster remarked that "The point here is that seemingly benign behavior (clicking on a link to a picture of a high school girl) is traumatizing to some degree an innocent party (the high school girl). The point is that there really seems to be a substantial difference between locker room talk on one hand and locker room talk amplified 10,000 times via the internet and photography on the other. Locker room talk is most often probably less than ideal for all parties, but what's happened to this girl is much more substantial and potentially damaging." We can only hope that more voices like this are heard in the wake of Allison Stokke's unfortunate experience.
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