Motorola Mobility, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation

Filing 129

MOTION in Limine Nos. 1-9 and Brief in Support Thereof by Motorola Mobility, Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Affidavit, # 2 Exhibit A to Affidavit in Support, # 3 Exhibit B to Affidavit in Support, # 4 Exhibit C to Affidavit in Support, # 5 Exhibit D to Affidavit in Support, # 6 Exhibit E to Affidavit in Support, # 7 Exhibit F to Affidavit in Support, # 8 Exhibit G to Affidavit in Support, # 9 Exhibit H to Affidavit in Support, # 10 Exhibit I to Affidavit in Support, # 11 Exhibit J to Affidavit in Support, # 12 Exhibit K to Affidavit in Support, # 13 Exhibit L to Affidavit in Support, # 14 Exhibit M to Affidavit in Support)(Mullins, Edward)

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E X H I B I T H ‘214 Patent Infringement Contentions Motorola’s infringing products (“Accused Devices”) include mobile devices, such as smartphones, associated software, and components thereof. The Accused Devices include Motorola’s Android based phones which include, but are not limited to, the Motorola Droid X, Droid 2, Droid 2 Global, Cliq 2, Defy, Bravo, Droid Pro, Droid 2 R2-D2, Droid X 2, Charm, Droid, Flipside, Flipout, Atrix, Droid Bionic, Xoom, Devour A555, Backflip, Cliq/Dext, Cliq XT/Quench, Citrus, Spice, i1 and other Motorola Android based phones incorporating hardware and/or software that is substantially similar. The figures and illustrations in the infringement chart below display exemplary devices. U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 1. In a network that includes a first computer system having a first data store and second computer system having a second data store, a method for synchronizing the first and second data stores in a flexible manner considering the circumstances that exist at the time of synchronization, the method comprising the following: Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 or DROID X model, is a first computer system, that operates in a network. Such network includes at least each Accused Device and a second computer system, which can be, for example, an email or calendar server. Such email or calendar server can be, for example, a Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server. Each Accused Device has a first data store, which can be onboard memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2 and DROID X), SD memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2, or 2 GB in DROID X), SIM card, and/or other memory (e.g., removable memory) for storing data items such as email, calendar data and contact information. See, e.g., DROID 2 by Motorola – Android Phone – Tech Specs, http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/US-EN/ConsumerProduct-and-Services/Mobile-Phones/ci.Motorola-DROID2-US-EN.alt (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 1 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also DROID X by Motorola – Android phone – HD phone – Tech Specs, http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/US-EN/ConsumerProduct-and-Services/Mobile-Phones/ci.Motorola-DROIDX-US-EN.alt (visited Feb. 16, 2011): See also DROID 2 User Guide at 59, http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Support/USEN/Mobile%20Phones/DROID2/USEN/_Documents/Static_Files/DROID2_VZW_USEN_UG_68000202881b.pdf (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 2 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The second computer system (which can be, for example, an email or calendar server) has a second data store for storing data items such as email, calendar data and contact information. As set forth below, each Accused Device comprises a method for synchronizing the calendar, email, and contact information of the first data store of each Accused Device and second data store of the second computer system. See, e.g., DROID 2 by Motorola – Android Phone – Tech Specs: See also DROID X by Motorola – Android phone – HD phone – Tech Specs: 3 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As set forth below, this synchronization of the first and second data stores is accomplished in a flexible manner considering the circumstances existing at the time of synchronization. an act of the first computer system determining that a data item is to be synchronized; Each Accused Device determines that a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) is to be synchronized. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10; Screenshot 1.1: 4 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 1.1: status icon indicates a synchronization is active – each Accused Device determined that a data item was to be synchronized Furthermore, each Accused Device can determine that a data item is to be synchronized by either "pushing " data or "fetching" data on a predetermined schedule. Also, each Accused Device will immediately determine that a data item is to be synchronized when a new item is created or an old item is edited. an act of the first computer system identifying which of a plurality of synchronization mechanisms, including one or more hardwired or wireless communication connections, are available to use for synchronization; Each Accused Device identifies which of a plurality synchronization mechanisms, including one or more hardwired or wireless communication connections, are available to use for synchronization. Such wireless communication connections for synchronization can be, for example, 3G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth connections. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10: 5 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The hardwired communication connection can be, for example, a USB connection. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 48: Other synchronization mechanisms can be “push” or “fetch.” For the former, the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server) can “push” a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) to each Accused Device. For the latter, each Accused Device fetches a data item from the second computer system. Another synchronization mechanism can be a Virtual Private Network (VPN). See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): an act of the first computer system consulting a set of one or more flexible selection rules to select a synchronization mechanism, the set of one or more flexible rules taking into consideration Each Accused Device consults a set of one or more flexible selection rules to select a synchronization mechanism (e.g., wireless 3G or Wi-Fi; hardwired USB; fetch or pull synchronization). Each Accused Device can be flexibly configured such that, for example, it synchronizes emails by fetch or push 6 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices value, from having access to synchronized data, relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism, (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, (iii) security of the second computer system, or (iv) value of data being synchronized and thereby selecting an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules; and synchronization, whereas it synchronizes social applications only via Wi-Fi. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): The set of one or more flexible rules takes into consideration value, from having access to synchronized data (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information), relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism (e.g., wireless 3G or Wi-Fi; hardwired USB; fetch or pull synchronization), (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, (iii) security of the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server), or (iv) value of data being synchronized and thereby selecting an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules. For example, each Accused Device can fetch data on a predetermined schedule, or the second computer system can automatically push data to each Accused Device, or. This is a flexible choice that takes into account at least the value of the data. 7 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to synchronize social applications only via a WiFi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Such flexible rule takes into account at least the value of the data and cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As yet another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a secure connection when synchronizing email. This flexible rule takes into account the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 8 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). Choosing to use a Virtual Private Network for synchronization is a rule that considers the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 9 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to choose between a Wi-Fi mechanism and a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. Each Accused Device uses a 3G mechanism until it is flexibly authorized to use a particular Wi-Fi mechanism. This rule considers the network security of unauthorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. Once one or more available Wi-Fi mechanisms have been authorized, each Accused Device prefers user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms to a 3G mechanism. This rule considers the economic cost due to the fact that using a Wi-Fi mechanism is less likely lead to additional user fees. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: Each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to remove a particular Wi-Fi mechanism from the list of authorized Wi- 10 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Fi mechanisms, and each Accused Device will thereafter prefer a 3G mechanism to the de-authorized Wi-Fi mechanism. This can be done by selecting "Forget network" from the "Manage Networks" settings screen. See, e.g., Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): Alternatively, each Accused Device can flexibly override the preference for all user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms by clearing the "Wi-Fi" checkbox on the "Wireless and network settings" screen. This will result in each Accused Device preferring a 3G mechanism to all Wi-Fi mechanisms, including user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. See, e.g., WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 11 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to allow "roaming," or alternatively to allow synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. This flexible rule considers the cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 12 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 13 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) an act of the first computer system using the selected synchronization mechanism to synchronize the data item with the second computer. Accused Devices Each Accused Device uses the selected synchronization mechanism to synchronize data with the second computer. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10; Screenshot 1.2; Screenshot 1.3, which show a successful synchronization using first a Wi-Fi synchronization mechanism and then a 3G synchronization mechanism. 14 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 1.2: synchronization taking place using a Wi-Fi synchronization mechanism Screenshot 1.3: synchronization taking place using a 3G synchronization mechanism 3. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the first computer system is a mobile device, and the second computer system is a synchronization server. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 or DROID X model, is a mobile device and operates in a network in which the second computer system is a synchronization server, such as, for example a Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server. 4. A method in accordance with claim 3, wherein the act of the first computer system determining that a data item is to be synchronized comprises the following: an act of the mobile device determining on its own that the data item is to Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can each determine on its down that a data item is to be synchronized. For example, each Accused Device can determine that a data item is to be synchronized by "fetching" data on a predetermined schedule. Also, each Accused Device will immediately determine that 15 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices be synchronized. a data item is to be synchronized when a new item is created or an old item is edited. 5. A method in accordance with claim 3, wherein the act of the first computer system determining that a data item is to be synchronized comprises the following: an act of the mobile device receiving a user-issued instruction to synchronize the data item. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can each determine that a data item is to be synchronized by receiving a user-issued instruction to synchronize the data item. For example, each Accused Device can receive a user-issued instruction to "sync now." See, e.g. Google Synchronization, https://motorola-globalportal.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/51167/~/droid2---google-synchronization (visited March 24, 2011); Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited March 25, 2011): 16 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 6. A method in accordance with claim 3, wherein the act of the first computer system determining that a data item is to be synchronized comprises the following: an act of the mobile device receiving a signal from the synchronization server that represents to the mobile device that the data item is to be synchronized. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can each determine that a data item is to be synchronized by receiving a signal from the synchronization server that represents to the mobile device that the data item is to be synchronized. For example, each Accused Device can determine that a data item is to be synchronized by receiving a signal from the synchronization server comprising a data "push" operation. 17 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 10. A method in accordance with claim 3, wherein the mobile device comprises a mobile telephone. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, each comprise a mobile telephone. 14. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the plurality or synchronization mechanisms comprises at least one wireless synchronization mechanism. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can synchronize using a plurality of synchronization mechanisms comprising at least one wireless synchronization mechanism. 17. A method in accordance with claim 14, wherein the at least one wireless synchronization mechanism uses an 802.11b network. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can synchronize using a wireless synchronization mechanism that uses an 802.11b network. Such wireless synchronization mechanism includes, for example, Wi-Fi. 19. A method in accordance with claim 14, wherein the at least one wireless synchronization mechanism uses a cellular network. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can synchronize using a wireless synchronization mechanism that uses a cellular network. Such wireless synchronization mechanism includes, for example, 3G. 22. A method in accordance with claim 1, further comprising the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules; and an act of changing the set or selection rules in response to the Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. Such wireless synchronization mechanisms include, for example, 3G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth mechanisms. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10: For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent 18 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) instruction. Accused Devices than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See Screenshot 22.1. Screenshot 22.1: receiving an instruction to change the flexible rule that dictates the age of emails that are synchronized As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications synchronize only via a Wi-Fi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Alternatively, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications are not restricted in this 19 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices way. Either way, each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use, a secure connection when synchronizing email, and can change the set of flexible selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 20 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use a Virtual Private Network (VPN), and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 21 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use Wi-Fi synchronization mechanisms and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: See also, Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 22 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also, WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 23 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device allows, or does not allow, "roaming," or alternatively to allow, or not allow, synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 24 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 25 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 23. A method in accordance with claim 22, wherein the act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules comprises the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from a user of the first computer system. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules from a user of the first computer system (i.e. each Accused Device) and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See Screenshot 23.1. 26 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 23.1: receiving an instruction to change the flexible rule that dictates the age of emails that are synchronized As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications synchronize only via a Wi-Fi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Alternatively, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications are not restricted in this way. Either way, each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 27 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use, a secure connection when synchronizing email, and can change the set of flexible selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 28 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use a Virtual Private Network (VPN), and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 29 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use Wi-Fi synchronization mechanisms and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: See also, Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 30 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also, WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 31 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device allows, or does not allow, "roaming," or alternatively to allow, or not allow, synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 32 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 33 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 24. A method in accordance with claim 22, wherein the act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules comprises the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from an agent of the second computer system. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules from a an agent of the second computer system and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from an agent of the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that calendar items are only synchronized if they are newer than two weeks old. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such an instruction. As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from an agent of the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in 34 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices response to such instruction. As a further example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from an agent of the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that attachments to emails are not synchronized, or are only synchronized if they are smaller than a given size. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See, e.g., http://www.sysadminlab.net/activesync/android-22-and-activesync-policies-a-complete-guide-what-works (accessed April 12, 2011) 25. A method in accordance with claim 24, wherein the act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from an agent of the second computer system comprises the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that calendar items are only synchronized if they are newer than two weeks old. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such an instruction. As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. As a further example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that attachments to emails are not synchronized, or are only synchronized if they are smaller than a given size. Each Accused Device can change 35 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See, e.g., http://www.sysadminlab.net/activesync/android-22-and-activesync-policies-a-complete-guide-what-works (accessed April 12, 2011) 26. A method in accordance with claim 25, further comprising the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from a user. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules from a user of the first computer system (i.e. each Accused Device) and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See Screenshot 23.1. 36 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 23.1: receiving an instruction to change the flexible rule that dictates the age of emails that are synchronized As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications synchronize only via a Wi-Fi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Alternatively, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications are not restricted in this way. Either way, each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 37 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use, a secure connection when synchronizing email, and can change the set of flexible selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 38 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use a Virtual Private Network (VPN), and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 39 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use Wi-Fi synchronization mechanisms and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: See also, Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 40 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also, WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 41 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device allows, or does not allow, "roaming," or alternatively to allow, or not allow, synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 42 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 43 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 27. A method in accordance with claim 26, wherein the act of changing the set of selection rules in response to the instruction, comprises the following: an act of fulfilling the instructions received from the network administrator of the second computer system to the extent that there is a conflict between the instructions received from the network administrator of the second computer system and the instructions received from the user of the first computer system. Each Accused Device fulfils the instructions received from the network administrator of the second computer system to the extent that there is a conflict between the instructions received from the network administrator of the second computer system and the instructions received from the user of the first computer system. For example, if each Accused Device receives an instruction from the network administrator to disable synchronization of email attachments, and the user gives an instruction to synchronize an email attachment by clicking on an attachment to an email message, each Accused Device will not allow the attachment synchronization. As a further example, if each Accused Device receives an instruction from the network administrator to disable synchronization of email attachments greater than a certain size, and the user gives an instruction to synchronize an email attachment that exceeds that size by clicking on an attachment to an email message, each Accused Device will 44 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices not allow the attachment synchronization. As a further example, if each Accused Device receives an instruction from the network administrator to synchronize only email items received more recently than a certain age, each Accused Device will not allow the user to synchronize older email items. As a further example, if each Accused Device receives an instruction from the network administrator to synchronize only calendar items more recent than a certain age, each Accused Device will not allow the user to synchronize older calendar items. See, e.g., http://www.sysadminlab.net/activesync/android-22-and-activesync-policies-a-complete-guide-what-works (accessed April 12, 2011) 28. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the act of the first computer system consulting a set of flexible selection rules comprises the following: an act of the first computer system selecting one of the available synchronization mechanisms without synchronous intervention from a user of the first computer system. Each Accused Device can consult the set of flexible selection rules by selecting one of the available synchronization mechanisms without synchronous intervention from a user of the first computer system (i.e. each Accused Device). For example, without synchronous intervention from a user, each Accused Device can synchronize emails by fetch or push synchronization. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 45 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, without synchronous intervention by a user, each Accused Device can use a secure connection when synchronizing email. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 46 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, without synchronous intervention by a user, each Accused Device use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 47 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, without synchronous user invention, each Accused Device can use either a Wi-Fi mechanism or a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: See also, Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 48 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also, WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 49 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, without synchronous user intervention, each Accused Device can "roam" or alternatively only use the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 50 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 51 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 29. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the act of determining that a data item is to be synchronized comprises the following: an act of the first computer system receiving a notification from the second computer system that a data item is available to synchronize; an act of the first computer system notifying the user of the availability of the data item; and an act of receiving a user-instruction to synchronize the data item. Each Accused Device can determine that a data item is to be synchronized by receiving a notification from the second computer system that a data item is available to synchronize, notifying the user of the availability of the data item, and receiving a user-instruction to synchronize the data item. 32. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the act of consulting a set of flexible selection rules to select one of the available synchronization Each Accused Device can select the synchronization mechanism at least based on the value of the data. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 50: For example, each Accused Device can fetch data on a predetermined schedule, or the second computer system can automatically push data to each Accused Device, or. This is 52 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) mechanisms comprises the following: an act of selecting the synchronization mechanism at least based on the value of the data. Accused Devices a flexible choice that takes into account at least the value of the data. As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to synchronize social applications only via a WiFi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Such flexible rule takes into account at least the value of the data and cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 33. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the act of consulting a set of flexible selection rules to select one of the available synchronization mechanisms comprises the following: an act of selecting the synchronization mechanism at least based on the economic cost of using a network associated with the Each Accused Device can select the synchronization mechanism at least based on the economic cost of using a network associated with the synchronization mechanism. For example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to synchronize social applications only via a WiFi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Such flexible rule takes into account at least the value of the data and economic cost of using a network associated with the synchronization 53 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) synchronization mechanism. Accused Devices mechanism. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to choose between a Wi-Fi mechanism and a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. Each Accused Device uses a 3G mechanism until it is flexibly authorized to use a particular Wi-Fi mechanism. Once one or more available Wi-Fi mechanisms have been authorized, each Accused Device prefers user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms to a 3G mechanism. This rule considers the economic cost of using a network associated with the synchronization mechanism due to the fact that using a Wi-Fi mechanism is less likely to lead to additional user fees. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: 54 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to allow "roaming," or alternatively to allow synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. This flexible rule considers the economic cost of using a network associated with the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 55 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 56 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) 34. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the act of consulting a set of flexible selection rules to select one of the available synchronization mechanisms comprises the following: an act of selecting the synchronization mechanism at least based on the security of a network associated with the synchronization mechanism. Accused Devices Each Accused Device can select the synchronization mechanism at least based on the security of a network associated with the synchronization mechanism. As yet another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a secure connection when synchronizing email. This flexible rule takes into account the security of a network associated with the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 57 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). Choosing to use a Virtual Private Network for synchronization is a rule that considers the security of a network associated with the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 58 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to choose between a Wi-Fi mechanism and a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. Each Accused Device uses a 3G mechanism until it is flexibly authorized to use a particular Wi-Fi mechanism. This rule considers the security of a network associated with the synchronization mechanism (e.g.. an authorized Wi-Fi network). 38. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the act of consulting a set of flexible selection rules to select one of the available synchronization mechanisms comprises the following: an act of selecting the synchronization mechanism at least based on the location of the user of the first computer system. Each Accused Device can select the synchronization mechanism at least based on the location of the first computer system. As an example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to choose between a Wi-Fi mechanism and a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. Each Accused Device uses a 3G mechanism until it is flexibly authorized to use a particular Wi-Fi mechanism. Once one or more available Wi-Fi mechanisms have been authorized, each Accused Device prefers user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms to a 3G mechanism when the first computer system is located within range of the Wi-Fi mechanism. This rule considers the location of the first computer system. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: 59 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to allow "roaming," or alternatively to allow synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. This rule considers the location of the first computer system. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 60 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 61 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 39. A method in accordance with claim 1, wherein the act of consulting a set of flexible selection rules to select one of the available synchronization mechanisms comprises the following: an act of determining that there are no current synchronization mechanisms that are selectable based on the flexible set of rules; an act of reevaluating the flexible selection rules at a later time; and an act of repeating the reevaluation until at least one of the available synchronization mechanisms is selectable based on the flexible selection rules. Each Accused Device can determine that there are no current synchronization mechanisms that are selectable based on the flexible set of rules, reevaluate the flexible selection rules at a later time, and repeat the reevaluation until at least one of the available synchronization mechanisms is selectable based on the flexible selection rules. 41. A method in accordance Each Accused Device can determine that a data item is to be For example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to synchronize social applications only via a WiFi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. In such situation, if a social application data item is to be synchronized, but a Wi-Fi connection is not available, each Accused Device will determine that there are no current synchronization mechanisms that are selectable based on the flexible set of rules. Each Accused Device will reevaluate the flexible selection rules at a later time and repeat the reevaluation until at least one of the available synchronization mechanisms is selectable based on the flexible selection rules (for example, until the rule that social applications are synchronized only via Wi-Fi changes, or until a Wi-Fi connection becomes available). 62 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices with claim 1, wherein the act of the first computer system determining that a data item is to be synchronized comprises the following: an act of the first computer system determining whether to synchronize a data item by consulting a set of flexible selection rules; and an act of the first computer system synchronize the data item with the second computer if the first computer system determines that the data item is to be synchronized. synchronized by consulting a flexible set of selection rules and synchronizing the data item with the second computer if the first computer (i.e. each Accused Device) determines that the data item is to be synchronized. For example, each Accused Device can determine that a data item is to be synchronized by consulting a flexible set of selection rules that dictate that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device will synchronize emails if it determines that the data item is to be synchronized. See Screenshot 41.1. Screenshot 41.1: determining that a data item is to be synchronized by consulting a flexible rule that specifies the age of emails that are synchronized 63 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 42. A computer program product for use in a network that includes a first computer system having a first data store and second computer system having a second data store, the computer program product for implementing a method for synchronizing the first and second data stores in a flexible manner considering the circumstances that exist at the time of synchronization, the computer program product comprising one or more computer-readable media having stored thereon the following: Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 or DROID X model, is a first computer system and includes a computer program product (which may include or be part of, but is not limited to), the Android operating system) for use in a network. Such network includes at least each Accused Device and a second computer system, which can be, for example, an email or calendar server. Such email or calendar server can be, for example, a Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server. Each Accused Device has a first data store, which can be onboard memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2 and DROID X), SD memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2, or 2 GB in DROID X), SIM card, and/or other memory (e.g., removable memory) for storing data items such as email, calendar data and contact information. See, e.g., DROID 2 by Motorola – Android Phone – Tech Specs, http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/USEN/Consumer-Product-and-Services/MobilePhones/ci.Motorola-DROID-2-US-EN.alt (visited Feb. 16, 2011): See also DROID X by Motorola – Android phone – HD phone – Tech Specs, http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/US-EN/ConsumerProduct-and-Services/Mobile-Phones/ci.Motorola-DROID- 64 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices X-US-EN.alt (visited Feb. 16, 2011): See also DROID 2 User Guide at 59, http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Support/USEN/Mobile%20Phones/DROID2/USEN/_Documents/Static_Files/DROID2_VZW_USEN_UG_68000202881b.pdf (visited Feb. 16, 2011): The second computer system (which can be, for example, an email or calendar server) has a second data store for storing data items such as email, calendar data and contact information. Each Accused Device implements a method for synchronizing the calendar, email, and contact information of the first data store of each Accused Device and second data store of the second computer system. See, e.g., DROID 2 by Motorola – Android Phone – Tech Specs: 65 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also DROID X by Motorola – Android phone – HD phone – Tech Specs: 66 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As set forth below, this synchronization of the first and second data stores is accomplished in a flexible manner considering the circumstances existing at the time of synchronization. Each Accused Device comprises one or more computerreadable media, which can be on-board memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2 and DROID X), SD memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2, or 2 GB in DROID X), SIM card, and/or other memory (e.g., removable memory). This computer-readable media has computer-executable instructions (including, but not limited to, the Android operating system), as set forth below. computer-executable instructions for determining that a data item is to be synchronized; Certain computer-executable instructions (which may be part of, but not limited to, the Android operating system) on each Accused Device are for determining that a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) is to be synchronized. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10; Screenshot 42.1: 67 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 42.1: status icon indicates a synchronization is active – each Accused Device determined that a data item was to be synchronized Furthermore, each Accused Device can determine that a data item is to be synchronized by either "pushing " data or "fetching" data on a predetermined schedule. Also, each Accused Device will immediately determine that a data item is to be synchronized when a new item is created or an old item is edited. computer-executable instructions for identifying which of a plurality of synchronization mechanisms, including one or more hardwired or wireless communication connections, are available to use for synchronization; Certain computer-executable instructions (which may include or be part of, but is not limited to, the Android operating system) on each Accused Device are for identifying which of a plurality synchronization mechanisms, including one or more hardwired or wireless communication connections, are available to use for synchronization. Such wireless communication connections for synchronization can be, for example, 3G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth connections. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10: 68 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The hardwired communication connection can be, for example, a USB connection. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 48: Other synchronization mechanisms can be “push” or “fetch.” For the former, the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server) can “push” a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) to each Accused Device. For the latter, each Accused Device fetches a data item from the second computer system. Another synchronization mechanism can be a Virtual Private Network (VPN). See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 69 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices computer-executable instructions for consulting a set of one or more flexible selection rules to select a synchronization mechanism, the set of one or more flexible rules taking into consideration value, from having access to synchronized data, relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism, (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, or (iii) security of the second computer system, or (iv) value of data being synchronized, and thereby selecting an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules; and Certain computer-executable instructions (which may include or be part of, but is not limited to, the Android operating system) on each Accused Device are for consulting a set of one or more flexible selection rules to select a synchronization mechanism (e.g., wireless 3G or Wi-Fi; hardwired USB; fetch or pull synchronization). Each Accused Device can be flexibly configured such that, for example, it synchronizes emails by fetch or push synchronization, whereas it synchronizes social applications only via Wi-Fi. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 70 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The set of one or more flexible rules takes into consideration value, from having access to synchronized data (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information), relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism (e.g., wireless 3G or Wi-Fi; hardwired USB; fetch or pull synchronization), (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, (iii) security of the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server), or (iv) value of data being synchronized and thereby selecting an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules. For example, each Accused Device can fetch data on a predetermined schedule, or the second computer system can automatically push data to each Accused Device, or. This is a flexible choice that takes into account at least the value of the data. As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to synchronize social applications only via a WiFi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Such flexible rule takes into account at least the value of the data and cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization 71 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices mechanisms. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As yet another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a secure connection when synchronizing email. This flexible rule takes into account the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 72 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). Choosing to use a Virtual Private Network for synchronization is a rule that considers the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 73 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to choose between a Wi-Fi mechanism and a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. Each Accused Device uses a 3G mechanism until it is flexibly authorized to use a particular Wi-Fi mechanism. This rule considers the network security of unauthorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. Once one or more available Wi-Fi mechanisms have been authorized, each Accused Device prefers user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms to a 3G mechanism. This rule considers the economic cost due to the fact that using a Wi-Fi mechanism is less likely lead to additional user fees. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: Each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to remove a particular Wi-Fi mechanism from the list of authorized Wi- 74 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Fi mechanisms, and each Accused Device will thereafter prefer a 3G mechanism to the de-authorized Wi-Fi mechanism. This can be done by selecting "Forget network" from the "Manage Networks" settings screen. See, e.g., Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): Alternatively, each Accused Device can flexibly override the preference for all user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms by clearing the "Wi-Fi" checkbox on the "Wireless and network settings" screen. This will result in each Accused Device preferring a 3G mechanism to all Wi-Fi mechanisms, including user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. See, e.g., WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 75 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to allow "roaming," or alternatively to allow synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. This flexible rule considers the cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 76 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 77 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices computer-executable instructions for using the selected synchronization mechanism to synchronize the data item with the second computer. Certain computer-executable instructions (which may include or be part of, but is not limited to, the Android operating system) on each Accused Device are for using the selected synchronization mechanism to synchronize the data item with the second computer. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10; Screenshot 42.2; Screenshot 42.3, which show a successful synchronization using first a Wi-Fi synchronization mechanism and then a 3G synchronization mechanism. 78 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 42.2: synchronization taking place using a Wi-Fi synchronization mechanism Screenshot 42.3: synchronization taking place using a 3G synchronization mechanism 43. A computer program product in accordance with claim 42, wherein the one or more computer-readable media are physical storage media. The computer-readable media in each Accused Device comprise physical storage media, which can be on-board memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2 and DROID X), SD memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2, or 2 GB in DROID X), SIM card, and/or other memory (e.g., removable memory). 44. In a network that includes a first computer system having a first data store and second computer system having a second data store, a method for synchronizing the first and second data stores in a flexible manner considering the circumstances that exist at the Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 or DROID X model, is a first computer system that operates in a network. Such network includes at least each Accused Device and a second computer system, which can be, for example, an email or calendar server. Such email or calendar server can be, for example, a Microsoft Exchange server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server. 79 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) time of synchronization, the method comprising the following: Accused Devices Each Accused Device has a first data store, which can be onboard memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2 and DROID X), SD memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2, or 2 GB in DROID X), SIM card, and/or other memory (e.g., removable memory) for storing data items such as email, calendar data and contact information. See, e.g., DROID 2 by Motorola – Android Phone – Tech Specs, http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/USEN/Consumer-Product-and-Services/MobilePhones/ci.Motorola-DROID-2-US-EN.alt (visited Feb. 16, 2011): See also DROID X by Motorola – Android phone – HD phone – Tech Specs, http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/US-EN/ConsumerProduct-and-Services/Mobile-Phones/ci.Motorola-DROIDX-US-EN.alt (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 80 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also DROID 2 User Guide at 59, http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Support/USEN/Mobile%20Phones/DROID2/USEN/_Documents/Static_Files/DROID2_VZW_USEN_UG_68000202881b.pdf (visited Feb. 16, 2011): The second computer system (which can be, for example, an email or calendar server) has a second data store for storing data items such as email, calendar data and contact information. As set forth below, each Accused Device comprises a method for synchronizing the calendar, email, and contact information of the first data store of each Accused Device and second data store of the second computer system. See, 81 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices e.g., DROID 2 by Motorola – Android Phone – Tech Specs: See also DROID X by Motorola – Android phone – HD phone – Tech Specs: 82 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As set forth below, this synchronization of the first and second data stores is accomplished in a flexible manner considering the circumstances existing at the time of synchronization. an act of the first computer system determining whether to synchronize a data item by consulting a set of one or more flexible selection rules, the set of one or more flexible rules taking into consideration value, from having access to synchronized data, relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism, (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, or (iii) security of the second Each Accused Device determines whether to synchronize a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) by consulting a set of one or more flexible selection rules. For example, each Accused Device consults a flexible selection rule to determine whether to synchronize an email message based on the age of the email. See Screenshots 44.1-44.3. 83 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices computer system,or (iv) value of data being synchronized, and thereby also determining an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules; and Screenshot 44.1: a flexible rule dictates that only emails from the past month should be synchronized Screenshot 44.2: the second data store contains 7 emails, 84 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices but only 3 are from the past month Screenshot 44.3: only the 3 emails from the past month are synchronized to each Accused Device's first data store Various synchronization mechanisms may be available to use for synchronization by each Accused Device. Such synchronization mechanisms can include wireless and hardwired communication connections. Wireless communication connections for synchronization can be, for example, 3G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth connections. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10: 85 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The hardwired communication connection can be, for example, a USB connection. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 48: Other synchronization mechanisms can be “push” or “fetch.” For the former, the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server) can “push” a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) to each Accused Device. For the latter, each Accused Device fetches a data item from the second computer system. Another synchronization mechanism can be a Virtual Private Network (VPN). See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 86 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The set of one or more flexible rules takes into consideration value, from having access to synchronized data (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information), relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism (e.g., wireless 3G or Wi-Fi; hardwired USB; fetch or pull synchronization), (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, (iii) security of the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server), or (iv) value of data being synchronized and thereby selecting an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules. For example, each Accused Device can fetch data on a predetermined schedule, or the second computer system can automatically push data to each Accused Device. This is a flexible choice that takes into account at least the value of the data. As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to synchronize social applications only via a Wi87 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Fi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Such flexible rule takes into account at least the value of the data and cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As yet another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a secure connection when synchronizing email. This flexible rule takes into account the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 88 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). Choosing to use a Virtual Private Network for synchronization is a rule that considers the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 89 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to choose between a Wi-Fi mechanism and a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. Each Accused Device uses a 3G mechanism until it is flexibly authorized to use a particular Wi-Fi mechanism. This rule considers the network security of unauthorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. Once one or more available Wi-Fi mechanisms have been authorized, each Accused Device prefers user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms to a 3G mechanism. This rule considers the economic cost due to the fact that using a Wi-Fi mechanism is less likely lead to additional user fees. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: Each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to remove a particular Wi-Fi mechanism from the list of authorized Wi- 90 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Fi mechanisms, and each Accused Device will thereafter prefer a 3G mechanism to the de-authorized Wi-Fi mechanism. This can be done by selecting "Forget network" from the "Manage Networks" settings screen. See, e.g., Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): Alternatively, each Accused Device can flexibly override the preference for all user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms by clearing the "Wi-Fi" checkbox on the "Wireless and network settings" screen. This will result in each Accused Device preferring a 3G mechanism to all Wi-Fi mechanisms, including user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. See, e.g., WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 91 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to allow "roaming," or alternatively to allow synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. This flexible rule considers the cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 92 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 93 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices an act of the first computer system synchronizing the data item with the second computer if the first computer system determines that the data item is to be synchronized based on the one or more flexible selection rules and each available synchronization mechanism, including one or more hardwired or wireless communication connections. Each Accused Device synchronizes the data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) with the second computer (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server) if the first computer system (e.g., Accused Device) determines that the data item is to be synchronized based on the one or more flexible selection rules and each available synchronization mechanism, including one or more hardwired or wireless communication connections. The wireless communication connections for synchronization can be, for example, 3G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth connections. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10: 94 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The hardwired communication connection can be, for example, a USB connection. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 48: The Android operating system on the Motorola Android synchronizes the data item with the second computer if each Accused Device determines that the data item is to be synchronized. See, e.g., Screenshot 44.4; Screenshot 44.5, which show a successful synchronization using first a Wi-Fi synchronization mechanism and then a 3G synchronization mechanism. Screenshot 44.4: synchronization taking place using a Wi-Fi 95 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices synchronization mechanism Screenshot 44.5: synchronization taking place using a 3G synchronization mechanism 46. A method in accordance with claim 44, wherein the first computer system is a mobile device, and the second computer system is a synchronization server. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 or DROID X model, is a mobile device and operates in a network in which the second computer system is a synchronization server, such as, for example, a Microsoft Exchange server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server. 47. A method in accordance with claim 44, further comprising the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules; and an act of changing the set of flexible selection rules in response to the instruction. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See Screenshot 47.1. 96 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 47.1: receiving an instruction to change the flexible rule that dictates the age of emails that are synchronized As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications synchronize only via a Wi-Fi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Alternatively, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications are not restricted in this way. Either way, each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id 97 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use, a secure connection when synchronizing email, and can change the set of flexible selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 98 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use a Virtual Private Network (VPN), and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 99 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use Wi-Fi synchronization mechanisms and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: See also, Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 100 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also, WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 101 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device allows, or does not allow, "roaming," or alternatively to allow, or not allow, synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 102 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 103 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 48. A method in accordance with claim 47, wherein the act of receiving instructions to change the set or flexible selection rules comprises the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from a user of the first computer system. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules from a user of the first computer system (i.e. each Accused Device) and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See Screenshot 48.1. 104 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 48.1: receiving an instruction to change the flexible rule that dictates the age of emails that are synchronized As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications synchronize only via a Wi-Fi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Alternatively, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications are not restricted in this way. Either way, each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 105 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use, a secure connection when synchronizing email, and can change the set of flexible selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 106 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use a Virtual Private Network (VPN), and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 107 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use Wi-Fi synchronization mechanisms and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: See also, Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 108 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also, WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 109 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device allows, or does not allow, "roaming," or alternatively to allow, or not allow, synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 110 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 111 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 49. A method in accordance with claim 47, wherein the act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules comprises the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from an agent of the second computer system. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules from a an agent of the second computer system and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from an agent of the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that calendar items are only synchronized if they are newer than two weeks old. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such an instruction. As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from an agent of the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in 112 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices response to such instruction. As a further example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from an agent of the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that attachments to emails are not synchronized, or are only synchronized if they are smaller than a given size. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See, e.g., http://www.sysadminlab.net/activesync/android-22-and-activesync-policies-a-complete-guide-what-works (accessed April 12, 2011) 50. A method in accordance with claim 49, wherein the act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from an agent of the second computer system comprises the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from a network administrator of trusted network that includes the second computer system. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that calendar items are only synchronized if they are newer than two weeks old. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such an instruction. As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. As a further example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction from a network administrator of a network that includes the second computer system to change the set of flexible selection rules such that attachments to emails are not synchronized, or are only synchronized if they are smaller than a given size. Each Accused Device can change 113 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See, e.g., http://www.sysadminlab.net/activesync/android-22-and-activesync-policies-a-complete-guide-what-works (accessed April 12, 2011) 51. A method in accordance with claim 50, further comprising the following: an act of receiving instructions to change the set of flexible selection rules from a user. Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 and DROID X models, can receive instructions to change the set of flexible rules from a user of the first computer system (i.e. each Accused Device) and can change the set of flexible rules in response to the instruction. For example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that emails are only synchronized if they are more recent than one day, two days, three days, one week, two weeks, or one month old; or so that emails are synchronized without such a restraint. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to such instruction. See Screenshot 23.1. 114 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 23.1: receiving an instruction to change the flexible rule that dictates the age of emails that are synchronized As another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications synchronize only via a Wi-Fi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Alternatively, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that social applications are not restricted in this way. Either way, each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 115 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use, a secure connection when synchronizing email, and can change the set of flexible selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 116 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use a Virtual Private Network (VPN), and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 117 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device uses, or does not use Wi-Fi synchronization mechanisms and can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: See also, Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 118 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also, WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 119 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As yet another example, each Accused Device can receive an instruction to change the set of flexible selection rules such that the device allows, or does not allow, "roaming," or alternatively to allow, or not allow, synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. Each Accused Device can change the set of selection rules in response to the instruction. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 120 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 121 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 52. A method in accordance with claim 51, wherein the act of changing the set of flexible selection rules in response to the instruction, comprises the following: an act of fulfilling the instructions received from the network administrator of the second computer system to the extent that there is a conflict between the instructions received from the network administrator of the second computer system and the instructions received from the user at the first computer system. Each Accused Device fulfils the instructions received from the network administrator of the second computer system to the extent that there is a conflict between the instructions received from the network administrator of the second computer system and the instructions received from the user of the first computer system. For example, if each Accused Device receives an instruction from the network administrator to disable synchronization of email attachments, and the user gives an instruction to synchronize an email attachment by clicking on an attachment to an email message, each Accused Device will not allow the attachment synchronization. As a further example, if each Accused Device receives an instruction from the network administrator to disable synchronization of email attachments greater than a certain size, and the user gives an instruction to synchronize an email attachment that exceeds that size by clicking on an attachment to an email message, each Accused Device will 122 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices not allow the attachment synchronization. As a further example, if each Accused Device receives an instruction from the network administrator to synchronize only email items received more recently than a certain age, each Accused Device will not allow the user to synchronize older email items. As a further example, if each Accused Device receives an instruction from the network administrator to synchronize only calendar items more recent than a certain age, each Accused Device will not allow the user to synchronize older calendar items. See, e.g., http://www.sysadminlab.net/activesync/android-22-and-activesync-policies-a-complete-guide-what-works (accessed April 12, 2011) 54. A method in accordance with claim 44, wherein the act of the first computer system synchronize the data item with the second computer comprises the following: Each Accused Device comprises a method wherein the act of the first computer system to synchronize the data item with the second computer comprises the following: an act of the first computer system identifying which of a plurality of synchronization mechanisms are available to use for synchronization; Each Accused Device identifies which of a plurality of synchronization mechanisms are available to use for synchronization. Such synchronization mechanisms can be, for example, 3G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth connections. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10: 123 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Such synchronization mechanisms can further be, for example, a USB connection. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 48: Other synchronization mechanisms can be “push” or “fetch.” For the former, the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server) can “push” a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) to each Accused Device. For the latter, each Accused Device fetches a data item from the second computer system. Another synchronization mechanism can be a Virtual Private Network (VPN). See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 124 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) an act of the first computer system consulting a set of flexible selection rules to select one of the available synchronization mechanisms; and Accused Devices Each Accused Device consults a set of one or more flexible selection rules to select a synchronization mechanism (e.g., wireless 3G or Wi-Fi; hardwired USB; fetch or pull synchronization). For example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured such that, for example, it synchronizes emails by fetch or push synchronization, whereas it synchronizes social applications only via Wi-Fi. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 125 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The set of one or more flexible rules takes into consideration value, from having access to synchronized data (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information), relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism (e.g., wireless 3G or Wi-Fi; hardwired USB; fetch or pull synchronization), (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, (iii) security of the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server), or (iv) value of data being synchronized and thereby selecting an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules. For example, each Accused Device can fetch data on a predetermined schedule, or the second computer system can automatically push data to each Accused Device, or. This is a flexible choice that takes into account at least the value of the data. As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to synchronize social applications only via a WiFi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Such flexible rule takes into account at least the value of the data and cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization 126 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices mechanisms. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As yet another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a secure connection when synchronizing email. This flexible rule takes into account the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 127 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). Choosing to use a Virtual Private Network for synchronization is a rule that considers the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 128 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to choose between a Wi-Fi mechanism and a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. Each Accused Device uses a 3G mechanism until it is flexibly authorized to use a particular Wi-Fi mechanism. This rule considers the network security of unauthorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. Once one or more available Wi-Fi mechanisms have been authorized, each Accused Device prefers user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms to a 3G mechanism. This rule considers the economic cost due to the fact that using a Wi-Fi mechanism is less likely lead to additional user fees. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: Each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to remove a particular Wi-Fi mechanism from the list of authorized Wi- 129 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Fi mechanisms, and each Accused Device will thereafter prefer a 3G mechanism to the de-authorized Wi-Fi mechanism. This can be done by selecting "Forget network" from the "Manage Networks" settings screen. See, e.g., Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): Alternatively, each Accused Device can flexibly override the preference for all user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms by clearing the "Wi-Fi" checkbox on the "Wireless and network settings" screen. This will result in each Accused Device preferring a 3G mechanism to all Wi-Fi mechanisms, including user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. See, e.g., WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 130 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to allow "roaming," or alternatively to allow synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. This flexible rule considers the cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 131 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 132 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) an act of the first computer system using the selected synchronization mechanism to synchronize the data item with the second computer. Accused Devices Each Accused Device uses the selected synchronization mechanism to synchronize data with the second computer. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10; Screenshot 54.1; Screenshot 54.2, which show a successful synchronization using first a Wi-Fi synchronization mechanism and then a 3G synchronization mechanism. 133 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 54.1: synchronization taking place using a Wi-Fi synchronization mechanism Screenshot 54.2: synchronization taking place using a 3G synchronization mechanism 55. A computer program product for use in a network that includes a first computer system having a first data store and second computer system having a second data store, the computer program product for implementing a method for synchronizing the first and second data stores in a flexible manner considering the circumstances that exist at the time of synchronization, the computer program product comprising one or more computer-readable media Each Accused Device, such as, for example, the DROID 2 or DROID X model, is a first computer system and each includes a computer program product (the Android operating system) for use in a network. Such network includes at least each Accused Device and a second computer system, which can be, for example, an email or calendar server. Such email or calendar server can be, for example, a Microsoft Exchange server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server. Each Accused Device has a first data store, which can be onboard memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2 and DROID X), SD memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2, or 2 GB in DROID X), SIM card, and/or other memory (e.g., removable memory) for storing data items such as email, calendar data and 134 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) having stored thereon the following: Accused Devices contact information. See, e.g., DROID 2 by Motorola – Android Phone – Tech Specs, http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/USEN/Consumer-Product-and-Services/MobilePhones/ci.Motorola-DROID-2-US-EN.alt (visited Feb. 16, 2011): See also DROID X by Motorola – Android phone – HD phone – Tech Specs, http://www.motorola.com/Consumers/US-EN/ConsumerProduct-and-Services/Mobile-Phones/ci.Motorola-DROIDX-US-EN.alt (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 135 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also DROID 2 User Guide at 59, http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Support/USEN/Mobile%20Phones/DROID2/USEN/_Documents/Static_Files/DROID2_VZW_USEN_UG_68000202881b.pdf (visited Feb. 16, 2011): The second computer system (which can be, for example, an email or calendar server) has a second data store for storing data items such as email, calendar data and contact information. Each Accused Device implements a method for synchronizing the calendar, email, and contact information of the first data store of each Accused Device and second data store of the second computer system. See, e.g., DROID 136 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices 2 by Motorola – Android Phone – Tech Specs: See also DROID X by Motorola – Android phone – HD phone – Tech Specs: 137 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As set forth below, this synchronization of the first and second data stores is accomplished in a flexible manner considering the circumstances existing at the time of synchronization. Each Accused Device comprises one or more computerreadable media, which can be on-board memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2 and DROID X), SD memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2, or 2 GB in DROID X), SIM card, and/or other memory (e.g., removable memory). This computer-readable media has computer-executable instructions (including, but not limited to, the Android operating system), as set forth below. computer-executable instructions for determining whether to synchronize a data item by consulting a set of one Certain computer-executable instructions (which may be part of, but not limited to, the Android operating system) on each Accused Device are for determining whether to synchronize a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact 138 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) or more flexible selection rules, the set of one or more flexible rules taking into consideration value, from having access to synchronized data, relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism, (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, (iii) security of the second computer system, or (iv) value of data being synchronized, and thereby also determining an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules; and Accused Devices information) by consulting a set of one or more flexible selection rules. For example, each Accused Device consults a flexible selection rule to determine whether to synchronize an email message based on the age of the email. See Screenshots 55.1-55.3. Screenshot 55.1: a flexible rule dictates that only emails from the past month should be synchronized 139 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Screenshot 55.2: the second data store contains 7 emails, but only 3 are from the past month Screenshot 55.3: only the 3 emails from the past month are synchronized to each Accused Device's first data store Various synchronization mechanisms may be available to use for synchronization by each Accused Device. Such synchronization mechanisms can include wireless and 140 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices hardwired communication connections. Wireless communication connections for synchronization can be, for example, 3G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth connections. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10: The hardwired communication connection can be, for example, a USB connection. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 48: Other synchronization mechanisms can be “push” or “fetch.” For the former, the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server) can “push” a data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) to each Accused Device. For the latter, each Accused Device fetches a data item from the second computer system. Another synchronization mechanism can be a Virtual Private Network (VPN). See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – 141 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): The set of one or more flexible rules takes into consideration value, from having access to synchronized data (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information), relative to at least one of (i) an economic cost for synchronization using each available synchronization mechanism (e.g., wireless 3G or Wi-Fi; hardwired USB; fetch or pull synchronization), (ii) network security for each available synchronization mechanism, (iii) security of the second computer system (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server), or (iv) value of data being synchronized and thereby selecting an available synchronization mechanism appropriate for the data item given the one or more flexible selection rules. For example, each Accused Device can fetch data on a predetermined schedule, or the second computer system can automatically push data to each Accused Device. This is a flexible choice that takes into account at least the value of the data. 142 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to synchronize social applications only via a WiFi mechanism, while email is set to be synchronized via "push" synchronization. Such flexible rule takes into account at least the value of the data and cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Gmail Synchronization – Motorola Droid 2, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31337 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As yet another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a secure connection when synchronizing email. This flexible rule takes into account the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Configure Corporate Email (Exchange ActiveSync) – Motorola DROID X MB810, 143 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34193 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to use a Virtual Private Network (VPN). Choosing to use a Virtual Private Network for synchronization is a rule that considers the security of the synchronization mechanism. See, e.g., Add a Virtual Private Network – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34245 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 144 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As still another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to choose between a Wi-Fi mechanism and a 3G mechanism when synchronizing data. Each Accused Device uses a 3G mechanism until it is flexibly authorized to use a particular Wi-Fi mechanism. This rule considers the network security of unauthorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. Once one or more available Wi-Fi mechanisms have been authorized, each Accused Device prefers user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms to a 3G mechanism. This rule considers the economic cost due to the fact that using a Wi-Fi mechanism is less likely lead to additional user fees. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 35-36: See also DROID 2 User Guide at 46: Each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to remove a 145 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices particular Wi-Fi mechanism from the list of authorized WiFi mechanisms, and each Accused Device will thereafter prefer a 3G mechanism to the de-authorized Wi-Fi mechanism. This can be done by selecting "Forget network" from the "Manage Networks" settings screen. See, e.g., Remove WiFi Connection – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =34876 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): Alternatively, each Accused Device can flexibly override the preference for all user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms by clearing the "Wi-Fi" checkbox on the "Wireless and network settings" screen. This will result in each Accused Device preferring a 3G mechanism to all Wi-Fi mechanisms, including user-authorized Wi-Fi mechanisms. See, e.g., WiFi On/Off – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31315 (visited Feb. 16, 2011): 146 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices As another example, each Accused Device can be flexibly configured to allow "roaming," or alternatively to allow synchronizations only using the "home" carrier's synchronization mechanisms. This flexible rule considers the cost of synchronizing using the various synchronization mechanisms. See, e.g., Data Roaming – Motorola DROID X MB810, http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =33954 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 147 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices See also System Select – Motorola Droid 2 (A955), http://support.vzw.com/clc/devices/knowledge_base.html?id =31420 (visited Feb. 23, 2011): 148 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices computer-executable instructions for synchronizing the data item with the second computer if the first computer system determines that the data item is to be synchronized based on the one or more flexible selection rules and each available synchronization mechanism, including one or more hardwired or wireless communication connections. Certain computer-executable instructions (which may be part of, but not limited to, the Android operating system) on each Accused Device are for synchronizing the data item (e.g., email, calendar data and contact information) with the second computer (for example, an email or calendar server, e.g., Microsoft Exchange Server, Gmail server, or Google calendar server) if the first computer system (e.g., Accused Device) determines that the data item is to be synchronized based on the one or more flexible selection rules and each available synchronization mechanism, including one or more hardwired or wireless communication connections. The wireless communication connections for synchronization can be, for example, 3G, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth connections. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 10: 149 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices The hardwired communication connection can be, for example, a USB connection. See, e.g., DROID 2 User Guide at 48: The Android operating system on the Motorola Android synchronizes the data item with the second computer if each Accused Device determines that the data item is to be synchronized. See, e.g., Screenshot 55.4; Screenshot 55.5, which show a successful synchronization using first a Wi-Fi synchronization mechanism and then a 3G synchronization mechanism. Screenshot 55.4: synchronization taking place using a Wi-Fi 150 U.S. Patent No. 7,024,214 ('214 Patent) Accused Devices synchronization mechanism Screenshot 55.5: synchronization taking place using a 3G synchronization mechanism 56. A computer program product in accordance with claim 55, wherein the one or more computer-readable media comprise physical storage media. The computer-readable media in each Accused Device comprise physical storage media, which can be on-board memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2 and DROID X), SD memory (e.g., 8 GB in DROID 2, or 2 GB in DROID X), SIM card, and/or other memory (e.g., removable memory). 151

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