CORBACHO DAUDINOT v. PUIG VALDES et al

Filing 24

Second AMENDED COMPLAINT against YASIEL PUIG VALDES, MARITZA VALDES GONZALEZ, filed by MIGUEL ANGEL CORBACHO DAUDINOT. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit A, # 2 Exhibit B, # 3 Exhibit C, # 4 Exhibit D, # 5 Exhibit E, # 6 Exhibit F, # 7 Exhibit G, # 8 Exhibit H, # 9 Exhibit I, # 10 Exhibit J, # 11 Exhibit K, # 12 Exhibit L, # 13 Exhibit M, # 14 Exhibit N, # 15 Exhibit O, # 16 Exhibit P, # 17 Exhibit Q, # 18 Exhibit R, # 19 Exhibit S, # 20 Exhibit T, # 21 Exhibit U, # 22 Exhibit V)(Gonzalez, Avelino)

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If you have issues viewing or accessing this file, please contact us at NCJRS.gov. Exhibit M WORLD FACTBOOK of C R I M I N A L JUSTICE SYSTEMS cuba by Ray M i c h a l o w s k i Northern Arizona University This c o u n t r y report is one of m a n y p r e p a r e d for the W o r l d F a c t b o o k of Criminal J u s t i c e Systems under Bureau of Justice S t a t i s t i c s grant no. 90B J - C X - 0 0 0 2 to the State U n i v e r s i t y of N e w Y o r k at Albany. The p r o j e c t d i r e c t o r was G r a e m e R. Newman, but r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the a c c u r a c y of the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d in each report is that of the i n d i v i d u a l author. The contents of these reports do not n e c e s s a r i l y reflect the views or policies of the Bureau of Justice S t a t i s t i c s or the U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of Justice. GENERAL OVERVIEW i. Political System. Cuba is a d e m o c r a t i c - c e n t r a l i s t state o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g to a M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t model. The C o m m u n i s t Party of Cuba is the only o f f i c i a l p o l i t i c a l party. The n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t is d i v i d e d into executive, l e g i s l a t i v e and j u d i c i a l branches. The e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h consists of a Council of State and a Council of M i n i s t e r s . The p r e s i d e n t of the Council of State serves as the President of Cuba. The n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i v e b r a n c h consists of an elected, u n i c a m e r a l b o d y known as the National A s s e m b l y of Peoples Power. The Supreme Court of Cuba serves as the n a t i o n ' s highest judicial b r a n c h of government. It is also the court of last resort for all appeals from c o n v i c t i o n s in p r o v i n c i a l courts. Below the n a t i o n a l level, Cuba is d i v i d e d into 14 provinces, and numerous m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Each p r o v i n c e and m u n i c i p a l i t y has both an e l e c t e d A s s e m b l y of Peoples Power, and a s y s t e m of courts. Provincial courts h a n d l e f e l o n y - e q u i v a l e n t crimes, many forms of civil c o n f l i c t m a t t e r s such as divorce, and appeals from m u n i c i p a l courts. M u n i c i p a l courts, in turn, are courts of first i n s t a n c e for lesser crimes and m i n o r civil matters. In a d d i t i o n to these formal components, Cuba's p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m i n c o r p o r a t e s a n u m b e r of "mass o r g a n i z a t i o n s " into its processes, such as the C o m m u n i s t Party, the Young C o m m u n i s t League, the Cuban F e d e r a t i o n of Women, the A s s o c i a t i o n of Cuban Workers, and the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Small Farmers. 2. Legal System. The Cuban legal s y s t e m is a c o m p o s i t e of the three m a j o r stages of Cuban history. R e f l e c t i n g its past as a Spanish colony, Cuba is a civil law state that e m p h a s i z e s w r i t t e n codes rather than p r e c e d e n t as the source of law, and the u t i l i z a t i o n of an i n q u i s i t o r i a l s y s t e m of criminal p r o c e d u r e similar to that of Spain and France. I n t e r m i n g l e d with this are elements of A n g l o - A m e r i c a n law such as habeas corpus, and a greater s e p a r a t i o n of courts and p r o s e c u t o r s than is n o r m a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t states. Finally, thirty years of d e v e l o p m e n t g u i d e d by M a r x i s t legal theory, and s h a p e d by close ties to the former Soviet Union have added a c l e a r l y socialist c h a r a c t e r to the Cuban legal system. Key elements of Cuba's "socialist l e g a l i t y " are: (i) an e m p h a s i s on s u b s t a n t i v e rather than juridical m e a s u r e s of justice, (2) the use of law as a p r o - a c t i v e tool for s o c i a l i s t development, (3) l i m i t e d use of formal legal m e c h a n i s m s for the resolution of p r i v a t e disputes, (4) the use of informal "social courts" to resolve c o n f l i c t s such as housing and labor disputes, (5) direct c i t i z e n i n v o l v e m e n t in the judicial and crime control procedures, and (6) a s y s t e m of s t a t e - o r g a n i z e d law c o l l e c t i v e s to p r o v i d e l o w - c o s t legal services nationwide. 3. H i s t o r y of the Criminal Justice System. The m o d e r n h i s t o r y of Cuba b e g a n when C h r i s t o p h e r C o l u m b u s c l a i m e d the i s l a n d for the King of Spain in 1492. For the next 400 years Cuba r e m a i n e d a Spanish colony. In the m i d - 1 9 t h century, Cuban n a t i o n a l i s t s began a series of armed struggles for Cuban independence, w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y led to the defeat of the S p a n i a r d s in 1899. The U n i t e d States became i n v o l v e d in the Cuban war of i n d e p e n d e n c e during its last days. Consequently, through the s e t t l e m e n t of the S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n war, the U n i t e d States o b t a i n e d a peace t r e a t y that e f f e c t i v e l y t r a n s f e r r e d s o v e r e i g n t y over Cuba from Spain to the U n i t e d States. For the next 60 years U.S. b u s i n e s s and financial i n t e r e s t s d o m i n a t e d the Cuban economy. Several U.S. m i l i t a r y incursions in the e a r l y part of the 20th c e n t u r y insured g o v e r n m e n t s h o s p i t a b l e to these interests, as well as U.S. s e c u r i t y interests. On J a n u a r y i, 1959, a r e v o l u t i o n a r y m o v e m e n t led by Fidel Castro toppled the former U . S . - s u p p o r t e d g o v e r n m e n t of F u l e n g c i o Batista, b e g i n n i n g a p r o c e s s that led to the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Cuba into a socialist, p l a n n e d - e c o n o m y state. The post r e v o l u t i o n a r y era in Cuba can be d i v i d e d into four periods. The first period, e x t e n d i n g from 1959 to the early 1970s, was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e v o l u t i o n a r y e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n in all areas of social organization, i n c l u d i n g g o v e r n m e n t m a n a g e m e n t and control of p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n . The most n o t a b l e e x p e r i m e n t within the justice s y s t e m d u r i n g this time was the c r e a t i o n of Peoples' Courts (tribunales de base). These courts e m p h a s i z e d informal procedures, and u t i l i z e d o r d i n a r y citizens as lay prosecutors, lay advocates, and lay judges rather than filling these p o s i t i o n s with f o r m a l l y t r a i n e d jurists. The second major p e r i o d of the r e v o l u t i o n began in the early 1970s, and was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the new e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l order. This i n c l u d e d the p a s s a g e of a new Cuban constitution, r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of most a d m i n i s t r a t i v e structures, and r e p l a c i n g the p r e - r e v o l u t i o n a r y legal s y s t e m with one m o r e suited to the i d e o l o g y and p r a c t i c e of a s o c i a l i s t p o l i t i c a l economy. In 1973, the Cuban g o v e r n m e n t p r o m u l g a t e d a new Law of Judicial O r g a n i z a t i o n . This law e s t a b l i s h e d a h i e r a r c h i c a l and more formal court system, r e p l a c e d the p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e of law with law c o l l e c t i v e s known as bufetes colectivos, and s t r e n g t h e n e d the emphasis on "socialist l e g a l i t y . " This p e r i o d was also m a r k e d by i n c r e a s i n g l y close relations with the Soviet Union, and i n c r e a s e d e c o n o m i c d e p e n d e n c e on C O M E C O N - the t r a d i n g bloc of s o c i a l i s t nations. The m i d - 1 9 8 0 s i n i t i a t e d a p e r i o d focused on " r e c t i f i c a t i o n " of earlier errors. One c o m p o n e n t of this era was p a s s a g e of a new penal code that d e c r i m i n a l i z e d a number of p o l i t i c a l offenses, reduced p e n a l t i e s for crimes overall, and i n s t i t u t e d a broader range of a l t e r n a t i v e s to incarceration. In the early 1990s Cuba's s o c i a l i s t trading partners d i s a p p e a r e d with the collapse of the Soviet bloc, u s h e r i n g in an era of e c o n o m i c c o n t r a c t i o n termed the "special p e r i o d " by the n a t i o n ' s leaders. In an effort to find a l t e r n a t i v e routes to c o n t i n u e d s o c i a l i s t development, the Cuban g o v e r n m e n t l e g a l i z e d the use of foreign c u r r e n c y by citizens and l i b e r a l i z e d laws g o v e r n i n g foreign investment. CRIME i. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Crime. * Legal classification. Under Cuban law, an act is a crime only if it is p r o h i b i t e d by the law and is s o c i a l l y d a n g e r o u s or harmful (socialimente peligrosa). V i o l a t i o n s of law that do not rise to the n e c e s s a r y level of social h a r m are c o n s i d e r e d to be i n f r a c t i o n s (contravenciones), that is, a n o n c r i m i n a l citation offense. Crimes in Cuba are d i v i d e d into felony and m i s d e m e a n o r offenses. Felony crimes are those with a p o t e n t i a l sentence e x c e e d i n g one year i m p r i s o n m e n t or a fine of more than 300 cuotas. (Cuotas are units of a fine that have v a r i a b l e value. Thus, one p e r s o n may be s u b j e c t to a fine of 100 cuotas at one peso each w h i l e a n o t h e r m a y be subject to the same fine but at a rate of two pesos per cuota.) O f f e n s e s that m e e t this s t a n d a r d are p r o s e c u t e d in p r o v i n c i a l courts. Less serious m i s d e m e a n o r offenses are a d j u d i c a t e d in m u n i c i p a l courts and carry m a x i m u m p e n a l t i e s b e l o w the o n e - y e a r / 3 0 0 - c u o t a level. F e l o n y - e q u i v a l e n t crimes in Cuba e n c o m p a s s a s t a n d a r d array of offenses against p e r s o n s or p r o p e r t y i n c l u d i n g murder, rape, assault, d e a t h or injury by vehicle, robbery, burglary, larceny, vehicle theft, arson, and drug trafficking. Except for murder, rape, and robbery, each of these o f f e n s e s also has a less serious, m i s d e m e a n o r equivalent. In a d d i t i o n to s t a n d a r d crimes a g a i n s t persons, p r o p e r t y and social order, the Cuban penal code e n u m e r a t e s various o f f e n s e s against s o c i a l i s t organization. Central among these are misuse of e m p l o y m e n t in a state e n t e r p r i s e for illegal personal gain (malversacion), o b t a i n i n g money or p r o p e r t y i l l e g a l l y c h a n n e l e d from some state e c o n o m i c venture (receptacion), trading in foreign c u r r e n c y (trafico de divisas), s l a u g h t e r and d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i v e s t o c k o u t s i d e the s o c i a l i s t d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m (sacrificio ilegal), and a t t e m p t i n g to leave the c o u n t r y w i t h o u t c o m p l y i n g with formal e m i g r a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s (salida ilegal). Rather than being o c c a s i o n a l crimes, these offenses c o n s t i t u t e a regular part of the criminal case load in Cuba. * Age of criminal responsibility. The age of criminal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in both m u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l courts is 16, which c o r r e s p o n d s to the Cuban voting age. * Drug offenses. Cuba's drug p r o h i b i t i o n is b r o a d and nonspecific. Under Cuban law it is a felony to produce, sell, or possess with intent to sell any "toxic drug, or hallucinogenic, hypnotic, or n a r c o t i c substance, or any other s u b s t a n c e w i t h a similar effect." The p e n a l t y for this o f f e n s e is 3 to 8 years of imprisonment. Simple p o s s e s s i o n of illegal drugs is p u n i s h a b l e by 6 months to 2 years imprisonment. 2. Crime S t a t i s t i c s The number and rate for serious crimes are reported by p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t o r s to the O f f i c e of the A t t o r n e y General in Cuba for 1988. A t t e m p t s are i n c l u d e d only where they are crimes in t h e m s e l v e s such as a t t e m p t e d sexual assault. The rates are b a s e d on p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s from the A t t o r n e y General of Cuba, M a y 1989. * Murder. * Rape. Information Information not not obtained. obtained. * Theft. In 1988, there were 6,531 cases of theft r e c o r d e d by p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t o r s for a rate of 62 per i00,000 population. * Serious obtained. drug offense. Information * Crime regions. Crime rates in Cuba s u b s t a n t i a l l y higher in the island's cities, Havana and S a n t i a g o de Cuba, elsewhere. not are two m a i n than VICTIMS i. Groups Most V i c t i m i z e d by Crime. There is little s u r v e y data a v a i l a b l e on v i c t i m i z a t i o n in Cuba. E t h n o g r a p h i c and a n e c d o t a l evidence, however, suggest that there are no clear p a t t e r n s of v i c t i m i z a t i o n by racial or e t h n i c background. Over 500 years of i n t e r r a c i a l c o n t a c t b e t w e e n the d e s c e n d a n t s of S p a n i s h c o l o n i s t s and A f r i c a n slaves have p r o d u c e d a r e l a t i v e l y h o m o g e n e o u s A f r o - C a r i b b e a n s o c i e t y in w h i c h social d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s t r e t c h e s along a c o n t i n u u m rather than being c o n s t i t u t e d by sharp lines d e m a r c a t i n g races or cultures. D e s p i t e this h o m o g e n i z a t i o n , there is some o v e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d a r k e r - s k i n n e d Cubans in the l o w e r - i n c o m e sectors of the society, and some i n d i c a t i o n that these Cubans may suffer s l i g h t l y higher v i c t i m i z a t i o n rates for i n t e r p e r s o n a l v i o l e n c e and m i n o r theft. W o m e n in Cuba, as in many areas a r o u n d the world, are victims of b o t h rape and d o m e s t i c violence. The r e c o r d e d f r e q u e n c y of such offenses in Cuba, however, appears to be lower than for both the U n i t e d States and Latin America. 2. Victims' A s s i s t a n c e Agencies. The p r i m a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s for a s s i s t i n g victims of crimes are the C o m m i t t e e s for the Defense of the R e v o l u t i o n (CDRs). The CDRs are b l o c k - l e v e l n e i g h b o r h o o d a s s o c i a t i o n s that offer various forms of social support to n e i g h b o r h o o d residents, in a d d i t i o n to e n g a g i n g in crime p r e v e n t i o n and p o l i t i c a l vigilance. V i c t i m s of crime can o b t a i n m e d i c a l care, social w e l f a r e assistance, a n d / o r c o u n s e l i n g services from one of Cuba's n a t i o n w i d e s y s t e m of n e i g h b o r h o o d "polyclinics." 3. Role of V i c t i m in Prosecution and Sentencing. There are no special roles for victims during p r o s e c u t i o n or sentencing, other than providing evidence and testimony during adjudication. 4. Victims' Rights Legislation. There is no specific victims' legislation in Cuba. rights POLICE i. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Policing in Cuba is organized under the auspices of the M i n i s t r y of the Interior (MINIT), which is d i r e c t l y responsible to the Council of State. The MINIT is divided into three directorates: Security, Technical Operations, and Internal Order and Crime Prevention. The Internal Order and Crime Prevention Section is s u b d i v i d e d into s u b d i r e c t o r a t e s for corrections, fire protection, and policing. The s u b d i r e c t o r a t e for policing is responsible for the National R e v o l u t i o n a r y Police (PNR). The PNR encompasses u n i f o r m policing, criminal investigation, crime prevention, juvenile delinquency, and traffic control. The PNR is divided into municipal divisions, each with its own police chief. These local police agencies are responsible to the national d i r e c t o r a t e of the PNR, through a h i e r a r c h i c a l structure that incorporates p r o v i n c i a l levels of oversight. The Security division of MINIT is r e s p o n s i b l e for p o l i c i n g crimes such as espionage, sabotage and other offenses against the state security. The M i n i s t r y of the Interior and the National R e v o l u t i o n a r y Police have been closely i n t e g r a t e d with the R e v o l u t i o n a r y Armed Forces (FAR) since the r e v o l u t i o n a r y victory of 1959. In addition to formal policing by the PNR, the Cuban system of control utilizes the Committees for the Defense of the R e v o l u t i o n (CDR) as a u x i l i a r y eyes and ears of the police. The CDR m a i n t a i n s nightly n e i g h b o r h o o d watches known as la guardia to prevent crime. They deal with juvenile deviance and assist crime victims. The CDR is also responsible for p r o m o t i n g compliance with a variety of n o n - c r i m i n a l requirements such as water and e l e c t r i c i t y conservation, pet inoculation, and public health requirements. A c t i v e CDR members (cederistas) may also provide the police or MINIT with i n f o r m a t i o n about activities they consider suspicious or deviant. 2. Resources. * Expenditures. * Number Information of police. not Information obtained. not obtained. 3. T e c h n o l o g y . * A v a i l a b i l i t y of p o l i c e automobiles. Police in m a j o r cities patrol both in cars and on foot. In larger cities such as Havana there is a f a i r l y high p r e v a l e n c e of p o l i c e cars. * E l e c t r o n i c equipment. Cuban p o l i c e u t i l i z e radio c o m m u n i c a t i o n s for dispatch, but c o m p u t e r i z e d d i s p a t c h i n g and c o m p u t e r i z e d record k e e p i n g are still in the d e v e l o p m e n t stages. * Weapons. Cuban p o l i c e a s e m i - a u t o m a t i c pistol w e a p o n s such as a s s a u l t anti-personnel ordnance 4. T r a i n i n g obtained. are t y p i c a l l y a r m e d w i t h and a baton. O t h e r rifles, shotguns and o t h e r are not available. and Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Information not 5. Discretion. * Use of force. Police may use n e c e s s a r y force to a p p r e h e n d suspects and to d e f e n d their p e r s o n or that of any other citizen. * S t o p / a p p r e h e n d a suspect. Cuban law places few formal limits on p o l i c e d i s c r e t i o n to stop or i n t e r r o g a t e citizens. This reflects Cuba's c h a r a c t e r as a civil law state with an i n q u i s i t o r i a l judicial system. A central juridical a s s u m p t i o n of this s y s t e m is that no criminal case exists until an initial investigation (fase p r e p a r a t o r i a ) has d e m o n s t r a t e d that a crime has been committed, and that a p a r t i c u l a r person is the p r o b a b l e offender. Consequently, b e c a u s e there is no formal criminal case, the a r g u m e n t claims that citizens have little need for p r o c e d u r a l p r o t e c t i o n at this stage of the i n v e s t i g a t i v e process. A p l a n n e d revision of the Cuban law of penal p r o c e d u r e will p e r m i t a t t o r n e y s to enter cases as soon as an i n d i v i d u a l has been a r r e s t e d or is the target of an investigation. This change will c o n s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t m o v e away from a pure i n q u i s i t o r i a l criminal process. * D e c i s i o n to arrest. Because arrests are u s u a l l y part of the pre-case, i n v e s t i g a t i v e stage, the w a r r a n t p r o c e d u r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of A ~ g l o - A m e r i c a n legal systems is not part of the Cuban penal process. * Search and seizure. The Cuban c o n s t i t u t i o n requires that w a r r a n t s be o b t a i n e d from a court in order to conduct a home search. W a r r a n t s m u s t s p e c i f y the p l a c e to be s e a r c h e d and the n a t u r e of the m a t e r i a l b e i n g sought. A w a r r a n t is not necessary, however, if a d o m i c i l e is also the scene of the crime. In this case, p r o c e d u r a l law permits i n v e s t i g a t o r s to search the p r e m i s e s and to remove any items d e e m e d as evidence. * C o n f e s s i o n s . Cuban p r o c e d u r a l law p r o h i b i t s v i o l e n c e or force in o b t a i n i n g a confession, and s p e c i f i e s that no one is r e q u i r e d to t e s t i f y a g a i n s t h i m or herself. Suspects can m a k e w h a t e v e r formal s t a t e m e n t s they wish r e g a r d i n g the charges against them, i n c l u d i n g c o n f e s s i o n s of guilt. These s t a t e m e n t s are made orally, and then p r e s e n t e d in w r i t i n g to the s u s p e c t for signature. Minors under the age of 16 can only make these s t a t e m e n t s in the p r e s e n c e of p a r e n t s or other legal guardians. W h i l e c r i m i n a l suspects can confess guilt, they cannot be c o n v i c t e d s o l e l y on the basis of a confession. Rather, Cuban law requires that all criminal cases be p r o v e n at trial u t i l i z i n g e v i d e n c e b e y o n d the suspect's s t a t e m e n t of guilt. 6. A c c o u n t a b i l i t y . T h e r e are no formal "watchdog" or c i t i z e n - r e v i e w bodies d e v o t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y o v e r s e e i n g p o l i c e in Cuba. PROSECUTORIAL I. Rights AND JUDICIAL to PROCESS of the Accused. * A c c u s e d p e r s o n s have the right to a trial by a judicial panel. For f e l o n y - e q u i v a l e n t cases h e a r d in p r o v i n c i a l courts, these panels c o n s i s t of five judges, three of w h o m are t r a i n e d jurists with law degrees, and two of w h o m are citizens chosen to serve as lay judges. Less serious c r i m i n a l offenses are a d j u d i c a t e d by m u n i c i p a l court panels c o n s i s t i n g of one jurist and two lay judges. * A s s i s t a n c e to the accused. Cuban d e f e n d a n t s have the right to a d e f e n s e counsel. A n a t i o n w i d e s y s t e m of law c o l l e c t i v e s (bufetes colectivos) are d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e p u b l i c access to legal counsel at s t a t e - s e t fees. 2. Procedures. * Preparatory procedures for b r i n g i n g a suspect to trial. During the fase p r e p a r a t o r i a , p o l i c e i n v e s t i g a t o r s and/or p r o s e c u t o r s a s s e m b l e a b o d y of e v i d e n c e and witnesses. If this e v i d e n c e is d e e m e d sufficient, the p r o s e c u t o r issues the e q u i v a l e n t of a bill of i n d i c t m e n t (conclusiones p r o v i s i o n a l e s ) . This d o c u m e n t is sent to the court of first instance and to the a c c u s e d ' s d e f e n s e attorney, if one has been i d e n t i f i e d at that time. * O f f i c i a l who conducts p r o s e c u t i o n . If a case is a felony e q u i v a l e n t the p r o s e c u t i o n n o r m a l l y will be r e p r e s e n t e d by a p r o s e c u t o r (fiscal) from the p r o v i n c i a l office of the a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l d u r i n g trial. If it is a m i s d e m e a n o r - e q u i v a l e n t offense, p r o s e c u t i o n is most often r e p r e s e n t e d by a p o l i c e investigator. * A l t e r n a t i v e s to trial. At this time there are no alternatives, such as plea bargaining, to the r e q u i r e m e n t that all crimes be a d j u d i c a t e d at trial. * P r o p o r t i o n of p r o s e c u t e d cases going to trial. All crimes must be a d j u d i c a t e d at trial. * Pre-trial i n c a r c e r a t i o n conditions. Cuban p r o c e d u r a l law specifies that p o l i c e cannot d e t a i n a suspect longer than 24 hours w i t h o u t s u b m i t t i n g the case to an investigator. The i n v e s t i g a t o r in turn must submit the case to the s c r u t i n y of a p r o s e c u t o r within 3 w o r k i n g days. The p r o s e c u t o r ' s office then has a m a x i m u m of 3 w o r k i n g days w i t h i n which to either release the suspect or submit to judicial review the plan to keep the suspect in c u s t o d y until trial. This review must be made by the court that will a d j u d i c a t e the case. The court is r e q u i r e d to either approve d e t e n t i o n or order release w i t h i n 3 days, and its d e c i s i o n is final. A c c o r d i n g to law, in felony cases, p r e - t r i a l i n c a r c e r a t i o n (prision provisional) is s u p p o s e d to be l i m i t e d to those who have c o m m i t t e d crimes that caused p u b l i c fear (murder, rape, robbery), who are s u s p e c t e d of m u l t i p l e offenses, or who m a y flee p r o s e c u t i o n . Pretrial i n c a r c e r a t i o n is d e e m e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e in all m i s d e m e a n o r cases unless the p e r s o n has p r o d u c e d false i d e n t i f i c a t i o n or given i n d i c a t i o n s of i m m i n e n t flight from prosecution. * Bail Procedure. Defendants may be r e l e a s e d on bail p e n d i n g trial to the o v e r s i g h t of a work place, a union, or other r e c o g n i z e d social organization, or on their own recognizance. * Proportion of p r e - t r i a l offenders incarcerated. A 1988 study of 982 d e f e n d a n t s s e r v e d by a law c o l l e c t i v e in Havana r e v e a l e d that 35% w e r e i n c a r c e r a t e d at the time of indictment. (Crime s p e c i f i c rates of d e t e n t i o n ranged from 61% for felony p r o p e r t y crimes to 33% for felony o f f e n s e s against state s e c u r i t y and 19% for t r a f f i c o f f e n s e s leading to death or injury. Felony crimes a g a i n s t the e c o n o m y had a p r e - t r i a l d e t e n t i o n rate of 40%.) JUDICIAL SYSTEM i. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The Cuban court s y s t e m consists of a S u p r e m e Court, P r o v i n c i a l Courts, M u n i c i p a l Courts, and M i l i t a r y Courts. The S u p r e m e Court is s u b d i v i d e d into areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (salas) for penal, civil and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , labor, state security, and m i l i t a r y cases. P r o v i n c i a l courts are s i m i l a r l y divided, with the e x c l u s i o n of a m i l i t a r y sala. There is no formal d i v i s i o n of M u n i c i p a l Courts into j u r i s d i c t i o n a l areas, a l t h o u g h larger m u n i c i p a l courts m a y s u b d i v i d e into s e c t i o n s with s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 2. Special Courts. T h e r e are no special courts other than the d i v i s i o n s d e s c r i b e d above. All family m a t t e r s such as divorce, custody, and child support are h a n d l e d in the general civil sala of p r o v i n c i a l courts. J u v e n i l e p r o b l e m s that are not crimes are h a n d l e d o u t s i d e the formal court structure. 3. Judges. * Number of judges. Information * Appointment obtained. and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . PENALTIES not obtained. SENTENCING AND I. S e n t e n c i n g Information not Process. * Who d e t e r m i n e s the s e n t e n c e ? d e t e r m i n e d by the same judicial t e s t i m o n y and d e t e r m i n e d guilt. S e n t e n c e s are panel that h e a r d * Is there a special s e n t e n c i n g h e a r i n g ? In m u n i c i p a l courts, s e n t e n c e s are almost always d i c t a t e d at the time of trial. S e n t e n c e s for felony o f f e n s e s a d j u d i c a t e d in p r o v i n c i a l courts m a y be d i c t a t e d at the time of the trial, but are more often issued several weeks after the trial. C u b a n law requires that all criminal cases be c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n 6 months after the initial i n d i c t m e n t is issued. One study found that a l t h o u g h about 20% of cases e x c e e d this limit to some degree, over 90% of all cases were c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n 8 months of indictment. Cuban judicial p r o c e d u r e does not s e p a r a t e a s s e s s m e n t of the facts of a case from c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r of the accused. Trial and p r e - t r i a l d o c u m e n t s as well as i n - c o u r t testimony normally incorporate information c o n c e r n i n g the social character, work history, personal associations, and prior criminal record of the defendant, which judges then i n c o r p o r a t e into their s e n t e n c i n g decisions. Consequently, there are no special s e n t e n c i n g hearings, and no formal p r o c e d u r e s for g a t h e r i n g p r e - s e n t e n c i n g i n f o r m a t i o n b e y o n d what is r e v e a l e d at trial. * W h i c h persons have input into the s e n t e n c i n g process? I n f o r m a t i o n not obtained. 2. Types of Penalties. * Range of penalties. In 1988, the Cuban Penal Code d e l i n e a t e d the following range of sentences: execution, incarceration, c o r r e c t i o n a l labor with c o n f i n e m e n t to the work site, c o r r e c t i o n a l labor without confinement, probation, fines, and public c h a s t i s e m e n t (la a m o n e s t a c i o n ) . Prison s e n t e n c e s for serious crimes range from 15 to 20 years for first d e g r e e m u r d e r to 2 to 5 years for offenses such as t r a f f i c k i n g in foreign c u r r e n c y and b u r g l a r y of an u n i n h a b i t e d dwelling. The sentences for some m i s d e m e a n o r crimes can extend beyond the m a x i m u m one year i n c a r c e r a t i o n that d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e m from felony offenses. For instance, simple p o s s e s s i o n of illegal drugs or second degree theft can carry a p e n a l t y of 6 months to 2 years of i n c a r c e r a t i o n . The j u r i s d i c t i o n a l level in these cases is d e t e r m i n e d by the level of the p e n a l t y sought by the prosecutor. * Death penalty. The death p e n a l t y is r e s e r v e d for "heinous" crimes such as m u l t i p l e murders, murder of a child, m u r d e r a s s o c i a t e d with torture, or for treason. E x e c u t i o n is by firing squad. Persons who were under the age of 20 or p r e g n a n t at the time of the offense or at the time of s e n t e n c i n g cannot be subject to the death penalty. PRISON i. Description. * Number of p r i s o n s and type. The Cuban penal s y s t e m consists of prisons and granjas. Prisons are fenced and s o m e t i m e s w a l l e d facilities, e s p e c i a l l y in the case of older prisons. Granjas are open farms w i t h o u t gates or fences. G r a n j a s house o f f e n d e r s c o n v i c t e d of r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r offenses, w h i l e p r i s o n s are r e s e r v e d l a r g e l y for f e l o n y - e q u i v a l e n t violators. S e p a r a t e s c h o o l - l i k e f a c i l i t i e s are m a i n t a i n e d for d e l i n q u e n t s u n d e r the age of 16. * N u m b e r of p r i s o n obtained. beds. Information * N u m b e r of annual obtained. admissions. not Information not * A v e r a g e d a i l y p o p u l a t i o n / n u m b e r of prisoners. By 1990, the p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n in Cuba had d r o p p e d to a r o u n d 19,000 as a result of the l i b e r a l i z e d penal code that went into effect in 1988. This number yields a rate of i m p r i s o n m e n t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 190 per I00,000 p o p u l a t i o n . * A c t u a l or e s t i m a t e d p r o p o r t i o n s of inmates incarcerated. I n f o r m a t i o n not obtained. 2. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . * Administration. Cuban p r i s o n s are a d m i n i s t e r e d n a t i o n w i d e t h r o u g h the Penal D i r e c t o r a t e of the M i n i s t r y of Justice. * N u m b e r of prison obtained. * Training obtained. and * Expenditure obtained. 3. Prison guards. Information qualifications. on p r i s o n system. not Information Information not not Conditions. * Remissions. Information not obtained. * Work/education. Cuban inmates are e x p e c t e d to c o m p l e t e the e q u i v a l e n t of a high school d e g r e e if they do not have one. If they do not have a trade, they are e x p e c t e d to learn one. Inmates not i n v o l v e d in an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m are e x p e c t e d to work. P r i s o n e r s are p a i d the same wage for their work in p r i s o n that they w o u l d r e c e i v e on the outside. T h e y are e x p e c t e d to c o n t r i b u t e o n e - t h i r d of this income to their u p k e e p in prison, the r e m a i n d e r is d e v o t e d to s u p p o r t i n g any dependents, and for a s s o r t e d p u r c h a s e s in prison. * Amenities/privileges. m e d i c a l care c o m p a r a b l e Cuban inmates receive to that o u t s i d e the prison. Both male and female p r i s o n e r s are p e r m i t t e d conjugal visits from formal or c o m m o n - l a w spouses a p p r o x i m a t e l y e v e r y 2 months. The actual number of visits may be i n c r e a s e d or d e c r e a s e d a c c o r d i n g to conduct. EXTRADITION AND TREATIES * Extradition. Cuban citizens cannot be e x t r a d i t e d for crimes c o m m i t t e d in other countries. N o n - C u b a n s can be e x t r a d i t e d for crimes c o m m i t t e d in other countries in a c c o r d a n c e with b i - l a t e r a l e x t r a d i t i o n treaties. * E x c h a n g e and t r a n s f e r not obtained. of prisoners. Information * S p e c i f i e d conditions. As an e x p r e s s i o n of Cuba's s o c i a l i s t and " a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t " ideology, Cuban law s p e c i f i e s that anyone sought for an offense related to "fighting imperialism, colonialism, n e o - c o l o n i a l i s m , fascism, r a c i s m or for d e f e n d i n g the d e m o c r a t i c p r i n c i p l e s or rights of w o r k i n g people" cannot be extradited. In 1993, Cuba r e t u r n e d two drug t r a f f i c k e r s caught in Cuban waters to the U n i t e d States to stand trial. This was viewed by m a n y as m a r k i n g a new era of c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n the U n i t e d States and Cuba in the war a g a i n s t drug t r a f f i c in the Caribbean. SOURCES A t t o r n e y General of Cuba, A n n u a r i o E s t a d i s t i c o de Cuba: 1986. (Havana: Comite Estatal de Estadisticas), May 1989. Azicri, Max, "Crime, Penal Law, and the Cuban R e v o l u t i o n a r y Process, Crime and Social Justice. No. 23: 51-79, 1987. Belkis, Pupo Ana, Director, Bufete C o l e c t i v e 23 y J. Havana. Personal Interview: M a r c h 5 - June 25, 1989; June 17, 1990; and A u g u s t 5, 1992. Boda, Jorge, Director, O f f i c e of Evaluation, Office of the A t t o r n e y General of Cuba. Personal Interview: 1990. Bogdan, Michael, "Thirty Years of Cuban R e v o l u t i o n a r y Law," Review of S o c i a l i s t Law. No. 4: 319-332, 1989. Brady, James, "The T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of Law U n d e r S o c i a l i s m . " Insurgent Sociologist. Summer-Fall, Vol. i0, No. 4:5-24, 1981. Cantor, Robert, "New Laws for a New S o c i e t y . " Crime and Social Justice. Fall-Winter, No. 2:12-23, 1974. Cardenas, D o m i n g o Garcia, State O r g a n i z a t i o n in Cuba. (Havana: Jose Marti P u b l i s h i n g House), 1986. Commacho, Denio, Chair, C o n s t i t u t i o n a l R e v i e w Committee, N a t i o n a l A s s e m b l y of People's Power. Havana. Personal Interview: A p r i l 22, 1989. C o n s t i t u c i o n de la Rep blica de Cuba, Gaceta O f i c i a l 1 de agosto de 1992. Diego Canizares, Fernando, Teor a del Derecho. (Havana: E d i t o r i a l Pueblo y Educacion), 1974. Escalona Reguera, Juan, "Palabras de A p e r t u r a de la Asamblea", M e m o r i a s de la Sesion C o n s t i t u t i v a de la A s a m b l e a General, (La Habana: O r g a n i z a c i o n N a c i o n a l de Bufetes Colectivos), pps. 7-14, 1985a. Escalona Reguera, Juan, 1985 A t t o r n e y General of Cuba. Havana. Personal Interview: June 24, 1985. Escasena, Jose L., La E v o l u c i o n de la L e g a l i d a d en Cuba. (Havana: Editorial de C i e n c i a s Sociales), 1984. Evenson, Debra, "The C h a n g i n g Role of Law in R e v o l u t i o n a r y Cuba", S. H a l e b s k y and J. Kirk (Eds.), T r a n s f o r m a t i o n and Struggle: Cuba Faces the 1990s. (New York: Praeger), pp. 53-65, 1989. Fernandez, Omar, 1989 V i c e - R e c t o r , School of Law, U n i v e r s i t y of Havana. Havana. Date of Personal C o n v e r s a t i o n : M a r c h 29, 1989. Garcia, Miguel Angel, Director, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Relations, Office of the A t t o r n e y General of Cuba. Havana. Personal Interview: June 4, 1992. Gavira, A n t o n i o Rodriguez, "El S i s t e m a J u r i d i c o Penal y el Sistema Judicial C u b a n o . " Revista Juridica. July-September, pps. 45-111, 1987. Gomez Treto, Ra i, "30 Years of Cuban R e v o l u t i o n a r y Cuban Penal Law." U n p u b l i s h e d paper p r e s e n t e d at the 30 Years of Cuban R e v o l u t i o n Conference, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 1989. Ley No. 4, Ley de O r g a n i z a c i n del Sistema Judicial. Gaceta O f i c i a l de 25 de A g o s t o de 1977. Ley No. 5, Ley De P r o c e d i m i e n t o Penal. Gaceta O f i c i a l de 1 de o c t u b r e de 1992. Ley No. 62, C digo Penal. Gaceta Oficial de 7 de enero de 1988. Ley No. 72, Ley Electoral. Gaceta O f i c i a l 2 de n o v i e m b r e de 1992. Michalowski, Raymond, "Another Way to Skin the Cat: The Context, Text, and C o n s e q u e n c e s of D e p e n a l i z a t i o n in Cuba." p r e s e n t e d at the A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y of Criminology, Baltimore, 1990. M i c h a l o w s k i , Raymond, "Law and J u s t i c e in Cuba: What Can Realists Learn", M a c l e a n and Lowman (eds.) Realist Criminology: Crime Control and Policing in the 1990s. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press), pps. 115-138, 1992. Michalowski, Raymond, "Erocentrism, Logcentrism and Law: The Rhetorical Construction of Human Rights in Cuba and the United States." Humanity and Society. Vol. 17 No. 3, pps. 251-271, 1993. Michalowski, Raymond, "Between Citizens and the Socialist State: The Negotiation of Legal Practice in Socialist Cuba." Unpublished paper presented at the Law and Society Association, Chicago. 1993. Michalowski, Raymond and Zatz, Marjorie, "The Second Economy in Cuba: Nothing Fails Like Success", Maria Los (ed.) Second Economies Marxist States. (London: Macmillan), pps. 101-121, 1989. National Lawyers Guild. Criminal Justice in Cuba. (New York: National Lawyers Guild), 1988. Resolucion No. 142. Reglamento sobre el ejercicio de la Abogacia y la de Bufetes Colectivos (1984). Salas, Luis, Social Control and Deviance in Cuba. New York: Praeger), 1979. Salas, Luis, "Emergence and Decline of Cuban Popular Tribunals," Law and Society Review. Vol. 17, pps. 588-612, 1983. Thomas, Hugh, Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom. (New York: Harper and Row). 1971. Van Der Plass, Adele, Revolution and Criminal Justice: The Cuban Experiment, 1959-1983, The Hague: FORIS. 1987. Ray Michalowski Professor and Chair Department of Criminal Justice Northern Arizona University P.O. Box 15005 Flagstaff, Arizona 86011-5005 United States Tel: 602-523-9519

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