State of Hawaii v. Trump
MEMORANDUM re 65 MOTION for Temporary Restraining Order filed by T.A.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit 1, # 2 Exhibit 2, # 3 Exhibit 3, # 4 Exhibit 4, # 5 Exhibit 5, # 6 Exhibit 6, # 7 Certificate of Service)(Iwao, Regan)
A Glimpse Into the Life of
a Slave Sold to Save
When a Common Sedative
Becomes an Execution
2 of a Farmer’s 3 Children
Overdosed. What of the
Third — and the Land?
As Daylight Saving Starts,
Some Ask: Why Fall Back
The Origins of Jihadist-Inspired
Attackers in the U.S.
By SERGIO PEÇANHA and K.K. REBECCA LAI UPDATED December 8, 2015
All of the Sept. 11 attackers entered the United States using tourist, business or
student visas. Since then, among attackers claiming or appearing to be
motivated by extremist Islam, only one would have needed a visa to enter the
United States at the time of the attack.
Sept. 11 attackers: tourist, business and student visas
Half of the attacks since 2001 were
committed by men born in the United States.
The paths to violence for the United States-born attackers
varied. Some were recent converts to Islam. At least three who
were born in the U.S. had previous criminal histories, and one
had a history of mental illness.
One seemed to have radicalized after spending time in Yemen.
Another became radicalized after being convicted of lying to
F.B.I. agents — denying he had made plans to travel to
Somalia when in fact he had.
Security experts argue that the risks of routine travel —
including the U.S. visa waiver program, which allows citizens
of Britain, France, Belgium and 35 other countries to enter the
United States without a visa for stays of up to 90 days — are
greater than the threat of foreign terrorists coming through
the refugee program.
“Further restricting the acceptance of refugees does not
address the most likely vulnerability to attacks from abroad,
which is the large number of people from visa-waiver
countries involved in the conflict in Syria,” said David
Sterman, a researcher for the International Security Program
at the New America think tank who has been cataloging
terrorist attacks carried out since Sept. 11.
Attacks With the Most Victims
Syed Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik, the couple
suspected of killing 14 people and wounding 21 others at a
social services center in San Bernardino, Calif., met online
and had a 6-month-old baby. On the day of the assault, Ms.
Malik posted on Facebook that the couple was dedicating the
massacre to the Islamic State.
Mr. Farook was born in Illinois and raised in Southern
California; his parents were born in Pakistan. Ms. Malik was
born in Pakistan, grew up in Saudi Arabia and went to college
in Pakistan. She moved to the United States in 2014 with a
Pakistani passport and a K-1 visa, which designated her Mr.
Farook’s fiancée. She was granted a conditional green card in
July. After the attack, President Obama said that he had
ordered a revision of the program under which Ms. Malik
entered the country.
Nidal Malik Hasan, who killed 13 people in a mass shooting at
Fort Hood, Tex., in 2009, was born and raised in Virginia. Mr.
Hasan had exchanged messages with Anwar al-Awlaki, an
American radical cleric who was later killed by a drone strike
in Yemen. Despite those exchanges, investigators have not
linked Mr. Hasan’s attack to terrorism.
Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev, the brothers responsible
for the Boston Marathon bombings in 2013, settled in the
United States after their parents were granted political
asylum, which involves a less extensive vetting process than
the program for Syrian and Iraqi refugees.
At the time of the Boston bombings, which killed three people
and injured more than 260, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev was a
naturalized American citizen, and Tamerlan had a green card.
Attacks by Foreign Residents
Since 2001, “hardly any foreign-born have committed (or
tried to commit) terrorism in (or on the way to) the U.S.,”
John Mueller, a political scientist at Ohio State and the Cato
Institute who tracks terrorism in the United States, wrote in
Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, a Nigerian man who tried to
detonate explosives in his underwear during a flight from
Amsterdam to Detroit in 2009, had a tourist visa. Richard C.
Reid, who tried to detonate explosives in his shoes on a flight
from Paris to Miami in 2001, is a British citizen, and would
not have needed a visa to enter the United States.
In a speech after the attack in San Bernardino, Mr. Obama
said he was working with Congress to strengthen screening of
those who come to the United States without a visa, “so that
we can take a hard look at whether they’ve traveled to war
Most Prominent Attacks Linked to Extremist Islam
Charged with murdering three men in
Washington State and one in New Jersey.
Nidal Malik Hasan
Nadir Hamid Soofi
Charged with first-degree murder in the
beheading of a co-worker in Oklahoma.
The two brothers were responsible for the
Boston Marathon bombings in 2013. Three
people were killed and more than 260 were
injured; an M.I.T. police officer was killed
during the subsequent manhunt.
Killed one soldier and wounded another at
a military recruiting center in Little Rock,
Killed 13 people and wounded dozens of
others in a shooting at Fort Hood in Texas.
Shot and killed one person and wounded
five others at the Jewish Federation of
Fatally shot two people at the El Al ticket
counter at Los Angeles International
Mr. Simpson and Mr. Soofi opened fire
outside a gathering in Garland, Tex., that
showcased artwork and cartoons depicting
the Prophet Muhammad. Both men were
killed by the police. Mr. Kareem was later
charged with helping plan the attack.
Abdul Malik Abdul
Zale H. Thompson
Attacked police officers with a hatchet in
Planted a car bomb in Times Square.
Fired shots at five military buildings in the
Washington area, including the Pentagon.
Tried to detonate explosives sewn into his
underwear on a Detroit-bound airliner on
Drove a sport utility vehicle through a
crowded common area at the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Richard C. Reid,
Tried to detonate explosives in his shoes
during a flight from Paris to Miami.
No visa needed
Syed Rizwan Farook
Killed four Marines and one sailor at a
military recruiting office in Chattanooga,
Killed 14 people and wounded 21 others at a
social services center in San Bernardino,
Correction: An earlier version of this chart misstated the number of people killed during an attack at a military recruiting center in Chattanooga. It was five,
More on NYTimes.com
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