Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. et al v. RDR Books et al

Filing 39

DECLARATION of Emily Blumsack in Support re: 22 MOTION for Preliminary Injunction.. Document filed by Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc., J. K. Rowling. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit A, # 2 Exhibit B (1 of 3), # 3 Exhibit B (2 of 3), # 4 Exhibit B (3 of 3), # 5 Exhibit C, # 6 Exhibit D, # 7 Exhibit E, # 8 Exhibit F (1 of 3), # 9 Exhibit F (2 of 3), # 10 Exhibit F (3 of 3), # 11 Exhibit G, # 12 Exhibit H, # 13 Exhibit I)(Cendali, Dale)

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Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. et al v. RDR Books et al Doc. 39 Att. 10 Exhibit F Part ^ of 3 Dockets.Justia.com E ^ A ^ TH Ii.SCHAFER HAaax Poxx a top of Mt. Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece, but this idea evolved into Olympus being in sotve mysterious region fár above the mauntaïn. The entrances to Olympus was a great gate of clouds ma^nta^^ed by the Seasons. Pan: Inventor of the date, Pan was a wonderful musícíar^ -who treated m e rríment eve rywhere he went especíall in y t she would unravel the work she had completed during ^l^e day ín hopes ^at hed husband would rer^rn. Pe^rsepñune : Daughter of Zeus ^^,d Demeter, she was abducted by Hades {see above) to become queen af ^l^e under world. Demeter, nat know-. ^g where she was, wandered the world seeking her. Out of pity tir Demeter's t^rmer^t, Zeus allowed Pe^seplzane to spend; six 1 woodlands, thí^kets, forests, and mau^taíns. Part man, pan goat, he has ^ goat's horns and a goat's feet. He played sv^re^t melodies ta attrac^ nymphs whom he #oved, but they always rejected him because he was sa ugly. Panora : The first mortal. woman, who was made of clay at the request of Zeus and who was endowed by each of the gods with a special gift. l'n revenge of P^^^metheus, who had stolen fire from Zeus and given ít to mortals, Zeus gave Pandora a box full af evil spirits, believing she would marry Prometheus a^zd the would be releasØ inan him. Instead, size rriar^ied another maw who opened the box and released all the evil upon the world. Pegasus : A winged hárse sprung from the blood af Medusa (see above) tuben Perseus cut off her head. Tamed by Miner (see above) or Neptune (also called Poseidon, see belo^^ Pegasus was given to Bellerophon to tanquer the Chimera of whom Medusa was one (see above). When Be^erophon tried to dy to heaven upon Pegasus, Zeus sent a fly ^o torment the horse, Øusíng the fall af his rider. Penelope : Daughter of Icarus (see above), she was courted by `. many suitors when it was believed that her husband- Odys^e s. (see above) would not return from the Tra^an War In order rc -^ 1 forestall the suitors, she said she would choose a husband fr^^^i among therm when she had finished weaving a tapestry. Øth ^^a^zths on ^,anh and six months in the inder world. Size is thus xssacïated with spring and summer, rebirth, and crop fertility. Poseid© ^ (1Vepr ^ e ïn Rumm mythology): Zeus' brother and t^ze send móst powerful god, Poseidon is ruler of the sea, Øere he had a magnificent undersea palate. Maltet of horses {he gave the first horse to man), hé calmed the seas ley d^ívíng Ì ^ 'Ø galden tha^íot over the waters. He ^s always depicted with ^^. . _^^^s three-pronged spear, which he uses to create storms at sea. i, :, :.Romulus : The legendary founder af Rome and the sazt af ;;Mats {see above), Romulus and his twin brother Remus were °:slirowrz into the T"^ber rí^er in an attempt to kill them at birth. `^}^ey were rescued and raised by aspe--wolf, eventually c^n'uered their fáes, and Laid the foundation far the tiry of Rome >r$^at would bécame the capital of the western world. Satyrs: Like Pan (see above), Satyrs were goat men, with the é^rs, tail, and. budding horris of a goat, although they were. etìmes represented with the tail and ears of a horse. They Ørß the cozzipanions of the god of wine, Dionysus, and thus * t^í ^ uted to the merriment of festive occasions. 3 ó I37 E r ^^ ^^ l. sc ^^ x Å-I ktRY c, ^^ ^ Sibyl: A fartu^e teller wlzo asl^ed far eternal life but forgot to ask for eternal yau^h. The sibyl usually wrote her prophecies on leaves which she left at the opening of caves. Sile^í: Part rrran, part horse, they walkØ ^n two legs, unlike the satyrs (sec above} who walked on four legs. They are depicted on Greek vases, same ^ mes with horses' ears and.a^ways with horses' tails. Sphinx. l^ the Greek legend, the sphí^fx ïs a rt^a^ster with a woman's bust ánd a lïon's body. She liked to find ^o^als, p^esent the^^ with ridåles they could mot answer, and devour there. She swore to loll, herself ^f a^zya^e could answer her addle, "what. animal walks on four legs in the rz^^arning, two legs at noon, and Three ín the evening." Oedipus correctly answered it ("man") and saved hís ki^gdam. Styx: One of five rivers sepára^i^^g the underworld fion^ Earth, Styx possesses the water that the goás used to seal oaths, and whose waters possess magíeal powers (see Achilles shave). Acheron, the river of woe, pours into Cncytus, the river of lamentation. An ancient bo^tmarz na^z^ ,ed Charon ferries the souls of the dead across. these rivers where they will either be conde ^uzed, to rormerit or sent on to bliss ïri the Elysian Fields, whïch ís a heavenly place of perpetual happiness. Thor: The Norse -god ©^ thunder and ^f the home, he presided aver the weather and craps. His hammer, like Zeus thu^deibolt ; created tl^u^der. The English word "Thursdaÿ' is derived ^r©m hís ^arzae. Titans : The generation of Boås befare Zeus, the Titans were of enormo^^s size and strength. Cronus (or Saturn} was chief of the áitans until Zeus, his son , dethrnt^ed hirn (this time is Øed " t of the gads") and established a new generation of gods. ^e^us {Aphrodite án Greek myt{^^la^y): She is said either to be size Øughter ^f Zeus arzd Dinne, nr to have sprung from the foam of the sea (there is a farr^ous painting by Botticellí of Venus asce^^iing from a shell}. 4né of the Muses, she ís the uddess of love and beauty wha enjoys laughter. She mopes ï^ x^adiar^t light, arzd without her presence there is ^o jny. In sonfe áécoun^s, sloe ís treacherous and malicious, especially as she deceives men. The myr^le ís her tree, aid the finve, sparrow, nr swan her l^^rd. Vulc^^^^ (Nephuest^^s in Greek myth^Ío^y): Althaugh the only ;^.y god, and larrze, he ^s ící.^dly arzd peace lovig. He maltes ?ömor, f^^rnishíngs, aid weapons for the gods, with the help of his dmaidens whom he forged out of gold. Hís w^ricshop ís saïd be order a volØO, which he Øz^ses to e^^up^ when his forge is ^Z^at. He ís ^narríed to one of the three Muses, Yerzus (see above}. Zeus : Supreme rulér, Lord of the Sk}, rain god and cloud athé ^e ^, Zeus wielded the awful thunderbolt. He used ííght^^zg to express anger at hís subjects and humans, and to secure tf eir attention , His wife, Hera, jealous of clae many children ^áthered by Zeus, often sought to deceive him and harass -hís ^#zildre^ arzd theí^ mothers. - ©1^Ítísll ^¢ g¢^e^s - 0 0 u^^ Kíx^^g: ^nssibly derived from a.blendíng ofa.çhìeftain . ^fom the f^ftl^ ar sixth ce^turíes and a Celtic god, the Arthurian ;end évalved í^ both- Britain and France over several ^e^^^iríes, adding such elements as the Kr^ïghts ^^ tlzé Roundtable, 0 0 I38 139 ^HAPTER l.O ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1^R^^^-TyI'^S AN^I B^B^,^CAL, R^F R^NC^S `Ì d^ñt ^elíeve peple ure Øoking fir the ^neaníng ^f life ^s much as they ure Ø^king fir the experience ^f being alive. " J ^ ^^ CAMPa^t ^_ "Ta Lísten t ^^ne Ø ut peple, ne woúld imuglne th^ God never la^gh.r. "-A^o ^^ ^ ca G^os 159 E ^ z ^ s 7 ^ D. SCMAPER HgRAK POTTER ^ I^^^o^ ^r ^^ o^ Mesh af the world's l^terutuse ís dermedfrom unçient stories that have become ímprïnted on amer sub^ons^iaus muds. From troubadours who preserved stories bef^^re people ^o^ld ^^rite to Scar Wars characters, w^íters h^v^ k^ow^ that by i^^okí^g ^ert^^in ímugés, symbols, ar l^ngu^ge from imprinted stories, they jauld ^e^oke p^werful emotions from their readers. Hurry ís, himself, d ^Øí^ ^rçhetypal hero, und unØrstanding his archetypal farebearers wí11 expldín inu^h of his moppeal to young reoders ^uh^ identify with the ple^s^^r^s and perils af her^ísm better thin mast people. people undergo essentially the same kind of ^asíc e^períences, the expression of the collective unc^vscious ís u^iversal, and archetypes a.re as ^neaní^g#i^^í to remorç ^íbesme^ hunting for food ín the juve as co Wall Street executives fe^^díng off p^edatars. Ar^throp^logists have discovered many universal matifs that support Carl Jung's pr^pasi^an that all people everywhere share archetypal beliefs and experi^^c^s. Almos^ every cul^u^e has ezr^bndíed ín its legends, li^erature or ^elígío^ sír^^ílax scories ar belíefs, such as the destruction of the world ^y flood, ^fax^^íne, plague, ar earthquake; the slayí^g of monsters; siblí^^g rivalries; and the oedipus legend. Althaugh^ the details val greaçly from culture to culture, the basic patterns are a^^axi^gíy similar. These staries express mankind's reaction to essentially changeless sítuatia^s, órigínating from experiences, attitudes and pra^lems related to the uvive^se, gods, survival, parents, and ildrev. Every generation retells these ancient archetypes ro .interpret the world as they experience ít. 0 0 ARCHETYPES AND THE COLLECTIVE l]NCONS.CIOUS ail Jung, a psychologist, student ^f Sigmund l?read, and Vone of the foremost thínice^s of the twentie^h century, defined a concept he tailed "the collective (or universal} uncar^-s^í ous. " H e ass e rted that alI modern bein gs retain patterns aE their ancien^ ancestors, and that regardless of geography, race, ar religion, aíí peple everywhere share common dears and desires. Bialagis^s have long ^ec^gnízed ínstïnc^ual patterns ín I^wer anímaís-----the nesting of birds, thé ritual dance of storks, the spínn^ng of spider webs-and recent DNA díscove^ies co^íirrn that except f^^ tiny differences ín DNA structure, all creatures are ^ïalogically simílár. Jung arguèd tlxac the cc^líectíve u^ico^sciaus in society is exp ^essed th.rough "archeypes" that embØy a prìm ^^d^al, preconscíous, ivscínctual expmssion of mankínd's basíc.nature. Because HARRY AS ARCHETYPE Alrnos^ all works afIïterature that have endured time tell the stories of archetypal çl^aracters. The phenomenal success of Harpy Potter suggests that he and his world are reinte^pretíng ancient a^cl^et^pes for a generation of young readers wha may Dave been jaded ^y reality , teíev^síon but eagerly embrace their ^^nectíon to their collective u^covscíous. Lord Ragland , in leis groundbreaking study of archetypes, The Hero: A Study i^r Tradítíón, Myth, arzd Drama identífi^es three :^rin^ípal :catcgaríes of archetypes: characters, sïtuations, and 1'ó 0 I^1 0 £t,rz s ^^^ .D. $c ^ ^ a H r Pn^ o ^ jectslsyrr ^ aís. His ís a Iong Iíst, but here are some af Ragíand's observations, some of which appear ire Hairy and hip world. The hero in every culture e^pe^iences a series ofwelímarked adventures that stro^gíy suggest a ritualistic pattern. Ragland f^^ds that traditionally the her©'s mother is a virgin., the circumstances ^f Imes birth are unusual, and at b^rtl^ snrne attempt is made to ` hirr^. He is, however, spirited away and reared by fester parens. Little is known of his early cl^áldhood, but as he nears maturity he returas to his future kingdom where he leans some of the secrete of his past, Äfter a victory over the kí^g of wild beast, he rr^ar ^es a prír^cess, Øcomes king, and reíg^s uneve^tfuiíy. After Iosir^g favor wixh the gØ, he is driven from the kingdom and meets a roysterious death, often at the top of a hill . His body is nit burled but resides in one or more holy sepulchers. Situatíu^^s which the arche^ypal heri endures include: 1. The quest. The hero searches far someone or some talisman (object) whi^,I^, when found, will restore the health of the kí^gdom. 2. The task. Tosave the ki^gØm or ^^vin the hand of a princess, the hero must perform same nearly superhuman deed. 3. The i^itiatío^ . The young hero e^terir^g puberty must survive a ritualistic act that trans © rrrs I im ^^ ^o understanding die probíern^s and respo ^síbílities of aduíthaód. 4^..The jaur^ey. The hero must seek i^farmatio^ ór xruth through a perilous journey that often includes a descent into the under world. 5. The fá1í. The hero descends from a higher to a lower state af being that usual#^ ir^valves. spiritual defile^^e^t at^d a loss of í^noce^te. The fail usually results ín the hero's expuísia^ from. paradise aid a per^alry for disabedíence. ^. l^eaxh and rebirth. The most commn^ of a1í a^chet^pal sítuatior^s, this reflects the ^^flue^ce of the ^cle of life and death, winter and sp^í^g, night and day. 0 ^^tOItAL S RLiCTLI ^ ^ AND TN^ Hû^WART5 SyST^M Although relígío ^ seems absent i ^ she novels, Hogwarts and its ^nhabítants are rooted ín moral sett^^gs and situations. Scholars who sxudy the hístóry ^f ^eíigíon reaí^ze tháx people íiave expressed spirituality ín ma y ways. Ancient peoples believed xl^ax animals, plants, and abjects contaínéd the spirts of gods whn prntected them. Groups such as Nativé Americans desíg^ated specific people to. direct r^tuaís and preserve rr^^tí^s about spiritual beliefs: The diverse religions that mader^ cultures practice emerged over thnusands_ of years and are í^ased orgy the teacl^í^gs of spiritual leaders, íncludír^g Jesus, Mohammed, Confucius, and I^uddha . Some relígiaus guides told ti^eir followers xhat God was kited and fnrgívir^g , while others depicted a more strict a^ d intolerant deity. Harry and the Hogwarts comm^unity.reflect n^u^^erous arel^^typal . patterns and religious values, aíxhough there is no mentíon of religion ^ ín Books 1-lll. Harry does not attend church ín either the Haggle ar magíca^ worlds , nor do any of his fr^ea^ls, teachers , ^^ family. If Hngwarts or Hogsmeade contais a chapel, ^ iói ó3 C 3 TA8ETN. U. 3C 1 AF [F H ^^^ P ^ TTEa or if the Dursleys' neighborhood houses a church or cathedral, they have mat been mentioned í^ the series so far. Christmas l^alidays at Hogwarts are secular, and Easter ^s referred to mostly as a way to note advancing time ín the- school calendar. Students do agat pray bef©^e meals a^ at be^ti ^^e. B^b1e study ís oat i^carpara.ted ín the cunriculum. Despite tl^e omission of religious ceremonies, Hogwarts and tl^e magical world expect students and adult wizárds to accept high standards of rural eo^duct, of how tco live virtuously, dutifully, and purposeftilly to aid others and rid the world af cull. Good ís emphasí^ed in character^^xatíons and plots. Cí^ildren are e^ØU^aged ta respect their elders, somewhat like the ancestor warship practiced ity Asfan and African religions. The school song is like a psa^m, praising and uniting the co^i^rx^uníty. Professors resemble missionaries seeking stude^r followers. The lessons and examples are reminiscent af biblical people and events whích symbolize universal experiences af srifferingand joy, defeat and perseverance, and hate and lave. Both bíblïcal and Harry potter cl^aracte^s withstand haråsl^íps bec,^use of án angry-God. The Bible tells about demons and sorcerers, unexplained wonders, and brutal ,tortures ar^d mu^ders--clearly defined arcñétypal experier ces fro every ^uIture. hor^ared use of alíusio^ in líteráture, whích RowIing also uses. Archetypal stories ^ar^ate miraculous incidents similar rn the phenomena Harry wítriesses, as well as his struggle ofgood versus cull. Harry is marked as the ch©sen aye by hís scar, which resembles stígrr^ata that sometimes appear ^n fervently religious followers. It could also be viewed as a brand of shame. Øen Cain, murdered Abel, God placed a liíemish ^n hís forehead. Harry's scar-is syrnbnlically í^ the shape of a lightr^íng bolt, hinting of the storms that terríhed ancient peoples as signs of forthcoming disaster. Harry's parental legacy signifies that lie is the heir to the wi^ard kìr^gdorn, preparizzg himself for Armageddon aid Resurrection. Hís initial visit to Diagon Alley, béing immersed i^ wizard culture, could represent his initiation as ^hé wizard world's appointed savínr. He is assisted by his two closest .friends, Rots and Hermí^^e..l-iarry might be considered tl^e prodigal son, returning to his true home. He also could be referred tó as a messiah, apostle, or prophet witl^ít^ the wizard commu^^íty beØUSe hé spreads the message that good will ukí^^ately triumph aver evil. Harry's ^íghtmares include preznonítio^s abnur evil somervhat like tl^e dreams of Joseph and ^^her biblical characters. As a toddler, Harry is saved from death when Hagríd transports lam ^^ the Dursleys' in a bundle of blankets, which recalls the basket used far infant Moses' escape when rl^e Pharaoh andered that all male babies were to be killed or the "swaddling clothes,, ìn whích the infant Jesus was wrapped. Harry is also a pious piles grírt^, intensely pursuí^g í^is journey to find hís identity and po^er to enact vengeance for ^oldemort 's crimes . Harms ís Iike s ^ ^ ^. cA A us a>^ s Because the Bible is the Theological and cultural basis of western society, writers often retell its stories ín fictional w^rlrs, nr ^nal^e indirect references to ít ^n order to suggest to readers same values ar principles the Bible addresses. This ís a tíme- ^ z^s E z ^^ r ^ I). Sc ^^ ^ a 7 H ^^^ v Porr ^ the peer that Jererníah observed who continued maldir^g his clay at his wheel ^untií he created flawless jars. Jeremiah. conxpared tÌxe clay ta people, clecla^íng that Gad was also a ^^otte^ who toiled with his creations until he was satisf ed they were ready for service. Saint james, the brother pf Jesus, was magi ured for his beliefs sómewha^ like N.^ry'S tE^er who ^[^ed defe^d^r^g h>s pr^r^c^plØ. Lily Potter's name represents her purity af ^^iri^ as derr^^nstrated by sacriñcing her Harry can also be regarded as a medieval crusader, draped ín syrt^^baííc robes in quest of the Hoíy Graíi. As ^ Seeker, Harm battles heretics during -games of Quidditch. His accident s^mbníixes a f^l^ fr©r^ grace before h:e can rise again as a worthy spi^ïtt^al leader. Avoiding the fate ^f Lot's wife who turned inta a p^lla^ of salt when she looked lack at Sodom, Harry leaves the Quidditch field with his face fnxward, avoiding glancing t^ either side. He alsy evádes the basilisk's gaze. Themes of betrayal, love, lass, and ginner canflìc^ permeate Harry's life as they d^ biblical characters' experiénces. é ta save her son Harms. Lilies signify the re^^^rrection ar^d ascension af Christ áfter his ^n^cíft^iar^ and a symbol af Easter. Sirí^^s Black sor^^ewhat resembles Job because af the. sufferïng íße patie^tíy endures resultïng from falsé accusations and unjust ^tnprisanmez^t . í31a^k, confirmed ta an island, also recalls John í^ívine who wrote the 13oak of Revelations while he was a prisoner an tí^e island af l'a^mas. Maíl^ Weasley is a spírituall^ s^song, determiried wn^^^an whn, íiíce b^íícal wo^^en, defended their fa^x^^ílíes from evíL Hedvr^g, named for a saint, ur^^an^píainí^gly serves Harry and comforts him ín times of stress. I'er^ Weasíey is like a Pharisee who strictly follows rules wí^ile acting smugly superior. Harry and many of his classmates might be described as Goad Sar^áritans be^a^se of theír'acts of kír^dt^ess and generosity. The trio of Har^,^Ran, and Herm,íane suggest the power af three and the spìrítual trinity. Other biblical allusions ir^cíude ^oldema^t as an archangel, espeçíalíy when he is referxed to ^y the title "Lord." Harry wonders which of his classmates has betrayed him {like Judas) wl^e^ cí^e diam is stolen Exam i^,^s room ín Bç^ak II. 'the decadent, greedy Dursleys seem to lack souls ar^d emphasize how t}^e term "ion-believer" gains new meaning as defined by wizards. Some $rluggles are like Scythíans who were ur^civílixed and foreigners 0 .^ ^ ^ GOOD V1~RSUS ^V1L Saints and sinners populate. the pages of the Harry Potter series. Harms is surrounded by wise men az^d women, who were known as "magi» in the Bible. Thought ta í^ave been schalars, the wise men presented the infant Jesus with presents, sornewhat lííce Harry's professors ©ffer him material; inteííectual, and emotional gif^s. Dum^bledore ís wïse like Solomon' and shares. wisdom with leis students that mimic parables and proverbs, Lupin resembles .she Apastíe Paul whose letters offered advice ar^d warnings. Ham's parents suggest Cl^rístían symbolism. There are tz^^an}. James mentioned ín tl^e Bib}e, including two of Jesus' disciples. ^^ i^í^in their camtnuníties. Aunt Marge cruelly suggests that zAa i ^ D: se ^^ F R v HAiIRX OiiER Hairy is retarded, and nobody defends him at what proved to be Hanrÿs "last supper" at ^l^e Dursley home. Biblical sorcerers ar^d witches are depicted a^ sinners. paal vísi^ed the mágicía^ Elymas Bar-Jesus, the wizard of Cyprus, who tried to dïsc^edít him. The Samaritan Simo^^ Magus was a . sorcerer who tried to purchase more power when he was impressed by clue aposties' abilities. He admitted his sï^, but tradítiotzal legends claimed that he later started .aid spread heresy. Daniel slew the dragon Bel, á Babyla^^ god described ín the Apocrypha (early Christian tets not included in the New Testatne^t), and his faith.pr^tected hires when lie was thrown ín a lion pit, so^aewlat like, Harry facing the basilisk. .1.iØ events. The Chamber of Secrets mould be the Garden of Eder wiCh Harry as Adam, Gírny as Eve, and the basïlïsk as the se^l^^ctíve serpent. Gínny's fall fram grace ís the catalyst for the abandonr^ient of the clamber and new order át Hogwarts.-The hissing af the chamber's doors and the basilisk suggest anc^e^t languages being released from the Tower of Babel. Hagwarts' chambers and the Slriefúng Shacks upscaírs morn l^arbo^ evil, like biblical lion der s and torture rooms. The threatening message written on the wall ín Bnok Il resembles the message that Daniel translated for the Babylo^ia^. King Belshazzar, warní^g him that he would be punished for l^ntíng a temple. The architecture af Hogwa^s and other wizard sí^es parallels ^ib1iØ structures. Hogwarts sits on a cliff above Hogsmeade; re^ples often sat ^^^ hills above populated areas. The wïzard Ø^le has stone gates, steps, towers, wells, and chambers like those described in the $ible and presér^ed by archaealagísts. 1-logwarts' walls resemble those surrounding cities in the Holy Land, and tunnels beneath the castle are like those used to protect early Chrïstïa^s from persecutïan. The cave Harry enters ^^^ his first night at Hogwar^s are like thé caves used t^ hide the Dead Sea Scrolls fram the Romans ar tó bury the dead. SACR D PLAC^S Even th^ugh Hogwar^s ^s a secular sít^, ^t represents Harry's spiritual home where le is awakened ta new awareness and understandïng of himself and the world. Hogv^arts enables Harry ta see the possibilities of peace and harmony far both wizards and Maggles. W^thou^ lis immersïon ire the Hagwarts ; cammunity and commitment co its creed, Harry would havs been powerless to confront evil that tlreatens not oily himself`` but the world. H^gwants is ísola^ed like Esse^es, a comrnun^^y where a sect prepared for the final ØnfronCatia^ between gaaél . and evil. The cas^le ís a sanctuary like the corrun^ni^ of Samaritans a^ a monastery. Dumbledore's office protects pre cious artifacts the ma isal e u^valenc of Che Ark of the: q g Covenant encasing the Ten Commandme^^ts. Bill Weasle^ works at the G^ingotrs bank in Egypt; a central location of bí^^- ^lBJ^CTS AND NUMB RS Religious artifacts are often revered as sacred itezr^s. Many of ^?`^l^ese objects are ensl^í^ed for the devout to visit or uséd ïn '' Ørayez; Ocl^ers have vanished, only present in b^bl^^al flt schol^ árly descr^ptíans. These sacréd antifaets serve as symbols of reli".- ^os^ry. Several objects ín the Harty Potter series suggest sírnílar ió8 ió9 `ÌØ,gínt^o^ ú more im^iartnt th^n k^^uldge. Kn ^ w%dge is limited. Img^ati^^ e^círcles tht w^ rØ ^ ----AiI3ER1" EINSTEIN E ^ ^ s ^^ D. Sc ^ a ^ c- ^ r ' - a I ^^^nt^^c^ a^^ Although the Potter series seems to fick science aid technology, the ^^^ks actually a^e^xlled wí^h scientifu unØrt^nes . Ironically, while Harry ßzØ his peers appear ta shun technology; which ú ádentifi^d tts beá^g part of the Øspúed Maggie culture, the staries appeal ta reaØ^s immersed ín a technology-dútifled e^víronment. rØe tetias "evil eÿe.» The students are affected b^ weather e^trerries. Geology aid metallurgy are present in the for^ì of t^rkes and metals, pa^tícúlar(y wizard money, tlia^ the stu^e^ts e^counter around the castle. The petrification ^f stu (ents ín Book II also d^ma^ds a scie^^if c e^planati©n, such understanáing how wood is fossilîzed. Since aricíerit asmes, s^^me humans have believed that precious gems and .metals can '- use illness ar^d extend lïfe spas. Health a^d ^ utritíon are.í^corporated i^ the students' hearty d recurring infirmary visïts. l'hysïcs is an ï^tegrál part e Potter ^^ovels because the characters attempt to contrál e. Lu^iar cycles and moos phases regulate activity at ^agwarts. Meas i ^er^ent ^^ time ís also crucial %r preparing Øtíons a^d traveling. Cane of the $rítísh units of measurement Ø the hogshead, a ^ittïng measurement for Hogwa^ts. Altliougli nit considered c^édïble by ri^ oder^ standards, astrology, conceded with pio ^eeririg astronomical observa^íßns, was a significant science during the Middle Ages and ^a^naissá^ce, and astrological aspects such as predictí^r^s pe^te the Hogwarts cuhu^e. The movízig wizard píctu^es rely ^^^ a specially concocted potion to achieve that effect which is íriiílat in appeara ^ce ta java movement ín i ^ter ^ et images. I:^.teresti^gly, the term wizard lias beers used to describe outra^idíng factual scïentísts . Thomas Edîson was called the ízard of Menlo Park" {wliece his laboratories were located). Renowned botmist George Washington Carver was known as "Wizard ofTuskegee," a^d eighteenth-century astronomer d mathematician Benjamin ßarineker was also labeled a ^íza.td because of his ge^ii^s a ^ d talent. ^ ^ sc ^ ^ c A Ha^Wx ^ s arty rarely watches televísíon or plays coir^puter games, .^land .it ís odd that readers would eiz^brace his moon-tech^ologícal life. Of course, Dudley lias access to these state-ofthe-art e(ectronîc devices, but he is loathsome ^o readers. Nabody at Hogwarts surfs rise i^ter^et or comi^riu^icates by email. (One explanatî^n fór this might be tkiat the use of these systems outside acaderriía was mot widespread u^iti ( the mid 1^90s, after Books ^ tlirvugh III are set.} Hamoever, like a stereo^pical mad scientist, Arthur Weasley enjoys ti^keri^g witli technology, usí^g magïc to enhance a ca.r. The Øtle is a engineering achievement. Students study applications ^ a1 astronomy, botany, and chemistry. They com6i ne herbs and anímalwbased subs^ances to make potins. The fa^tastícal; creatures they learn ta control and bizarre plants parallel.. genetically engínee^ed food amid (ívestocl^. Zoology is of iiiterest because of the wild and domesticated anîmals at Hogwarts. ra a tics is crucial for understandín g P hotog pby a^d mírro^^ p: illusions, and reflect^ns i^ people's pupils were. the source of lenses have beets manipulated for ce^ turíes to create ^nagíØl 184 18S E. ^^ a ^^ D. sc ^^ r· A E^ARRY 1"CÌTTER ALCH^My AND C^i^M1STRy T}^e scie^^e most clearly related to tE^e Ha^cy Potter series ís chemistry ín the form ofálchemy. Chemists study the yam position of matter and how it changes. The comprehensi^z^ of chemical processes was enhanced b^ early alcl^emis^s` ^ experiments which built a foundation for chemistry, wl^icli would eventually be recog^^ized as a science in the seventecnth century. Medieval scíe^^ists practiced alchémy, hopin to produce gold from less valuáble metals. In addition to try ing to manufacture gold, alchemis^s desired to devel©}^, potío^s, known as elixirs, ^o ensure good health and extend: life spans. Ancient writers stated that animals, such as stags, lived hundreds of years after drinkí^g such liquids, proving that potions worked. pounded ín Egypt, alchemy was practiØ throughout Mediterranean ^egians ar^d as far away as China. Ancient Greek aid Roman wrítí^gs discussed alchemy. Empedocles; in ^l^ fifth century ^.C., stated that all objects consist of water, air, fire, and earth, establisF^ing the basis for alchemy theory. The idea of makirxg gold appealed to ancient peoples, i^ciudi^g Caligula, a Roman emperor, who ordered his servants to transform asulphurous type of arsenic into gold. In the fifth ce^it^.^ry ^.^ß., ^asimus the Theban attempted similar work based on his knowledge that sulfu^íc acid dissolved metals. He was tlié ñrs^ person to mention the phílos^pher's stone. Early alchemy was controversial, and $mperor Díocle^ian demanded that books abo^it s^icii experiments be burned. Aristotle's idea that matter naturálly at^aí^ed perfection formed the basis of alcl^ernísts' beliefs. Alchemists hypotheized that because tl^e earth created gold from ímpe^fect metals that they should be able to replicate this process. Because nF its mystical nature , early alchemy was associated with magic -and astrology. The Sur^ r^^^ ^erfectín^ís (Summit of ^erfectian), written ,by the Arabic scientist Geber, was the first significant publication addressing alchemy methods. Arabic alchemists íd that metals were composed of rr^ércury and sulfur which inspired European alchemists, mast. notably Roger Bacon, rlibertus Magnus, Andreas Libavíus who wrote .lll^hemi^^, and ('l^ílíppus Paracelsus, who said that the salt, sulfur, and mercury of -compounds represented eárth, air; and water. laracelsus believed that awe unknown.eleme^t was the source of ^liese other elements. He called this the "alkahest" and ^ugl^t it was the philosopher's stone. Referred to ^s "philosophers",because science í^ the Middle Agés was known as natural philosophy, alchemists, such as l8ó ^ 167 ^ ^ A ^ ETH .a. $C ^ AFER HARRY POTTER Nicholas Flamel who Iíved în tlxe fourteenth century, focose an producì^g á philosophers' stone which they believed could magically convert substances into precious metals such as gold or sííver. I^lamel supposedly converted mercury into gold in 1388 and lived ta. be 116 years old: Sçholars say that 1~lamel pretended to be a^ alchemist to disguise tl^e source of his vast wealth through moneylending and questionable business ventures.Hísto^ícall^, these scier^tíst-philosophers distilled a farm of mercury and purified it with salt and vín^egar. Thén, the mixtore was p l ace d i ts a crys Ø vase and h eate d over fire . `^ alchemists labeled the melted substance as "l^quor.n When boiled in a white vase, lighter colored lïqu^r supposedly ^áeØ^^e silver, and red liquor turned inter gold. The process was campliØted and lacked scíentif^c ^alidíty, frustrating alchemists who repeatedly failed to manufacture desired products. Despite the physical impossibilities of chemically producing gold from lesser elements ín the Middle Ages, legends about the wondrous abilities of al^l^ernists circulated. ^í^7oodçuts pictured. alchemists ánd illustrated alchemy manuals. In 1386, Chaucer referred to the alchemîs^s and the philosopher's stone in the "Yeoma^'s Tale" {from The Canterbury Tales). Alchemists dïvíded into two groups: one evolved into scïentiñcally-grounded chemîsts, while the other focused on metaphysïcal aspects tI^ resulted í^ alchemy beïng considered a fraudulent activity pratticed by charlatans to deceive people. Dining the Middle Ages, alchemists were motivated by greed and control. Bot European and Asian cultures einb^aced the idea of using Øwder, usually described as being black, as a philosopher's stene ra turn o^Jécts into gold. This color imagery reinforces motifs of dárl^ness and the intersection of goad and év^l ín the Hazry Patter. novels, such as Síríus Bía^k beingdepicted as sinister but actually metapho^cally becomí^g Harry's golden mentor.- Sorne ^^odern scientists consider alchemy to be a usefi^I methodology, and twentieth-century book Titles and other references to alchemy signify that the subject is chemistry-related. Hogwa^s could be considered a metaphorical philosopher's .stone which ínitìates Harry's metamorphosis from an Insecure :child into an et^po^ered wi^a^d. His professors and Hagrid. are s}^mboIíc ^l.chemísrs. The Egyptians stressed that alchemy abilítíes should n©t be used f^^ personal gain buy for altruistic and spîritual purgases. 1,íke astronauts who develop pharmaceutîeals in space that- are í^^possíble to manufacture on Earth, -Harry and his friends may devise are elixir to cure some plague ire their paral#el world. REA.i7ING pOR ØERRCH Harte, Rom. Great S^ie^tif^^ Fcperiinents: 20 E^perí^ne^ts that Changed our ^íew of the World. Oxford: Orford University Press, 1983 . l-iistaríc accounts of signìfi^ant scíençí£zc accomplishments. ^^aenufiC Amer^C^.r^..S^1e12ttflC American Súe^^e Desk Reference. New York John Ølpy & Sons, ^Ir^c:, 1999. A ^amprehensíve source of scientific and t^chnologícal definitions, explar^atíons, sources , and biographical material. A^ essential reference for ^híld^en to consult. ^ecchïone, G1en_ Í00 First-^íze Make-it-Yo ^ rs^lf Science Fair a^ z^g E . z ^^ r ^ D. Sc ^^ projects. New York Sterling, 1999. Ideas for a wide variety of ^ experirx e ^ ts a^d displays. I ÌI"^?RN^ R1^5 URCFS ^ 1h A c e^^y http:/lwww levityco ^^ laEche myli ^dex.k t ^^ ^ Science Sites http:llkídscíence.cbout. cam I,ag o^ t^ www.beachar^publish^ng . ct^^n for many additional prajecis, díscussíor^ questíor^s, writing and research ideas, wel^sites, aid bibliography. 190

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