SCO Grp v. Novell Inc

Filing 627

MOTION in Limine No. 1 to Exclude Evidence and Argument Concerning Claims Not Included in SCO's Appeal or the Tenth Circuit's Limited Mandate filed by Defendant Novell, Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit 1-Final Judgment, # 2 Exhibit 2-Tenth Circuit Opinion, # 3 Exhibit 3-SCO Appeal Brief, # 4 Exhibit 4-SCO Reply Brief, # 5 Exhibit 5-Ruling, # 6 Exhibit 6-Order)(Brennan, Sterling)

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SCO Grp v. Novell Inc Doc. 627 Att. 5 EXHIBIT 5 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 1 of 102 ______________________________________________________________________________ IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF UTAH CENTRAL DIVISION THE SCO GROUP, INC., Plaintiff, vs. NOVELL, INC., Defendant. Civil Case No. 2:04CV139DAK MEMORANDUM DECISION AND ORDER This matter is before the court on the following motions: Novell's Motion for Partial Summary Judgment or Preliminary Injunction [Docket No. 147]; SCO's Cross-Motion for Summary Judgment or Partial Summary Judgment on Novell's Third, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Counterclaims [Docket No. 180]; Novell's Motion for Summary Judgment on SCO's First Claim for Slander of Title for Failure to Establish Special Damages [Docket No. 277]; Novell's Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on SCO's Non-Compete Claims in its Second and Fifth Claims [Docket No. 273]; Novell's Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on Copyright Ownership of SCO's Second Claim for Breach of Contract and Fifth Claim for Unfair Competition [Docket No. 271]; Novell's Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on its Fourth Claim [Docket No. 171]; SCO's Cross-Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on Novell's Fourth Claim [Docket No. 224]; SCO's Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on its First, Second, and Fifth Claims and Novell's First Claim [Docket No. 258]; and Novell's Motion for Summary Judgment on SCO's First Claim for Slander of Title and Third Claim for Specific Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 2 of 102 Performance [Docket No. 275]. The court held hearings on these motions on January 23, 2007, May 31, 2007, and June 4, 2007, and took the motions under advisement. After carefully considering the memoranda and other materials submitted by the parties, and the law and facts applicable to these motions, the court issues the following Memorandum Decision and Order. BACKGROUND The SCO Group, Inc. ("SCO") began this action in state court asserting a single cause of action against Novell, Inc. ("Novell") for slander of title based on public statements Novell made claiming that it had retained the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights when it sold certain assets of its UNIX and UnixWare business to SCO's predecessor in interest. After Novell removed the case to this court, the parties proceeded to add several claims and counterclaims to the action. SCO added claims for breach of the parties' Asset Purchase Agreement and Technology License Agreement, specific performance, copyright infringement, and unfair competition. Novell added counterclaims against SCO for slander of title, breach of the Asset Purchase Agreement, declaratory relief regarding the parties' rights and obligations under the Asset Purchase Agreement, restitution/unjust enrichment, and accounting. UNIX was originally developed by AT&T. In 1983, AT&T developed a new version of UNIX called UNIX System V, Release 1. Other versions were also subsequently developed. These releases are referred to as SVR1, SVR2, SVR3, and SVR4, or generically SVRX. In 1993, Novell purchased UNIX-related assets from AT&T's subsidiary, UNIX System Laboratories, and paid over $300 million for those assets. Decl. Tor Braham at ¶ 4. 2 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 3 of 102 A. The APA and Contemporaneous Agreements (1) The APA SCO's predecessor in interest, Santa Cruz Operations Inc.,1 and Novell entered into an Asset Purchase Agreement ("APA") dated September 19, 1995. Decl. Mark James Ex. 1 ("APA"). The APA acknowledges in its "Recitals" section that Novell was "engaged in the business of developing a line of software products currently known as Unix and UnixWare, the sale of binary and source code licenses to various versions of Unix and UnixWare, the support of such products and the sale of other products which are directly related to Unix and UnixWare (collectively, the "Business")." APA Recital A. It is further stated in the APA that the Boards of Directors of Novell and Santa Cruz "believe it is in the best interests of each company . . . that [Santa Cruz] acquire certain of the assets of, and assume certain of the liabilities of [Novell] comprising the Business (the "Acquisition"). Id. Recital B. As part of the consideration for the Acquisition, Santa Cruz agreed to issue Novell 6,127,500 shares of Santa Cruz's Common Stock, which some witnesses have approximated to be worth between $125 to $150 million at the time of the transaction. Id. Recital C. Article I of the APA outlines the Acquisition by breaking it down into categories relating to the purchase of assets, payments, the transfer of customers, non-assignment of certain items, transitional contracts, the license back of assets, and the closing. Id. §§ 1.1-1.7. The APA's provision entitled "Purchase and Sale of Assets" provides: On the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in this Agreement, Seller will sell, convey, transfer, assign and deliver to 1 Five years after the APA, Santa Cruz was purchased by Caldera. Caldera changed its name to The SCO Group. 3 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 4 of 102 Buyer and Buyer will purchase and acquire from Seller on the Closing Date (as defined in Section 1.7) all of Seller's right, title, and interest in and to the assets and properties of Seller relating to the Business (collectively the "Assets") identified on Schedule 1.1(a) hereto. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Assets to be so purchased shall not include those assets (the "Excluded Assets") set forth on Schedule 1.1(b). Id. § 1.1(a). With respect to their "Intellectual Property" provisions, Schedule 1.1(a) and Schedule 1.1(b) are consistent. Schedule 1.1(b) sets forth as Excluded Assets the following "Intellectual Property": "All copyrights and trademarks, except for the trademarks UNIX and UnixWare" and "All Patents." Id. Sched. 1.1(b) § V.A, V.B. Schedule 1.1(a) sets forth as Assets to be transferred the following "Intellectual Property": "Trademarks UNIX and UnixWare as and to the extent held by Seller (excluding any compensation Seller receives with respect of the license granted to X/Open regarding the UNIX trademark)." Id. Sched. 1.1(a) § V. Another significant aspect of the APA is the agreement between the parties with respect to future SVRX Royalties. Under the payment provisions of the APA, Novell retained "all rights to the SVRX Royalties notwithstanding the transfer of the SVRX Licenses to [Santa Cruz]." Id. § 1.2(b). Santa Cruz agreed to pass through one-hundred percent of the SVRX Royalties to Novell, and Novell agreed to pay Santa Cruz a five percent administrative fee. Id. Santa Cruz obtained "legal title and not an equitable interest in such royalties within the meaning of Section 541(d) of the Bankruptcy Code." Id. More specific details of the parties' agreement regarding SVRX Royalties will be discussed later in this Background Section. (2) The Bill of Sale The APA itself did not transfer assets. Rather, it described the assets that would be transferred in the future when the transaction closed. The APA provided that at the transaction's 4 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 5 of 102 Closing, Novell would deliver a "Bill of Sale" transferring Novell's title to the "Assets" described in the APA to Santa Cruz. Under Section 1.7 of the APA, Novell was to deliver to Santa Cruz "all bills of sale, endorsements, assignments, consents to assignments to the extent obtained and other instruments and documents as [Santa Cruz] may reasonably request to sell, convey, assign, transfer and deliver to [Santa Cruz] [Novell's] title to all the Assets." Id. § 1.7(b)(iii). Accordingly, Novell and Santa Cruz executed a "Bill of Sale" on December 6, 2005, when the transaction closed. Decl. Mark James Ex. 3. The Bill of Sale stated that in accordance with Section 1.1(a) of the APA, Novell "does hereby transfer, convey, sell, assign, and deliver" to Santa Cruz "all of the Assets." Id. The Bill of Sale further stated that all capitalized terms had the meanings set forth in the APA as amended by Amendment No. 1. Id. Therefore, the Assets so transferred were those listed on Schedule 1.1(a) and not those listed on Schedule 1.1(b). See APA § 1.1(a). Moreover, the Bill of Sale recognized that it was intended only to document "the sale and assignment of the Assets to Buyer, and that the [APA] is the exclusive source of the agreement and understanding between Seller and Buyer respecting the Assets." Decl. Mark James Ex. 3. (3) The TLA The APA also required Santa Cruz to execute a separate license granting Novell the right to use technology included in the transferred Assets and derivatives, subject to certain limitations. APA § 1.6. Section 1.6 of the APA states that Santa Cruz must execute a license agreement concurrent with the Closing of the APA which grants Novell "a royalty-free, perpetual, worldwide license to (i) all of the technology included in the Assets and (ii) all 5 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 6 of 102 derivatives of the technology included in the Assets." Id. Novell and Santa Cruz implemented this requirement by executing the Technology License Agreement ("TLA") on December 6, 1995, in connection with the APA's Closing. Decl. Mark James Ex. 4 ("TLA"). The TLA states that Novell retains a "non-exclusive, nonterminable, worldwide, fee-free license" to use "Licensed Technology" under certain conditions. TLA II.A. As with the parties' Bill of Sale, the TLA states that certain defined terms, such as "Licensed Technology," have the "meanings attributed to such terms in the Asset Purchase Agreement." Id. I. The term "Licensed Technology" is defined in the APA as "all of the technology included in the Assets and all derivatives of the technology included in the Assets." APA § 1.6. With regard to internal business operations, the TLA granted Novell an unrestricted license to "use, reproduce and modify, and authorize its customers to use, reproduce, and modify, Licensed Technology." TLA II.A.(1). With regard to external use, the TLA granted Novell a license to "sublicense and distribute, and authorize its customers to sublicense and distribute, such Licensed Technology and modifications thereof, in source and binary form." Id. II.A.(2). This license as to external use was subject to the following limitation: "provided, however, that (1) such technology and modifications may be sublicensed and/or distributed by Novell solely as part of a bundled or integrated offering ("Composite Offering"); (ii) such Composite Offering shall not be directly competitive with core application server offerings of SCO, and (iii) the Licensed Technology shall not constitute a primary portion of the value of such Composite Offering." Id. SCO contends that these provisions constitute a non-compete provision, whereas Novell argues that they are merely a limitation on its license. 6 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 7 of 102 The TLA further stated that this limitation "shall cease to exist" in the event of a "Change of Control" of Santa Cruz. Id. B. The TLA states that "Change of Control" shall have the meaning attributed to it in the APA. Id. I. Under Section 1.6 of the APA, which provides for the license back of assets and which provides the basis for entering the TLA, it states that "the license agreement shall also provide [Novell] with an unlimited royalty-free, perpetual, worldwide license to the Licensed Technology upon the occurrence of a Change of Control of [Santa Cruz] described in Section 6.3(c) hereof." APA § 1.6. Section 6.3(c) of the APA is entitled "Expansion of Seller's Rights Relating to the Licensed Technology upon a Change of Control" and provides that [u]ntil two (2) years from the Closing Date, in the event [Santa Cruz] has merged with, sold shares representing 50% or more of the voting power of [Santa Cruz] to, sold all or substantially all of [Santa Cruz's] assets to, or engaged voluntarily in any other change of control transaction with, any party identified by [Novell] on Schedule 6.3(a) hereof, or in the event any party identified by [Novell] on Schedule 6.3(a) hereof, shall acquire shares representing 50% or more of the voting power of [Santa Cruz], [Novell] shall automatically have unlimited, royalty-free, perpetual rights to the Licensed Technology. Id. § 6.3(c). Section 1.6 of the APA further provides that "[i]n the event of a Change of Control of [Novell] (as described in Section 6.6 hereof), the license granted pursuant to the license agreement shall be limited to [Novell's] products either developed or substantially developed as of the time of the Change of Control." Id. § 1.6. Section 6.6(c) of the APA is entitled "Change of Control" and provides that For purposes of this Agreement, a "Change of Control" with respect to one party shall be deemed to have occurred whenever (i) 7 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 8 of 102 there shall be consummated (1) any consolidation or merger of such party in which such party is not the continuing or surviving corporation, or pursuant to which shares of such party's common stock would be converted in whole or in part into cash, other securities or other property, other than a merger of such person in which the holders of such party's common stock immediately prior to the merger have substantially the same proportionate ownership of common stock of the surviving corporation immediately after the merger, or (2) any sale, lease, exchange or transfer (in one transaction or a series of related transactions) of all or substantially all the assets of such party, or . . . (v) any other event shall occur with respect to such party that would be required to be reported in response to Item 6(e) (or any successor provision) of Schedule 14A of Regulation 14A promulgated under the Exchange Act." Id. § 6.6(c) In 2001, Santa Cruz sold its UNIX business to Caldera Systems, Inc., the immediate predecessor to SCO. The assets sold by Santa Cruz included all of the UNIX assets that it had purchased from Novell in 1995, plus other assets that collectively accounted for 100% of Santa Cruz's operating income and 94.7% of its net revenues. In the TLA, the parties recognized that the TLA and the APA "constitute the entire understanding between the parties with respect to its subject matter, and supersede all prior understandings, both written and oral, between them relating to such subject matter." TLA VIII. (4) Amendment No. 1 On December 6, 1995, a few months after the APA was signed and the date the transaction closed, Novell and Santa Cruz signed Amendment No. 1. Decl. Mark James Ex. 2 ("Am. No.1"). Amendment No. 1 made several clarifying amendments, including specific revisions to Schedule 1.1(a) and 1.1(b). Am No. 1 ¶¶ K, L. "All other terms and conditions of the [APA] remain[ed] in full force and effect." Am. No. 1 at 10. Amendment No. 1 did not 8 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 9 of 102 change the description of Intellectual Property that was included and excluded from the transferred Assets under Schedules 1.1(a) and 1.1(b). See id. ¶¶ K, L. Amendment No. 1 also made amendments to the APA with respect to the agreement regarding SVRX Licenses and Royalties that will be discussed in a later section. (5) Extrinsic Evidence Both parties have submitted a substantial amount of evidence in connection with the negotiation and execution of the APA and its amendments, as well as the parties' conduct after the APA was signed. (a) Purpose of Agreement Santa Cruz's stated purpose for entering the APA with Novell and acquiring the UNIX and UnixWare business was to be the supplier of Unix to the industry and to develop a future consolidated version of Unix that ran on an Intel processor. Decl. Mark James Ex. 6 ("Mohan Dep.") at 38-39. Beyond that, SCO has provided little evidence as to its intent with respect to specific provisions of the Agreement or its business strategy for structuring such a complex relationship between the parties. Novell, however, has produced significant evidence as to its business strategy and intent with respect to specific provisions. In early 1995, Novell decided to divest itself of certain UNIX-related assets. Decl. James R. Tolonen at ¶ 4. Although Novell wanted to sell the entire UNIX and UnixWare business to focus on its Netware product, it became clear during negotiations with Santa Cruz that Santa Cruz could not afford to purchase the entirety of Novell's UNIX and UnixWare assets and rights. Id. ¶ 4. Consequently, Novell and Santa Cruz focused on a more limited deal that also included a forward looking revenue stream for Novell. 9 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 10 of 102 Novell has submitted evidence that an important consideration for its sale of UNIX assets was Santa Cruz's commitment to develop enhanced UnixWare products that were compatible with Novell's Netware product. The APA required Santa Cruz to develop a merged product that would combine Novell's version of the UNIX operating system with Santa Cruz's version of UNIX. APA § 4.18. Novell and Santa Cruz hoped that the merged product would provide a commercially successful alternative to Microsoft's Windows system. Decl. Tor Braham at ¶ 8. Novell's Netware product needed an alternative operating system if it was to compete with Microsoft. Id. Novell also had a strong interest in the development of a commercially successful UNIX operating system that would run on Intel's 64-bit processors because it would expand the market for Netware. Id. ¶ 13-14; Decl. David Bradford at ¶ 1,3; Decl. James Tolonen at ¶ 12. Novell had concerns about entrusting the future of UNIX and Novell's UNIX-related interests to Santa Cruz. Decl. David Bradford at ¶ 7. David Bradford, Novell's Senior Vice President and General Counsel, states that there were serious concerns about Santa Cruz's viability as a company, and Novell became focused on building in protections for Novell in the event that Santa Cruz went bankrupt. Id. ¶ 8. First, Santa Cruz was given legal title to SVRX Licenses "and not equitable interest in such royalties within the meaning of Section 541(d) of the Bankruptcy Code." APA § 1.2(b). According to the principal drafter of the APA, Tor Braham, this provision was added to decrease the risk that Novell's receipt of SVRX revenues would be impacted if Santa Cruz went into bankruptcy. Decl. Tor Braham ¶ 10. Second, Novell asserts that it intended to exclude all copyrights from the assets to be transferred in order to protect its future SVRX revenues. Id. at 18-19; Decl. David Bradford ¶¶ 10 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 11 of 102 11-12; Decl James Tolonen ¶ 11. In the event Santa Cruz went into bankruptcy, the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights would not be part of the bankruptcy estate and the bankruptcy trustee could not assert an interest in them. Decl. Tor Braham ¶ 14, Decl David Bradford ¶ 9; Decl. James Tolonen ¶ 12. Excluding copyrights from the transferred assets also protected Novell's other UNIX-related interests. Retaining ownership of the copyrights would strengthen Novell's rights to negotiate buy-outs of the SVRX Licenses and to receive future revenues. Decl. Tor Braham ¶ 14; Decl. James Tolonen ¶ 12. Furthermore, it put Novell in a better position to ensure successful development of future versions of the UNIX operating system. SCO's extrinsic evidence regarding Santa Cruz's inability to proceed with a cash deal appears to conflict. Many of SCO's witnesses refer to the value of the stock Santa Cruz provided as consideration as evidence that such a sum would purchase Novell's whole UNIX-related business. Such testimony, however, is at odds with other witness testimony stating that the deal would not have proceeded without the creation of a future revenue stream for Novell. Testimony that additional revenue was necessary is consistent with the amount Novell paid for its acquisition of UNIX assets from AT&T and the fact that the shares of stock Santa Cruz transferred were only part of the consideration provided in the APA. The consideration provided through future royalties significantly complicated the agreement and the parties' ongoing relationship. SCO, however, has provided virtually no evidence from its perspective as to the purpose of or strategy behind the creation of a continuing stream of revenue for Novell other than some testimony that it could not afford to acquire it and the deal would not have proceeded otherwise. 11 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 12 of 102 (b) Drafts of Agreement The correspondence between Novell and Santa Cruz prior to the date the APA was signed shows that significant revisions were made to the agreement. A September 8, 1995 draft of Schedule 1.1(a), which listed the assets to be transferred, included "all patents, patent applications, copyrights . . . and all other intellectual property . . . that pertain to Unix or UnixWare." Decl. Tor Braham at ¶ 15, Ex. 6. Novell's outside counsel drafted a new schedule of assets to be included in the asset transfer as well as a schedule of assets to be excluded from the transfer. Id. ¶ 15. The new Schedule 1.1(a) deleted copyrights, patents, and all other intellectual property from the assets to be transferred. The revised Schedule 1.1(a) included only the UNIX and UnixWare trademarks as the "Intellectual Property" included in the transaction. The new Schedule 1.1(b), which listed the assets excluded from the transfer, listed all copyrights, all patents, and all trademarks except for the UNIX and UnixWare trademarks. Novell submitted evidence demonstrating that during the negotiations, David Bradford, Tor Braham, Aaron Alter, and Burt Levine all reviewed and approved the language in the Excluded Assets Schedule 1.1(b). Id. ¶ 16. SCO has not provided evidence from witnesses on the Santa Cruz side of the transaction with respect to their review of the asset schedules. In fact, there is no evidence from any of Santa Cruz's outside counsel and very little evidence from Santa Cruz's in-house legal department regarding the drafting of the APA. (c) Parties' Conduct Both parties have also submitted in support of their respective interpretations of the APA extrinsic evidence of the parties' conduct in relation to the APA. 12 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 13 of 102 The day before the APA was signed, David Bradford, Novell's Senior Vice President and General Counsel, presented the agreement to the Novell Board of Directors for approval and reviewed its terms with them. The minutes from that board meeting state: "RESOLVED . . . Pursuant to the Asset Purchase Agreement . . . Novell will retain all of its patents, copyrights, and trademarks (except for the trademarks UNIX and UnixWare) . . . ." Decl. David Bradford at ¶¶ 13-14, Ex. 1. On September 20, 1995, SCO claims that the parties issued a joint press release regarding the APA, stating that "[a]ccording to the terms of the agreement, SCO will acquire Novell's UnixWare business and UNIX intellectual property." Novell questions whether it was a "joint" press release because unlike a typical joint press release, the September 20, 1995 press release does not contain Novell's logo, contact information, or company description. Instead, it contains information only for Santa Cruz. In any event, the press release does not provide specific information about whether copyrights transferred. It is undisputed that trademarks did transfer, which would account for a statement that intellectual property passed. However, the vague use of the term "intellectual property" could not be read to include all intellectual property because it is also undisputed that no patents were transferred. Therefore, the press release, whether a joint statement or not, provides little information in its reference to unspecified "intellectual property." Novell also issued two press releases about the APA, which are on Novell's website, and neither mention of the transfer of copyrights or, more broadly, the transfer of intellectual property. On October 4, 1995, two weeks after the signing of the APA, David Bradford certified a Notification and Report Form to the Federal Trade Commission. Decl. Mark James Ex. 84. The 13 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 14 of 102 language used in the Form was consistent with the language of the APA's "Recitals," stating that Santa Cruz was acquiring "certain assets" of Novell's UNIX and UnixWare business. Id. In a section of the Form entitled "Assets to be Acquired," Novell stated: "The assets to be acquired by SCO are described with particularity in Schedule 1.1(a) of the Agreement." Id. Schedule 1.1(a) was the list of assets included in the transfer. Novell also included specific portions of Schedule 1.1(a) in the Form which SCO claims could be read to mean that the whole business transferred. The Form, however, clearly directed the FTC to the Agreement for the details regarding the assets being transferred. After the APA closed in December 1995, Santa Cruz came into physical possession of the UNIX copyright registrations because they were kept in the business files of the UNIX unit in New Jersey, which transferred to Santa Cruz under the APA. Decl. Mark James Ex. 23-25. The UNIX unit and its business files remained in New Jersey throughout the changes in ownership of the business--from AT&T to UNIX System Laboratories to Novell to Santa Cruz. Burt Levine Dep. at 19-20. SCO asserts that its possession of these registrations is evidence that the parties intended to transfer UNIX and UnixWare copyrights under the APA. Novell contests that this evidence is relevant or indicative of the parties' intent under the APA. Novell makes no assertion that it ever attempted to remove the registrations from the New Jersey facility or otherwise obtain physical possession of them. Greg Jones 30(b)(6) Dep. at 177-79. Rather, Novell comments only that the physical possession of the registrations was not a concern or viewed as a necessity to it. Since 1995, Santa Cruz and SCO have shipped UNIX-related products with copyright notices affixed to them and entered into hundreds of license agreements for UNIX Products 14 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 15 of 102 containing express representations and warranties of SCO's rights and ownership in the intellectual property required to provide the licensed product. Decl. Edward Normand Ex. 27, 28. Novell notes that products were shipped with joint copyright notices that indicated Novell's original UNIX and UnixWare code and SCO's ownership of modifications to that code. For example, one of the joint copyright notices states: "Copyright 1996 The Santa Cruz Operation, Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright 1984-1995 Novell, Inc. All rights reserved." Decl. James McKenna at ¶ 5. SCO claims that this copyright notice indicates that Novell transferred the copyrights in 1995 under the APA, and Novell contends that the notice indicates Novell's continued ownership of the copyright to the original UnixWare code and SCO's ownership only of the copyright to modifications to that code made the year after the APA (1996). Furthermore, Novell asserts that if Santa Cruz owned the copyright to both the original code and the derivative work, the copyright notice would not have mentioned Novell at all. With respect to licenses containing any incorrect representations and warranties, Novell contends it was not aware of any such licenses. Novell claims that the first license agreement with Integration Design does not appear to involve UNIX and UnixWare licenses so it would not have been necessary to submit it to Novell for approval. Normand Decl. Ex. 30. SCO itself has admitted that the other two licenses, with Lucent Technologies and Samsung Electronics, also did not need to be shown to Novell for approval. Supp. Brakebill Decl. Ex. 25, Response No. 7. In any event, none of these three licenses contains any representation or warranty of SCO's copyright ownership. 15 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 16 of 102 (d) Witness Testimony There is extrinsic evidence from several individuals who were involved at different stages of the negotiations of the APA and from business people involved in the transition of the business to Santa Cruz. Interestingly, many of the witnesses who were on the Novell side of the APA transaction went to work for Santa Cruz as a result of the deal. The relevance of much of the testimony is questionable because few have a recollection of actual discussions regarding the transfer or retention of copyrights. Many witnesses give an opinion as to whether they think the copyrights should have transferred, but they fail to establish an adequate foundation to support their opinion. Given the volume of the testimony presented to the court and the number of attorneys and business people involved in the transaction, it is surprising that there is not more testimony on the drafting and negotiation of the intellectual property provisions from both sides of the deal. Novell was represented in the transaction by the law firm of Wilson, Sonsini, Goodrich & Rosati ("Wilson Sonsini"). Tor Braham managed Wilson Sonsini's team, was the primary negotiator with respect to the contract language, and was the primary drafter of the APA text.2 Braham testified that the APA was not a "straight up asset purchase" because Santa Cruz did not have the cash to buy both the UNIX assets that Novell had purchased in 1993 plus Novell's UnixWare business. Decl. Tor Braham ¶ 7. As a result, the deal became more complex, and The record is not clear as to whether Braham was the primary drafter of the APA for Novell or both parties. Nevertheless, in the APA, the parties agreed that they had both been represented by counsel during the negotiation and execution of the agreement and waived the application of any law "providing that ambiguities in an agreement . . . will be construed against the party drafting such agreement." APA § 9.9. 16 2 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 17 of 102 Novell needed to negotiate provisions into the contract to protect its business and legal interests. Id. Braham had regular communications with Novell's General Counsel, David Bradford, and tried to achieve Novell's goals as communicated by Bradford. Id. ¶ 6. During the negotiations, Bradford indicated to Braham that Novell was unwilling to transfer intellectual property rights in UNIX and UnixWare, including patents and copyrights. Id. ¶ 14. Accordingly, Braham's team revised an early draft of a Schedule of Assets that had included patents, copyrights, and trademarks and drafted a new schedule of included assets and a schedule of excluded assets. Id. ¶ 15. Braham also made changes to Section 1.1(a) of the APA where the distinction between included and excluded asset schedules is made with respect to the assets transferred. Id. ¶ 19. Braham testified that to his knowledge, and based on his review of the Wilson Sonsini files, at least four representatives of Novell reviewed and approved the excluded assets provision. Id. ¶ 16. During the course of the negotiations, the Wilson Sonsini team transmitted drafts of the two schedules to Santa Cruz representatives, and drafts would be redlined to show changes. Id. ¶ 17. Braham testified that although the APA did not transfer copyright ownership to Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz received other rights and interests in UNIX and UnixWare that gave it a license to copy and use Novell's copyrighted code as needed to implement the activities contemplated by the APA. Furthermore, it was Braham's understanding that while Novell retained the copyrights in the original code, Santa Cruz would own the copyrights in any code that it wrote and Novell would need a license to such code. Id. ¶ 23. Therefore, Braham added the term "Licensed Technology" in Section 1.6 of the APA during the drafting process to refer to newly developed 17 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 18 of 102 code and other technology in UNIX and UnixWare­such as trade secrets, software know-how, etc.­that were not excluded from the assets transferred to Santa Cruz. Id. ¶¶ 22, 23. Robert Frankenberg, then-President and CEO of Novell, testified in a deposition that his initial intent in entering into negotiations, intent at the time the APA was signed, and intent when the transaction closed was that Novell would transfer copyrights to UNIX and UnixWare technology to Santa Cruz. Decl. Mark James Ex. 7 ("Frankenberg Dep.") at 7, 135. This testimony is obviously at odds with the minutes of the Board meeting and the testimony of the chief drafters of the APA for Novell. Somewhat self-contradictorily as well, Frankenberg also testified that he had high-level discussions with the negotiating team and recalled discussing the fact that retaining UNIX copyrights would facilitate Novell's exercise of rights with respect to capitalizing the SVRX revenue stream and facilitate the negotiation of SVRX License buyouts. Id. at 65-66, 68. The evidence submitted as to Frankenberg's role shows that he was not intimately involved in the deal. Frankenberg testified that he was involved in high-level discussions but was not involved in the negotiation or drafting of the APA. He further stated that he did not review the details of the deal and he signed the APA on the basis of the recommendation of his team. Id. at 68. David Bradford, Novell's Senior Vice President and General Counsel, oversaw the negotiation and drafting of a contract between Novell and Santa Cruz. Decl. David Bradford at ¶ 4. During the negotiations of the APA, he discussed with Braham the need to increase Novell's protections in the transaction, including but not limited to retaining Novell's intellectual property rights in UNIX and UnixWare. Id. ¶ 9. Bradford testified that the exclusion of copyrights was intentional and "should any person suggest otherwise, they are mistaken." Id. ¶ 12. Bradford 18 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 19 of 102 reviewed the terms of the APA with the Novell Board of Directors at a meeting held on September 18, 1995, the day before the APA was signed. Id. ¶ 13. Bradford received the final APA on the day it was executed and was responsible for reviewing it and approving it for final signature by Frankenberg. Id. ¶ 17. Bradford wrote a memorandum reflecting his approval of the APA. Id. He testified in this litigation that he still agrees with the statement that the APA is "an accurate reflection of the business and legal terms and conditions negotiated between the parties." Id. James Tolonen, Novell's Chief Financial Officer from 1989 through 1998, testified that he was actively involved in the preparation of the APA. Tolonen Decl. ¶¶ 3, 7. Tolonen interacted with Bradford, who he described as the "point person" heading up Novell's negotiation team, and Braham. Id. ¶¶ 8, 9. Tolonen reviewed drafts of the APA and reviewed the final version of the APA to ensure that its terms were consistent with the intent of the deal. Id. ¶¶ 9, 10. Tolonen testified that "[a]s reflected in the plain language of the executed [APA], Novell intended to retain and did retain, as an `Excluded Asset,' all copyrights, including all UNIX and UnixWare copyrights." Id. ¶ 11. Ed Chatlos, Novell's Senior Director for UNIX Strategic Partnerships and Business Development, was a primary negotiator for Novell during the business negotiation of the deal. Chatlos' Declaration states that he left Novell voluntarily in 1996, but it does not indicate his current employment. Decl. Mark James Ex. 12 ("Chatlos Decl.") at ¶ 4. He did disclose in his deposition, however, that his wife has been employed by SCO since the time of the APA in 1995. Decl. Mark James Ex. 13 ("Chatlos Dep.") at 49. During the business negotiations of the APA, Chatlos recalled disputes over the price because SCO could not pay the full purchase price as 19 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 20 of 102 contemplated by Novell. Id. at 36. He testified that the royalty payments were used as a resolution to bridge the gap. Id. Chatlos also testified that there was no discussion about excluding or including copyrights because he believes it was implicit in the deal that the copyrights would be transferred. Id. at 122-24. He testified that he was not involved in any discussions with Novell's negotiation team regarding concerns of a potential bankruptcy by Santa Cruz. However, he also testified that he believes that the APA reflects the intent of the agreement. Id. at 130. Although he continued to review drafts of the agreement, his deposition testimony reflects that he had little recollection of the work done by Novell's legal team. Id. at 105. He could not recollect David Bradford's role in the deal or the names of the attorneys at Wilson Sonsini who worked on the APA. Id. at 37, 80. Duff Thompson, a former Novell executive who now chairs SCO's litigation committee, testified that testified that his recollection of the deal was the initial direction from Frankenberg to sell the whole business. Decl. Mark James Ex. 10 ("Thompson Decl.") at ¶ 4. Thompson did not recall "any specific discussions around copyrights" or any "discussion with SCO about the excluded asset schedule" during negotiation of the deal. Decl. Mark James Ex. 11 ("Thompson Dep.") at 86. Ty Mattingly testified that Thompson was "not really involved in the details of the Novell, Santa Cruz transaction." Mattingly Dep. at 70-71. He stated that Thompson was "checked out" during the drafting of the APA and was "not in the office that often." Id. at 71-72. He also testified that he relied on Tor Braham and his team for the detail drafting of the agreement. Id. at 30-31. Braham confirmed that Thompson "was not involved in negotiating or drafting the APA contract language." Decl. Tor Braham ¶ 24. However, Thompson testified that if Novell had intended to retain the copyrights, it would have said "you get all the business 20 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 21 of 102 except the copyrights." Thompson Dep. at 133. Ty Mattingly, Novell's Vice President for Strategic Relations at the time of the APA, testified in his deposition that it was his belief that Novell sold the Unix business to SCO, and that SCO paid roughly 125 million dollars because it bought the UNIX business from Novell "basically in its entirety." Decl. Mark James Ex. 9 ("Mattingly Dep.") at 10. He further explained that his view was that "[t]he only things that did not go with that was a kind of an agent relationship whereby SCO was collecting the SVRX royalties from existing OEMs at the time we sold that business and then giving the bulk of those moneys back to Novell." Id. at 2932. Mattingly, however, also testified that his role "related only to high level business strategy" and he was "not involved in the details of the legal document." Id. at 66. He admitted that he was involved "very superficially" in the "last two or three weeks before the contract was executed," which was "when the back and forth concerning the legal provisions was taking place." Id. at 68-69. Burt Levine, a former Novell in-house attorney who went to work for Santa Cruz after the APA, testified that he worked on some early drafts of the APA but cannot remember which specific provisions. Levine did testify, however, that during APA negotiations, he reviewed and marked up drafts of Schedules 1.1(a) and (b). Decl. Mark James Ex. 14 ("Levine Dep.") at 7274. He revised the list of included assets but did not add copyrights. Id. at 74. He then faxed his markup to outside counsel, who passed on his comments to Santa Cruz's outside counsel, Brobeck Phleger. Id. at 72-73, 77-80. However, he testified that he would have been surprised to hear that Novell retained the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights. Assuming, however, that the copyrights were excluded from the APA, he testified that SCO would have an inherent license to 21 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 22 of 102 use those copyrights in the business. Id. at 89. William Broderick, a contract manager and member of the Novell APA transition team who is now the Director of Software Licensing for SCO, testified that his understanding of the sale of assets was that the UNIX copyrights were transferred. Decl. Mark James Ex. 15 ("Broderick Decl.") ¶¶ 1, 6, 11. Although SCO claims that Broderick testified that his understanding was based on Novell's explanation of the transaction during company-wide meetings and meetings of the transition team, he testified in his deposition that he did not recall any specific discussion about the transfer of copyrights. Id. Ex. 16 ("Broderick Dep.") at 49-51. Alok Mohan, CEO of Santa Cruz at the time of the APA, testified that he believes Santa Cruz bought the whole business, including copyrights. Mohan Dep. at 138-40. But he was not aware that the subject of UNIX copyrights was specifically addressed in the contract. Id. at 14344. Mohan testified that he was involved in the negotiations "only at a high level," not in the "detail level of negotiations." Id. at 10-11. He was also not involved in the "specific drafting of the documents," was not on a distribution list of individuals at Santa Cruz to receive drafts of the agreement, and did not recall the firm or attorneys Santa Cruz hired to represent it in the transaction. Id. at 10-11, 14-17. He testified that "the issue of copyrights in or out was not discussed with me." Id. 261-62. Furthermore, he contends that Novell did not tell him that it had kept the copyrights, but he also admits that Novell did not tell him that it had given them to Santa Cruz either. Id. at 261-262. He did believe, however, that Santa Cruz "tried to make the document represent . . . the intent . . . . And we captured, I thought at that time, what the intent was." Id. at 13. 22 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 23 of 102 Doug Michels, Senior Vice President of Santa Cruz at the time of the APA, stated in his deposition that "the only way that I know of, and anyone on my team knew of, to buy a software business is to buy the copyrights, and there is no way we would have ever done a deal to buy a software business where we didn't get the copyrights and all the other intellectual property." Decl. Mark James Ex. 18 ("Michels Dep.") at 134. Michels testified that he was very involved in the initiation of the APA, but that he was only involved in two or three meetings with Novell after the initial discussion about the deal. Id. at 11-12. He did not draft any language of the APA or review drafts of it. He does not recall "even vaguely" any debates in which he participated regarding the drafting of the APA. Id. at 12-13. He also does not recall any discussion by anyone either at Novell or Santa Cruz regarding the transfer or retention of UNIX copyrights. Id. at 50-52. Jim Wilt, a business development executive at Santa Cruz, testified that it was his understanding and intent during the negotiations that SCO would acquire Novell's entire UNIX and UnixWare business, including the copyrights. Decl. Mark James Ex. 19 ("Wilt Decl.") ¶ 8. He viewed the copyrights as essential to the acquisition of a software company. Id. Ex. 20 ("Wilt Dep.") at 76-80. Although SCO refers to Wilt as the lead negotiator for Santa Cruz, Ed Chatlos testified that Wilt "dropped out" in the latter half of the negotiations of the Santa CruzNovell deal and Wilt, himself, concurred that he was less active at the end of the negotiations when the APA was being drafted. Chatlos IBM Dep. at 184-185; Wilt Dep. at 20-21. He also testified that the lawyers did the drafting of the APA. Wilt testified that he did not recall anyone from Novell stating that copyrights were being transferred. Wilt Dep. 57-59. 23 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 24 of 102 SCO also relies on the understanding of Kimberlee Madsen, a paralegal in Santa Cruz's legal department. Decl. Mark James Ex. 22 ("Madsen Dep.") at 6-7. She testified that she participated in the negotiations leading up to the drafting of APA and reviewed and drafted some of the agreement. Madsen Dep. at 13. She testified that it was always her understanding that the UNIX copyrights were part of the assets Santa Cruz purchased and she could not recall anyone in the negotiation team discussing the retention of copyrights. Id. at 79. B. Amendment No. 2 to the APA Approximately a year after the APA was signed, on October 16, 1996, Novell and Santa Cruz executed Amendment No. 2 to the APA. Decl. Mark James Ex. 5 ("Am. No. 2"). APA Amendment No. 2 amends the Schedule of Excluded Assets in Schedule 1.1(b) to exclude "All copyrights and trademarks, except for the copyrights and trademarks owned by Novell as of the date of the [APA] required for SCO to exercise its rights with respect to the acquisition of UNIX and UnixWare technologies." Am. No. 2 § A. Amendment No. 2 did not specify which copyrights, if any, were "required for SCO to exercise its rights with respect to the acquisition of the UNIX and UnixWare technologies." Amendment No. 2 also did not contain any provision actually transferring ownership of copyrights or other assets from Novell to Santa Cruz. Amendment No. 2 states that the APA was amended "[a]s of the 16th day of October 1996." Id. Therefore, it did not retroactively amend the APA as of the date the APA was signed or the date the transaction closed. Furthermore, the parties did not execute a "Bill of Sale" or any similar document transferring copyrights from Novell to Santa Cruz in connection with Amendment No. 2, nor did they amend the previous Bill 24 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 25 of 102 of Sale. Moreover, Amendment No. 2 did not make any corresponding amendment to the transferred assets on Schedule 1.1(a). During negotiations on Amendment No. 2, SCO attempted to effectuate a transfer of the copyrights of UNIX and UnixWare, but Novell rejected the proposal. Decl. Allison Amadia at ¶ 6, 8, 10. During the summer of 1996, Steve Sabbath, Santa Cruz's General Counsel, telephoned Allison Amadia, in-house counsel for Novell, about amending the APA. Id. ¶ 6. She testifies that Sabbath stated to her that the original APA explicitly excluded copyrights to UNIX and UnixWare and that Santa Cruz wanted to amend the original to give Santa Cruz those copyrights. Id. Amadia had not been involved in the original deal. After her conversation with Sabbath, she reviewed the APA and contacted Novell's outside counsel, Tor Braham, to gain his understanding of the transaction. Id. ¶ 7. Through these efforts, she learned that ownership of the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights did not transfer to Santa Cruz under the APA. Id. Sabbath later sent Amadia a draft proposal revising Schedule 1.1(b) of the APA to read: "All copyrights and trademarks, except for the copyrights and trademarks owned by Novell as of the date of this Amendment No.2, which pertain to the UNIX and UnixWare technologies and which SCO has acquired hereunder. . . ." Id. ¶ 8, Ex. 1. Novell rejected the proposed amendment. Id. ¶ 10. Amadia told Sabbath that while Novell was willing to affirm that Santa Cruz had a license under the APA to use Novell's UNIX and UnixWare copyrighted works in its business, Novell would not transfer ownership of any copyrights. Id. Instead of a blanket exception for copyrights pertaining to UNIX and UnixWare technologies, the final version of Amendment No. 2 was limited to copyrights that were 25 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 26 of 102 "required for SCO to exercise its rights with respect to the acquisition of the UNIX and UnixWare technologies." Amend. No. 2 § A. The final version of Amendment No. 2 also deleted Santa Cruz's proposed reference to copyrights "which SCO has acquired hereunder." Amendment No. 2 does not include any reference to an acquisition or transfer of copyrights. Jim Tolonen, Novell's Chief Financial Officer and Novell's business executive assigned to Amendment No. 2, confirms that it was never Novell's intent to transfer copyrights by way of Amendment No. 2. Decl. Jim Tolonen at ¶ 13, 14. He states that he would not have signed it if he had believed it would do so. Id. ¶ 15. He testifies that Amendment No. 2 was also not meant to "clarify" what the parties intended to transfer in the original APA. Id. ¶ 14. Rather, he states that Novell intended to retain the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights in the APA, and Amendment No. 2 confirmed that Santa Cruz would be allowed to continue to use the Novell-retained copyrights­as it had been doing­as was required to exercise its rights under the APA. Id. ¶ 16. Sabbath has no recollection of negotiating the copyright portion of Amendment No. 2. SCO relies on the testimony of Robert Frankenberg and Ed Chatlos regarding Amendment No. 2. However, both men had left Novell before Amendment No. 2 was negotiated and had no involvement in the negotiation of the amendment. Frankenberg Dep. at 86; Chatlos Decl. ¶ 4. SCO relies on the testimony of several other individuals involved in the business, but none of them admits to being involved in the negotiations of Amendment No. 2 or to having any specific recollection of the negotiations with respect to the transfer of copyrights. C. Santa Cruz/Caldera Assignment Agreement Santa Cruz assigned various items of intellectual property to Caldera in an agreement dated May 7, 2001 ("Assignment Agreement"). Supp. Brakebill Decl. Ex. 1 ("Caldera 26 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 27 of 102 Agreement"). That Assignment Agreement purports to transfer various UNIX and UnixWare copyrights. Caldera Agreement § 1, Sched. C. In the Assignment Agreement, Santa Cruz made representations and warranties with respect to the intellectual property rights being transferred. Id. § 8(v). The Assignment Agreement states that Santa Cruz "has no knowledge of any fact that would prevent [Caldera's] registration of any Rights related or appurtenant to the Inventions and Works or recording the transfer of Rights hereunder (except that Assignor may not be able to establish a chain of title from Novell Inc. but shall diligently endeavor to do so as soon as possible)." Id. The initial draft of the Assignment Agreement had provided an unlimited representation and warranty from Santa Cruz. Supp. Brakebill Decl. Ex. 5, at § 8(v). In transmitting the draft, Caldera's attorney proposed that Santa Cruz's assignment of intellectual property obtained from Novell would require the inclusion in the Assignment Agreement of "a single exhibit from the Novell/SCO Asset Purchase Agreement." Id. at 1. Four days later, an in-house attorney at Santa Cruz responded with a redlined draft that included an exception to Santa Cruz's representation and warranty stating "[e]xcept for the inability to obtain third party acknowledgments to establish a chain of title." Id. Ex. 6 at § 8(v). Four days later, Caldera's counsel circulated a final draft of the agreement with a cover email stating that Santa Cruz was "trying to get Novell to sign a global IP assignment, for chain of title purposes." Id. Ex. 7 at 1. But the final draft recognized that Santa Cruz may not be able to establish a chain of title from Novell. Id. Ex. 1 at § 8(v). D. Private Communications Between SCO and Novell In late 2002, Darl McBride, SCO's CEO, contacted Novell on several occasions seeking copies of records concerning SCO's intellectual property rights to UNIX. Greg Jones Decl. ¶ 13. 27 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 28 of 102 On January 4, 2003, McBride received an email from Michael Anderer, a consultant for SCO retained to examine its intellectual property. Supp. Brakebill Decl. Ex. 12. Anderer stated that the APA "transferred substantially less" of Novell's intellectual property than Novell owned. Anderer noted that Santa Cruz's "asset purchase" from Novell "excludes all patents, copyrights, and just about everything else." Id. Anderer cautioned that "[w]e really need to be clear on what we can license. It may be a lot less than we think." On February 4, 2003, McBride contacted Christopher Stone, Vice Chairman of Novell, and stated that he wanted Novell to "amend" the APA to give SCO "the copyrights to UNIX." Supp. Brakebill Decl. Ex. 17; id. Ex. 18 ("Stone Dep." at 108-09). Then, on February 25, 2003, McBride twice called a Novell employee in business development, David Wright, and said, "SCO needs the copyrights." Wright passed on McBride's request to Novell's in-house legal department. Supp. Brakebill Decl. Ex. 13. McBride's request was memorialized in an email written that day by a Novell in-house attorney, Greg Jones. Id. Also early in 2003, McBride and Chris Sontag of SCO contacted Greg Jones regarding the UNIX copyrights. Id. Ex. 8 ("Decl. Greg Jones") at ¶¶ 13, 14; Decl. Christopher S. Sontag ¶ 6. McBride stated that "the asset purchase agreement excluded copyrights from being transferred" and that it was a "clerical error." Jones Dep. at 182. On February 20, 2003, Chris Sontag also sent a draft letter to Novell that sought to clarify the parties' rights under the APA. Decl. Christopher S. Sontag Ex. Again in March 2003, McBride called Stone to ask him if Novell would "give him some changes so he could have the copyrights." Christopher Stone Dep. at 248-49. Ralph Yarro, Chairman of SCO, requested an in-person meeting with Stone. In that meeting, on May 14, 28 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 29 of 102 2003, Yarro told Stone that he wanted Novell to amend the APA to give SCO the copyrights. Supp. Brakebill Decl. Ex. 17 at 4; Stone Dep. at 137-8. Stone refused. Id. On May 19, 2003, McBride called Stone and Joe LaSala, Novell's General Counsel, and again requested that Novell convey the copyrights to SCO. McBride said, "we only need you to amend the contract so that we can have the copyrights." Stone Dep. 249-250. Stone made notes in June 2003 memorializing both conversations. Supp. Brakebill Decl. Ex. 17. E. SCOsource Initiative In approximately this same time frame, in January 2003, SCO launched its SCOsource initiative, which was an effort to obtain license fees from Linux users based on claims to Unix System V intellectual property. McBride commented that "SCO owns much of the core UNIX intellectual property, and has full rights to license this technology and enforce the associated patents and copyrights." Under the SCOsource licensing program, SCO offered intellectual property licenses to Linux end-users. The purported purpose of these licenses is to allow UNIX vendors to use SCO's UNIX intellectual property and to compensate SCO for the UNIX intellectual property that it claims is found in Linux. In May 2003, SCO sent 1500 end-user corporations a letter threatening suit based on SCO's assertion that it owned the UNIX copyright and that Linux infringes on its UNIX intellectual property. Decl. Mark James Ex. 42. Novell and IBM were among the recipients of this letter. SCO generated participation in and revenues from its licensing program. Decl. Mark James Exs. 80, 81. Despite success with some licensees, however, SCO's campaign generated 29 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 30 of 102 controversy that impacted its core software business. Internal SCO documents demonstrate that SCO's sales force was having difficulties selling the SCOsource licenses for a variety of reasons. F. Public Statements On March 6, 2003, SCO filed suit against IBM alleging, among other things, that IBM had violated its UNIX Software and Sublicensing Agreements by disclosing UNIX-derivative source code. A few months later, while the public was reacting to SCO's claim that the use of Linux required a UNIX license, Novell went public with a statement of its belief that it had not transferred the UNIX copyrights to SCO. On May 28, 2003, Novell's Chairman, President, and CEO Jack Messman announced publicly that Novell did not transfer the UNIX and UnixWare copyrights to SCO, and that SCO was not the owner of the copyrights. Decl. Mark James Ex. 36. SCO and Novell continued the ownership dispute in a series of public statements over the next several months. On June 6, 2003, Novell issued a press release stating that SCO had sent Amendment No. to Novell the night before, that Novell was not aware of having the amendment in its files, and that the amendment "appears to support SCO's claim that ownership of certain copyrights for UNIX did transfer to SCO in 1996." Id. Ex. 38. On June 26, 2003, Novell notified SCO that "[u]pon closer scrutiny . . . Amendment No. 2 raises as many questions about copyright transfers as it answers. Indeed, what is most certainly not the case is that `any question about whether UNIX copyrights were transferred to SCO as part of the Asset Purchase Agreement was clarified in Amendment No. 2' (as stated in its June 6 press release)." Id. Ex. 43. In June or July 2003, SCO registered certain copyrights in UNIX System V and UnixWare with the United States Copyright Office. In September and October 2003, Novell 30 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 31 of 102 submitted certifications to the United States Copyright Office claiming to be the owner of the same UNIX System V and UnixWare copyrights. Because SCO alleges in its Complaint that it owns the copyrights to UNIX and UnixWare, it claims "Novell's wrongful claims of copyrights and ownership in UNIX and UnixWare have caused, and continue to cause, irreparable harm to SCO." In response to discovery, SCO maintained that Novell's statements impeded its ability to make sales in its SCOsource business. Christopher Sontag Dep. at 117. SCO identifies approximately a dozen prospective customers who mentioned the cloud over SCO's title to UNIX copyrights as one of its reasons not to purchase a SCOsource license. Decl. Mark James Exs. 49, 57, 58, 62, 79, 88. Several customers also stated that their reasons for not entering into a SCOsource license was due to their skepticism as to the necessity of obtaining a Unix license to operate Linux. G. SVRX Licenses Apart from the dispute with respect to copyright ownership, the parties have had ongoing disagreements as to their respective roles concerning SVRX licenses and royalties. A significant part of the consideration for the APA came from Novell's receipt of future SVRX Royalties and royalties from the transfer of and future sales of UnixWare products. APA § 1.2(b). Under the APA, Novell and SCO agreed to an arrangement whereby Novell would continue to receive one hundred percent of the SVRX Royalties. Id. Santa Cruz was to collect and pass through these royalties to Novell, and Novell, in turn, would pay Santa Cruz an administrative fee of five percent of the SVRX Royalties. Novell retained "all rights to the SVRX Royalties notwithstanding the transfer of the SVRX Licenses to [Santa Cruz]." Id. Santa 31 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 32 of 102 Cruz "only has legal title and not equitable interest in such royalties within the meaning of Section 541(d) of the Bankruptcy Code." Id. Section 1.2(b) states that SVRX Royalties are "defined and described in Section 4.16." Under Section 4.16(a), Santa Cruz was to "administer the collection of all royalties, fees and other amounts due under all SVRX Licenses (as listed in detail under Item VI of Schedule 1.1(a) hereof and referred to herein as "SVRX Royalties")." Id. § 4.16(a). Item VI of Schedule 1.1(a), in turn, states, "All contracts relating to SVRX Licenses listed below." Instead of providing a list of license agreements with various other parties, however, the Schedule then provides a list of UNIX System V software releases, including UNIX System V Release Nos. 2.0, 2.1, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 4.0, 4.1, and 4.2, and "[a]ll prior UNIX System releases and versions preceding UNIX System V Release No 2.0." Id. Sched. 1.1(a)(VI). Schedule 1.1(b) to the APA, the Excluded Assets schedule, specifically memorializes that the APA did not transfer any rights to the SVRX Royalties to Santa Cruz. Listed as an excluded asset in Schedule 1.1(b) is "[a]ll right, title and interest to the SVRX Royalties, less the 5% fee for administering the collection thereof pursuant to Section 4.16." Id. Sched.. 1.1(b)(VIII). Section 4.16(b) of the APA also contains a significant provision regarding the parties' authority with respect to SVRX Licenses. This section provides that Santa Cruz "shall not, and shall not have the authority to, amend, modify, or waive any right under or assign any SVRX License without the prior written consent of [Novell]." APA § 4.16(b). Under this section, Novell retained the sole discretion to direct Santa Cruz to amend, supplement, modify, waive, or assign any rights under or to any SVRX Licenses. Id. Novell was also granted authority to take any action on Santa Cruz's behalf that Santa Cruz may fail to take concerning the SVRX 32 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 33 of 102 Licenses. Id. Furthermore, Santa Cruz acknowledged that it had no right to "enter into future licenses or amendments of the SVRX Licenses, except as may be incidently involved through its rights to sell and license the Assets or the Merged Product . . . or future versions thereof of the Merged Product." Id. With respect to UnixWare royalties, Section 1.2(b) of the APA states: "In addition, [Santa Cruz] agrees to make payment to [Novell] of additional royalties retained by [Novell] in respect of the transfer of UnixWare and on account of [Santa Cruz]'s future sale of UnixWare products." Id. § 1.2(b). The parties agreed that "[t]he amounts and timing of additional royalties to be paid in connection with [Santa Cruz]'s sale of the UnixWare products are identified in detail on Schedule 1.2(b) hereto." Id. Schedule 1.2(b) identifies the "Royalty Bearing Products" for which Santa Cruz was to pay royalties on and provides a structure for the payment of the royalties. Id. Sched. 1.2(b). Schedule 1.2(b) also states that the royalty obligation set forth in this schedule would terminate after Novell received payments equal to $84 million or December 31, 2002, whichever is sooner. Id. Sched. 1.2(b)(c). Schedule 1.2(b)(f) also recognized that Santa Cruz had the right to convert existing SVRX-based customers to a UnixWare derived product. Id. Sched. 1.2(b)(f). The Schedule then sets forth a process for determining if a customer is validly converted from SVRX to UnixWare. Id. (a) Amendments Relating to SVRX Licenses Amendment No. 1 to the APA further obligated Santa Cruz to give Novell: (1) an estimate of the total SVRX Royalties amount within six days following the calendar month when the royalties are received; and (2) a "report detailing all such royalties" within one calendar month following each calendar month in which SVRX Royalties are received by Novell. Decl. 33 Case 2:04-cv-00139-DAK-BCW Document 377 Filed 08/10/2007 Page 34 of 102 Mark James Ex. 2 ("Am. No. 1") ¶ E(f). "Such monthly reports shall be separately broken down by revenue type (i.e. source code right to use fees, gross and net binary per copy fees, and support fees), by product, by customer, by quarterly period by which distribution occurs, and by country . . . of distribution." Id. Amendment No. 1 expands SVRX licenses to include those contracts relating to certain "Auxiliary Products" expressly identified in Attachment A to that Amendment. Id. ¶ K.4(i). The first line of Schedule 1.1(a)(VI) was amended to read "All contracts relating to the SVRX Licenses and Auxiliary Product Licenses (collectively "SVRX Licenses") listed below." Id. Amendment No. 1 also modifies Section 4.16(b) to create two limited exceptions where Santa Cruz has "the right to enter into amendments of the SVRX Licenses." Id. ¶ J. Santa Cruz could enter into amendments of SVRX Licenses (1) as may be incidentally involved through its rights to sell and license UnixWare software or the Merged Product or (2) to allow a licensee under a particular SVRX License to use the source code of the relevant SVRX products on additional CPUs or to receive additional distribution from Santa Cruz of such source code. Id. Amendment No. 1 further amended the APA to permit Santa Cruz to retain 100% of four "categories of SVRX Royalties": (1) fees attributable to stand-alone contracts for maintenance and support of SVRX products listed under Item VI of Schedule 1.1(a) of the APA; (2) source code right to use fees under existing SVRX Licenses from the licensing of additional CPU's and from the distributi

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