Miller v. Facebook, Inc. et al

Filing 116

*** REFER TO DOCUMENT 126 FOR CORRECT EXHIBITS. *** Declaration of David Crane in Support of 114 MOTION for Summary Judgment RE CONTRIBUTORY COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT filed byFacebook, Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit 1, # 2 Exhibit 2, # 3 Exhibit 3, # 4 Exhibit 4, # 5 Exhibit 5, # 6 Exhibit 6, # 7 Exhibit 7, # 8 Exhibit 8, # 9 Exhibit 9, # 10 Exhibit 10, # 11 Exhibit 11, # 12 Exhibit 12, # 13 Exhibit 13, # 14 Exhibit 14, # 15 Exhibit 15, # 16 Exhibit 16, # 17 Exhibit 17)(Related document(s) 114 ) (Avalos, Julio) (Filed on 3/3/2011) Modified on 3/4/2011 (feriab, COURT STAFF).

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Miller v. Facebook, Inc. et al Doc. 116 Att. 3 EXHIBIT 3 Dockets.Justia.com Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Log in / create account Article Discussion Read Edit Search Adobe Flash From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Navigation Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Adobe Flash (formerly Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform used to add animation, video, and interactivity to web pages. Flash is frequently used for advertisements and games. More recently, it has been positioned as a tool for "Rich Internet Applications" ("RIAs"). Flash manipulates vector and raster graphics to provide animation of text, drawings, and still images. It supports bidirectional streaming of audio and video, and it can capture user input via mouse, keyboard, microphone, and camera. Flash contains an Object-oriented language called ActionScript. Flash content may be displayed on various computer systems and devices, using Adobe Flash Player, which is available free of charge for common web browsers, some mobile phones and a few other electronic devices (using Flash Lite). Some users feel that Flash enriches their web experience, while others find the extensive use of Flash animation, particularly in advertising, intrusive and annoying, giving rise to a cottage industry that specializes in blocking Flash content. [1] Flash has also been criticized for adversely affecting the usability of web pages. [2] Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Recent developments 1.1.1 Open Screen Project 2 Format 2.1 Flash Video 2.2 Flash Audio 2.3 Scripting language 2.4 Proprietary restrictions 2.5 Disclosure Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version 3 Authoring tools 3.1 Adobe Flash Professional 3.1.1 History 3.2 Third-party tools 4 User experience 4.1 Accessibility Languages 4.2 Performance 4.3 Flash blocking in web browsers Azrbaycanca Bn-lm-g Catal Cesky Dansk Deutsch 5 Flash client security 5.1 Local Shared Objects ("Flash cookies") 6 64-bit support 7 Alternatives to Flash 7.1 HTML5 7.2 Microsoft Silverlight 7.3 Java 7.4 Other open alternatives http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Eesti Espaol Euskara Franais 7.5 Third-party players 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External links History Bahasa Indonesia slenska Italiano [edit] Originally developed by Macromedia, Flash was introduced in 1996, and is currently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems, as the result of their 2005 purchase of the company. The precursor to the Flash application was SmartSketch, a drawing application for pen computers running the PenPoint OS developed by Jonathan Gay, who began working on it in college and extended the idea for Silicon Beach Software and its successors.[3][4] When PenPoint failed in the marketplace, SmartSketch was ported to Microsoft Windows and Mac OS. With the Internet becoming more popular, SmartSketch was re-released as FutureSplash, a vector-based web animation in competition with Macromedia Shockwave. In 1995, SmartSketch was further modified with frame-by-frame animation features and re-released as FutureSplash Animator on multiple platforms. [5] The product was offered to Adobe and used by Microsoft in its early work with the Internet (MSN). In 1996, FutureSplash was acquired by Macromedia and released as Flash, contracting "Future" and "Splash". Lietuvi Magyar Bahasa Melayu Nederlands Polski Portugus Romn Simple English Suomi Svenska Norsk (bokml) Recent developments [edit] Adobe Labs (previously called Macromedia Labs) is a source for news and pre-release versions of emerging products and technologies from Adobe. Most innovations, such as Flash 10, Flex 3, and ActionScript 3.0 have all been discussed and/or trialled on the site. One area Adobe is focusing on (as of February 2009) is the deployment of Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). To this end, they released Adobe Integrated Runtime (AIR), a cross-platform runtime environment which can be used to build, using Adobe Flash, rich Internet applications that can be deployed as desktop applications. It surpassed 100 million installations worldwide in February 2009. [6] Flash is installed silently when Acrobat Reader is installed. [7][not in citation given] Two additional components designed for large-scale implementation have been proposed by Adobe for future releases of Flash: first, the option to require an ad to be played in full before the main video piece is played; and second, the integration of digital rights management (DRM) capabilities. This way Adobe can give companies the option to link an advertisement with content and make sure that both are played and remain unchanged.[8] Flash Player for smart phones is available to handset manufacturers at the end of 2009. [9] Trke Ting Vit Zazaki Open Screen Project On May 1, 2008 Adobe announced Open Screen Project, which hopes to provide a consistent application interface across devices such as personal computers, mobile devices and consumer [edit] electronics. [10] When the project was announced, several goals were outlined: the abolition of licensing fees for Adobe Flash Player and Adobe Integrated Runtime, the removal of restrictions on the use of the Shockwave Flash (SWF) and Flash Video (FLV) file formats, the publishing of application programming interfaces for porting Flash to new devices and the publishing of The Flash Cast protocol and Action Message Format (AMF), which let Flash applications receive information from remote databases. [10] As of February 2009, the specifications removing the restrictions on the use of SWF and FLV/F4V specs have been published. [11] The Flash Cast protocol--now known as the Mobile Content Delivery Protocol--and AMF protocols have also been made available,[11] with AMF available as an open http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia source implementation, BlazeDS. Work on the device porting layers is in the early stages. Adobe intends to remove the licensing fees for Flash Player and Adobe AIR for devices at their release for the Open Screen Project. The list of mobile device providers who have joined the project includes Palm, Motorola and Nokia,[12] who, together with Adobe, have announced a $10 million Open Screen Project fund.[13] Format Main article: SWF [edit] Flash files are in the SWF format, traditionally called "ShockWave Flash" movies, "Flash movies," or "Flash applications", usually have a .swf file extension, and may be used in the form of a web page plug-in, strictly "played" in a standalone Flash Player, or incorporated into a self-executing Projector movie (with the .exe extension in Microsoft Windows). Flash Video files [spec 1] have a .flv file extension and are either used from within .swf files or played through a flv-aware player, such as VLC, or QuickTime and Windows Media Player with external codecs added. The use of vector graphics combined with program code allows Flash files to be smaller -- and thus for streams to use less bandwidth -- than the corresponding bitmaps or video clips. For content in a single format (such as just text, video, or audio), other alternatives may provide better performance and consume less CPU power than the corresponding Flash movie, for example when using transparency or making large screen updates such as photographic or text fades. In addition to a vector-rendering engine, the Flash Player includes a virtual machine called the ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM) for scripting interactivity at run-time, support for video, MP3based audio, and bitmap graphics. As of Flash Player 8, it offers two video codecs: On2 Technologies VP6 and Sorenson Spark, and run-time support for JPEG, Progressive JPEG, PNG, and GIF. In the next version, Flash is slated to use a just-in-time compiler for the ActionScript engine. Flash Player is a browser plugin, and cannot run within a usual e-mail client, such as Outlook. Instead, a link must open a browser window. A Gmail labs feature allows playback of YouTube videos linked in emails. Flash Video Main article: Flash Video [edit] Virtually all browser plugins for video are free of charge and cross-platform, including Adobe's offering of Flash Video, which was first introduced with Flash version 6. Flash Video has been a popular choice for websites due to the large installed user base and programmability of Flash. In 2010, Apple publicly criticized Adobe Flash, including its implementation of video playback for not taking advantage of hardware acceleration, one reason Flash is not to be found on Apple's mobile devices. Soon after Apple's criticism, Adobe demoed and released a beta version of Flash 10.1, which takes advantage of GPU hardware acceleration even on a Mac. Flash 10.2 beta, released December 2010, adds hardware acceleration for the whole video rendering pipeline. Flash Audio [edit] Flash Audio is most commonly encoded in MP3 or AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) however it does also support ADPCM, Nellymoser (Nellymoser Asao Codec) and Speex audio codecs. Flash allows sample rates of 11, 22 and 44.1 kHz. It does not support 48 kHz audio sample rate which is the standard TV, DVD sample rate. On August 20, 2007, Adobe announced on its blog that with Update 3 of Flash Player 9, Flash Video will also support some parts of the MPEG-4 international standards.[14] Specifically, Flash Player will have support for video compressed in H.264 (MPEG-4 Part 10), audio compressed using AAC http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (MPEG-4 Part 3), the F4V, MP4 (MPEG-4 Part 14), M4V, M4A, 3GP and MOV multimedia container formats, 3GPP Timed Text specification (MPEG-4 Part 17) which is a standardized subtitle format and partial parsing support for the 'ilst' atom which is the ID3 equivalent iTunes uses to store metadata. MPEG-4 Part 2 and H.263 will not be supported in F4V file format. Adobe also announced that it will be gradually moving away from the FLV format to the standard ISO base media file format (MPEG-4 Part 12) owing to functional limits with the FLV structure when streaming H.264. The final release of the Flash Player supporting some parts of MPEG-4 standards had become available in Fall 2007. [15] Adobe Flash Player 10.1 does not support acoustic echo cancellation, unlike the VoIP offerings of Skype and Google Voice. This makes Flash less suitable for group calling or meetings, as use of headphones for all participants is essential, or at least highly advised. Scripting language Further information: ActionScript [edit] Proprietary restrictions See also: Proprietary software [edit] The proprietary nature of Flash has been a concern to advocates of open standards and free software. Its widespread use has, according to such observers, harmed the otherwise open nature of the World Wide Web. [16] A response may be seen in Adobe's Open Screen Project: Adobe's restrictions on the use of the SWF/FLV specifications have been lifted. Representing open standards, inventor of CSS and co-author of HTML5, Hkon Wium Lie explained in a Google tech talk entitled "the <video> element" the proposal of Theora as the format for HTML5 video:[17] I believe very strongly, that we need to agree on some kind of baseline video format if [the video element] is going to succeed. Flash is today the baseline format on the web. The problem with Flash is that it's not an open standard. Disclosure [edit] In October 1998, Macromedia disclosed the Flash Version 3 Specification to the world on its website. It did this in response to many new and often semi-open formats competing with SWF, such as Xara's Flare and Sharp's Extended Vector Animation formats. Several developers quickly created a C library for producing SWF. In February 1999, the company introduced MorphInk 99, the first thirdparty program to create SWF files. Macromedia also hired Middlesoft to create a freely available developers' kit for the SWF file format versions 3 to 5. Macromedia made the Flash Files specifications for versions 6 and later available only under a nondisclosure agreement, but they are widely available from various sites. In April 2006, the Flash SWF file format specification was released with details on the then newest version format (Flash 8). Although still lacking specific information on the incorporated video compression formats (On2, Sorenson Spark, etc.), this new documentation covered all the new features offered in Flash v8 including new ActionScript commands, expressive filter controls, and so on. The file format specification document is offered only to developers who agree to a license agreement that permits them to use the specifications only to develop programs that can export to the Flash file format. The license forbids the use of the specifications to create programs that can be used for playback of Flash files. The Flash 9 specification was made available under similar restrictions. [18] In June 2009, Adobe launched the Open Screen Project (Adobe link ), which made the SWF specification available without restrictions. Previously, developers could not use the specification for http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia making SWF-compatible players, but only for making SWF-exporting authoring software. The specification still omits information on codecs such as Sorenson Spark, however.[19] Authoring tools Adobe Flash Professional The Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program is used to create content for the Adobe Engagement Platform, such as web applications, games and movies, and content for mobile phones and other embedded devices. [edit] [edit] Adobe Flash Professional History [edit] Adobe Flash Professional is the successor of a software product known as FutureSplash Animator, a vector graphics and vector animations program released in May 1996. FutureSplash Animator was developed by FutureWave Software, a small software Adobe Flash CS5 Professional (11.0.2.489) company whose first product, SmartSketch, Developer(s) Adobe Systems (formerly by was a vector-based drawing program for Macromedia) pen-based computers. In 1995, the company Stable release CS5 (11.0.2) (December 7, 2010 ; 2 decided to add animation capabilities to their months ago ) [+/- ] product and to create a vector-based animation platform for World Wide Web; Written in C++ hence FutureSplash Animator was created. Operating system Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X Initially, the only way to deploy such Type Multimedia animations on the web was through the use License Proprietary commercial software of Java platform; however, the Java platform adobe.com/products/flash/flashpro/ Website was later replaced with the Netscape's plugin architecture. The FutureSplash animation technology was used on several notable websites such as MSN, the official The Simpsons website and Disney Daily Blast of The Walt Disney Company.[20] In December 1996, Macromedia bought FutureWave and so re-branded and released FutureSplash Animator as Macromedia Flash v1.0. In 2005, Adobe Systems acquired Macromedia; subsequently, in 2007, Adobe Flash CS3 Professional, the next version of Macromedia Flash was released. Release FutureSplash Animator Year Description 1996 Initial version of Flash with basic editing tools and a timeline Macromedia Flash 1 1996 A re-branded version of the FutureSplash Animator Macromedia Flash 2 1997 Released with Flash Player 2, new features included: the object library Released with Flash Player 3, new features included: the Macromedia Flash 3 1998 movieclip element, JavaScript plug-in integration, transparency and an external stand alone player Released with Flash Player 4, new features included: internal Macromedia Flash 4 1999 variables, an input field, advanced ActionScript, and streaming http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia MP3 Released with Flash Player 5, new features included: ActionScript 1.0 (based on ECMAScript, making it very similar to JavaScript in Macromedia Flash 5 2000 syntax), XML support, Smartclips (the precursor to components in Flash), HTML text formatting added for dynamic text Macromedia Flash MX(6) Released with Flash Player 6, new features included: a video 2002 codec (Sorenson Spark), Unicode, v1 UI Components, compression, ActionScript vector drawing API Released with Flash Player 7, new features included: Actionscript 2.0 (which enabled an object-oriented programming model for Flash, although it lacked the Script assist function of other versions, meaning Actionscript could only be typed out manually), behaviors, extensibility layer (JSAPI), alias text support, timeline effects. Macromedia Flash MX Professional 2004 included all Flash MX 2004 features, plus: Screens (forms for non-linear 2003 state-based development and slides for organizing content in a linear slide format like PowerPoint), web services integration, video import wizard, Media Playback components (which encapsulate a complete MP3 and/or FLV player in a component that may be placed in an SWF), Data components (DataSet, XMLConnector, WebServicesConnector, XUpdateResolver, etc.) and data binding APIs, the Project Panel, v2 UI components, and Transition class libraries. Macromedia Flash Basic 8, a less feature-rich version of the Flash authoring tool[citation needed] targeted at new users who only want to do basic drawing, animation and interactivity. Released with Flash Player 8, this version of the product has limited support for video and advanced graphical and animation effects. Macromedia Flash Professional 8 added features focused on expressiveness, quality, video, and mobile authoring. New Macromedia Flash 8 2005 features included Filters and blend modes, easing control for animation, enhanced stroke properties (caps and joins), objectbased drawing mode, run-time bitmap caching, FlashType advanced anti-aliasing for text, On2 VP6 advanced video codec, support for alpha transparency in video, a stand-alone encoder and advanced video importer, cue point support in FLV files, an advanced video playback component, and an interactive mobile device emulator. Flash CS3 is the first version of Flash released under the Adobe name. CS3 features full support for ActionScript 3.0, allows entire applications to be converted into ActionScript, adds better 2007 integration with other Adobe products such as Adobe Photoshop, and also provides better Vector drawing behavior, becoming more like Adobe Illustrator and Adobe Fireworks. Macromedia Flash MX 2004(7) Adobe Flash CS3(9) Professional Contains inverse kinematics (bones), basic 3D object manipulation, object-based animation, a text engine, and further Adobe Flash CS4(10) 2008 expansions to ActionScript 3.0. CS4 allows the developer to Professional create animations with many features absent in previous versions. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Flash CS5 was released on April 12, 2010 and launched for trialling and normal buying on April 30, 2010. Flash CS5 Professional includes support for publishing iPhone Adobe Flash Professional CS5(10.1) applications. [21] However, on April 8, 2010 Apple changed the terms of its Developer License to effectively ban the use of the [22] and on April 20, 2010 Adobe 2010 Flash-to-iPhone compiler announced that they will be making no additional investments in targeting the iPhone and iPad in Flash CS5.[23] Other features of Flash CS5 are a new text engine (TLF), further improvement to inverse kinematics, and the Code Snippets panel. [24] Third-party tools [edit] Open Source projects like Ajax Animator and the (now defunct) UIRA aim to create a Flash development environment, complete with a graphical user environment. Alternatively, programs such as swfmill, SWFTools, and MTASC provide tools to create SWF files, but do so by compiling text, actionscript or XML files into Flash animations. It is also possible to create SWF files programmatically using the Ming library, which has interfaces for C, PHP, C++, Perl, Python, and Ruby. haXe is an open source, high-level object-oriented programming language geared towards web-content creation that can compile Flash files. Many shareware developers produced Flash creation tools and sold them for under US$50 between 2000 and 2002. In 2003 competition and the emergence of free Flash creation tools had driven many third-party Flash-creation tool-makers out of the market, allowing the remaining developers to raise their prices, although many of the products still cost less than US$100 and support ActionScript. As for open source tools, KToon can edit vectors and generate SWF, but its interface is very different from Macromedia's. Another, more recent example of a Flash creation tool is SWiSH Max made by an ex-employee of Macromedia. Toon Boom Technologies also sells a traditional animation tool, based on Flash. In addition, several programs create .swf-compliant files as output from their programs. Among the most famous of these are Screencast tools, which leverage the ability to do lossless compression and playback of captured screen content in order to produce demos, tutorials, or software simulations of programs. These programs are typically designed for use by non-programmers, and create Flash content quickly and easily, but cannot actually edit the underlying Flash code (i.e. the tweening and transforms, etc.) Screencam is perhaps the oldest screencasting authoring tool to adopt Flash as the preferred output format, having been developed since the mid-90s. The fact that screencasting programs have adopted Flash as the preferred output is testament to Flash's presence as a ubiquitous cross-platform animation file format. Other tools are focused on creating specific types of Flash content. Anime Studio is a 2D animation software package specialized for character animation which creates SWF files. Express Animator is similarly aimed specifically at animators. Question Writer publishes its quizzes to Flash file format. Users who are not programmers or web designers will also find on-line tools that allow them to build full Flash-based websites. One of the oldest services available (1998) is FlashToGo . Such companies provide a wide variety of pre-built models (templates) associated to a Content Management System that empowers users to easily build, edit and publish their websites. Other sites, that allows for greater customization and design flexibility are Wix.com and CirclePad. Adobe wrote a software package called Adobe LiveMotion, designed to create interactive animation content and export it to a variety of formats, including SWF. LiveMotion went through two major releases, but failed to gain any notable user base. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In February 2003, Macromedia purchased Presedia, which had developed a Flash authoring tool that automatically converted PowerPoint files into Flash. Macromedia subsequently released the new product as Breeze, which included many new enhancements. In addition, (as of version 2) Apple's Keynote presentation software also allows users to create interactive presentations and export to SWF. User experience [edit] Flash as a format has become widespread on the desktop market; one estimate is that 95% of PCs have it, [25] while Adobe claims that 98 percent of U.S. web users and 99.3 percent of all Internet desktop users have installed the Flash Player, [26][27][28] with 92 to 95% (depending on region) having the latest version. [29] Numbers vary depending on the detection scheme and research demographics. The Adobe Flash Player exists for a variety of systems and devices: Windows, Mac OS 9/X, Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, Pocket PC/Windows CE, OS/2, QNX, Android, Symbian, Palm OS, BeOS, and IRIX, although the performance is typically best on Windows (see Performance). For compatibility with devices (embedded systems), see Macromedia Flash Lite. Among mobile devices, Flash has less penetration because Apple does not bundle or allow third-party runtimes on its iPhone, which accounts for more than 60% of global smartphone web traffic, or the iPod touch, which makes up more than 95% of "mobile Internet device" traffic. This hurts Adobe's ability to market Flash as a ubiquitous mobile platform. However, Flash is enabled on competing mobile platforms, including the version 2.2 Android[30] while other O.S.s such as Symbian and Palm have versions coming. [citation needed] Some websites rely on Flash so heavily that they are totally unusable without this plugin Downloading Flash is blocked in countries that are under U.S sanctions (such as Syria & Sudan). Users in these countries are blocked (by Adobe) from downloading Flash plug-ins for both Internet Explorer and Firefox browsers. [citation needed] Flash content is usually embedded using the <object> html tag, or the nonstandard <embed> tag.[31] Software that does not support either of these tags, and users who cannot or will not install a plugin, will see the replacement text if this is supplied by the web page. Accessibility Using Flash tends to break conventions associated with normal HTML pages. Selecting text, [edit] scrolling, [32] form control and right-clicking act differently than with a regular HTML webpage. Many such interface unexpectancies are fixable by the designer. Usability expert Jakob Nielsen published an Alertbox in 2000 entitled, Flash: 99% Bad which listed issues like these. [33] Some problems have been improved upon since Nielsen's complaints: Text size can be controlled using full page zoom, found in many modern browsers. It has been possible for authors to include alternative text in Flash since Flash Player 6. This accessibility feature is compatible only with certain screen readers and only under Windows. [34] Performance [edit] Any Flash player has to be able to animate on top of video renderings, which makes hardware accelerated video rendering at least not as straightforward as with a purpose-built multimedia player.[35] Therefore, even when only displaying video, Flash players are more resource-intensive http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia than dedicated video player software. Comparisons have shown Adobe Flash Player to perform better on Windows than Mac OSX and Linux with the same hardware.[36][37] However, the 10.1 update significantly improved performance for Mac OS X. [38] Flash blocking in web browsers [edit] Some web browsers default to not play Flash content before the user clicks on it, e.g. Konqueror, KMeleon. Equivalent "Flash blocker" extensions also exist for many popular browsers: Firefox has NoScript and Flashblock, and Opera versions since 10.5 feature native Flash blocking. Opera Turbo requires the user to click to play Flash content. Internet Explorer has Foxie, which contains a number of features, one of them also named Flashblock. WebKit-based browsers under Mac OS X, such as Apple's Safari, have ClickToFlash.[39] Flash client security Flash's security record[40] has caused several security experts to recommend to either not install [edit] Flash or to block it. [41] The US-CERT recommends to block Flash using NoScript.[42] Charlie Miller recommended "not to install Flash" [43] at the computer security conference CanSecWest. As of October 31, 2010, The Flash Player has over 100 CVE entries,[44] 65 of which have been ranked with a high severity (leading to arbitrary code execution), and 40 ranked medium. In February 2010, Adobe officially apologized[45] for not fixing a known vulnerability for over 1 year. In June 2010 Adobe announced a "critical vulnerability" in recent versions, saying there are reports that this vulnerability is being actively exploited in the wild against both Adobe Flash Player, and Adobe Reader and Acrobat. [46][47] Later, in October 2010, Adobe announced [48] another critical vulnerability, this time also affecting Android-based mobile devices. Android users have been recommended to disable Flash or make it only on demand.[49] Symantec's Internet Security Threat Report [50] states that a remote code execution in Adobe Reader and Flash Player[51] was the second most attacked vulnerability in 2009. The same report also recommends to employ browser add-ons wherever possible to disable Adobe Flash Player when visiting untrusted sites. McAfee predicted that Adobe software, especially Reader and Flash, will have been primary target for attacks in 2010. [52] Adobe applications had become, at least at some point, the most popular client-software targets for attackers during the last quarter of 2009. [53] Local Shared Objects ("Flash cookies") Main article: Local Shared Object [edit] Like the HTTP cookie, a flash cookie (also known as a "Local Shared Object") can be used to save application data. Flash cookies are not shared across domains. An August 2009 study by the Social Science Research Network found that 50% of websites using Flash were also employing flash cookies, yet privacy policies rarely disclosed them, and user controls for privacy preferences were lacking. [54] Most browsers' cache and history suppress or delete functions do not affect Flash Player's writing Local Shared Objects to its own cache, and the user community is much less aware of the existence and function of Flash cookies than HTTP cookies.[55] Thus, users having deleted HTTP cookies and purged browser history files and caches may believe that they have purged all tracking data from their computers when in fact Flash browsing history remains. Adobe's own Flash Website Storage Settings panel , a submenu of Adobe's Flash Settings Manager web application , and other editors and toolkits can manage settings for and delete Flash Local Shared Objects.[56] 64-bit support Adobe's 64-bit Flash player is available as a preview3 release ("Square"), which was released in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] [edit] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia September 2010. The "Square" preview is available for Windows, Mac and Linux. [57] This new version can be downloaded at the Adobe lab site.[58] The key new capabilities in the Flash Player "Square" preview are: 64-bit support -- Native support for 64-bit operating systems and 64-bit web browsers on Linux, Mac OS, and Windows. (Hulu and Amazon which depends on RTMPE are not currently functioning because there are some 64-bit libs that need to be integrated into the branch"Adobe Forums: Flash Player "Square": 64-bit" .) Internet Explorer 9 hardware accelerated rendering support -- Enhanced support for Internet Explorer 9 Beta. It takes advantage of hardware accelerated graphics in Internet Explorer 9 Beta, utilizing hardware rendering surfaces to improve graphics performance and enable seamless composition. The first experimental release of 64-bit builds of Adobe Flash Player was for the Linux platform,[59] on November 11, 2008. [60] The project was closed temporarily on June 15, 2010, [61] while Adobe was preparing for the preview release on September 15, 2010. The official 32-bit player is still distributed in 64-bit Linux distributions e.g. Ubuntu, openSUSE, of which some users have reported problems with the 32-bit player on some websites. [62][63][64] Affected users can install the 64-bit player manually [65] or through a special repository.[66] Adobe expects to provide 64-bit versions of its Flash Player for Windows, Macintosh and Linux with an upcoming major release of Adobe Flash Player. [67][68] Alternatives to Flash HTML5 Main article: Comparison of HTML5 and Flash [edit] [edit] HTML 5 is gaining ground as a competitor to Flash: the canvas element assists animation, and text can be more easily synchronized with audio and video element timeupdate events. In one example of this, Scribd, a 50 million user a month document sharing website, announced in May 2010 that after three years of investment in Flash, it is changing from that platform to the HTML5 standard. [69] YouTube introduced HTML5 support in January 2010, [70] and on Jan 11 2011, the Google Chromium Project announced on their blog that support for closed codecs (particularly H.264) would be removed from future releases of Chrome. The Chromium announcement specifically mentioned that this was an effort to increase the use of license-free HTML5 and the <video> tag, and drive webwide adoption of the open-source codecs VP8 and Theora. Microsoft Silverlight [edit] In recent years, Microsoft Silverlight has emerged as a potential competitor to Flash[citation needed] . While not yet as prevalent on websites as Flash, Silverlight has been used to provide video streaming for many high profile events, including the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing,[71] the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver,[72] and the 2008 conventions for both major political parties in the United States. [73] Silverlight is also used by Netflix for its instant video streaming service.[74] Java [edit] Java applets are used both to create interactive visualisations and to present video, three dimensional objects and other media. Java applets are more appropriate for complex visualizations that require significant programming effort in high level language or communications between applet and originating server. Sun's new JavaFX is considered as another competitor for Rich Internet http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Applications. Other open alternatives See also: Open format [edit] There are equivalent open standards for many simple uses of Flash. Most notably the SVG and SMIL file formats, the canvas, audio and video HTML elements, and the JavaScript programming language. More complex use cases can be achieved by combining these. The W3C's SVG and SMIL standards are seen as the nearest equivalents of Flash. [75][76] Opera has supported SVG since version 8 and Safari has since version 3,[77] and Mozilla Firefox's built-in support for SVG continues to grow.[78][79] Adobe formerly developed and distributed the 'Adobe SVG Viewer' client plug-in for MS Internet Explorer, but discontinued support and distribution on January 1, 2009. [80] This was in a time when Adobe went from competing with Macromedia's Flash to owning the technology itself. [81] UIRA was a free software project that intended to become a complete replacement for Adobe Flash. The project collapsed in mid 2007, though people are now discussing reviving or continuing it, [82] and a few other projects like Ajax Animator still exist. Third-party players [edit] Since Flash files do not depend on an open standard such as SVG, this reduces the incentive for non-commercial software to support the format, although there are several third party tools which use and generate the SWF file format. Flash Player cannot ship as part of a pure open source, or completely free operating system, as its distribution is bound to the Macromedia Licensing Program and subject to approval. There is, as of late 2008, no complete free software replacement which offers all the functionality of the latest version of Adobe Flash Player. Presenting the free software movement, Richard Stallman stated in a speech in October 2004 that: [83] The use of Flash in websites is a major problem for our community. Stallman's argument then was that no free players were comparatively good enough. As of February 2010, Gnash and Swfdec have seen limited success in competing with Adobe's player. Many important and popular websites require users to have a Flash player, sometimes with no fallback for non-Flash web users. Therefore, the lack of a good free Flash player is arguably an obstacle to enjoying the web with free software, and the aforementioned ubiquity of Flash makes the problem very evident for anyone who tries. The continual high ranking of Gnash on the Free Software Foundation's list of high priority projects [84] might indicate the severity of the problem, as judged by the free software community. Gnash is an active project that aims to create a free player and browser plugin for the Adobe Flash file format and so provide a free alternative to the Adobe Flash Player under the GNU General Public License. Despite potential patent worries because of the proprietary nature of the files involved, [85] Gnash supports most SWF v7 features and some SWF v8 and v9. [86][87] Gnash runs on Windows, Linux and other operating systems on 32-bit, 64-bit and other architectures. Swfdec is another open-source flash player available for Linux, FreeBSD and OpenBSD. See also SWFOpener. Lightspark is a new implementation aiming to create a more modern and fast player. Besides hardware-accelerated rendering, it exploits multithreading and JIT compilation. It supports only the new ActionScript 3 VM introduced in Flash 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Scaleform GFx is a commercial alternative Flash player that features full hardware acceleration using the GPU and has high conformance with both Flash 10 ActionScript 3 [88] and Flash 8 AS2. Scaleform GFx is licensed as a game middleware solution and used by many PC and console 3D games for user interfaces, HUDs, mini games, and video playback. rtmpdump is an open source software implementation of an RTMP client, Flash's own streaming protocol. rtmpdump was removed from Sourceforge on request by Adobe. [89] As a result, flvstreamer was forked from rtmpdump, removing all cryptography (i.e. support for RTMPE and SWF verification). Smokescreen allows playback of Flash files using javascript in the webpage. [edit] See also Adobe Flash SWF file format, the files generated by the Flash application and played by Flash Player. ActionScript ActionScript code protection Adobe Flash Player, the runtime that executes and plays back Flash movies. Adobe Flash Lite, a lightweight version of Flash Player for devices that lack the resources to run regular Flash movies such as mobile phones, some laptop computers and other portable devices. List of 2D animation software Flash Video Flash emulator Saffron Type System, the anti-aliased text-rendering engine used in version 8 onwards. Local Shared Object SWFObject, a JavaScript library used to embed Flash content into webpages. Flash CMS, content management for Flash content. Other Gnash HTML5 video Microsoft Silverlight JavaFX OpenLaszlo Synfig Lightspark Footnotes 1. ^ FLV and F4V Video File Format Specification Version 9 F4V is based on ISO base media file format standard:freely available ISO standards available via subscription [1] , and also [edit] References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. [edit] ^ "How to Block Flash" . Retrieved 2011-01-04. ^ "Flash: 99% Bad" . Retrieved 2011-01-08. ^ Waldron, Rick (2006-08-27). "The Flash History" . Flashmagazine. Retrieved 2001-06-18. ^ Gay, Jonathan (2001). "The History of Flash" . Adobe Systems Inc.. Retrieved 2009-10-18. ^ "Grandmasters of Flash: An Interview with the Creators of Flash" . ColdHardFlash.com. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 6. ^ "AIR passes 100 million installations" . Retrieved 2009-02-03. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 7. ^ "Adobe Download Manager FAQ | Flash Player and Reader" . Retrieved 2011-01-19. 8. ^ "Adobe unveils Flash video control" . BBC News (BBC). 2007-04-16. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 9. ^ "Palm Latest Mobile Industry Leader to Join Open Screen Project" . 2009-02-16. Retrieved 2009-0220. 10. ^ a b "Adobe and Industry Leaders Establish Open Screen Project" 20. . 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2009-02- 11. ^ a b Murarka, Anup. "Inside the Open Screen Project" . Retrieved 2009-02-21. 12. ^ "Open Screen Project partners" . Retrieved 2009-02-20. 13. ^ "Adobe and Nokia Announce $10 Million Open Screen Project Fund" . 2009-02-16. Retrieved 200902-20. 14. ^ "What just happened to video on the web" . Adobe. 15. ^ "Adobe Press release on MPEG-4 support in Flash Player 9" . Adobe.com. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 16. ^ Meyer, David (2008-04-30). "Mozilla warns of Flash and Silverlight 'agenda'" . ZDNet. Retrieved 2009-01-11. "Companies building websites should beware of proprietary rich-media technologies like Adobe's Flash and Microsoft's Silverlight, the founder of Mozilla Europe has warned." 17. ^ "Hkon Wium Lie on the video element in HTML 5" . Google Video. 2007-03-29. Retrieved 2009-0222. 18. ^ "Adobe File Format Specification FAQ" . Adobe Systems. Archived from the original on 2007-1111. Retrieved 2007-11-15. 19. ^ "Free Flash community reacts to Adobe Open Screen Project" . Retrieved 2008-11-29. 20. ^ The History of Flash by Jonathan Gay 21. ^ "Adobe Labs - Adobe Flash Professional CS5: Applications for iPhone" . Adobe. Retrieved 2010-0302. 22. ^ "New iPhone Developer Agreement Bans the Use of Adobe's Flash-to-iPhone Compiler" . Daring Fireball. Retrieved 2010-04-22. 23. ^ "On Adobe, Flash CS5 and iPhone Applications" . Mike Chambers. Retrieved 2010-04-22. 24. ^ Apple Inc. modified terms & conditions for developers in the app store. Adobe is developing again for iPhone and iPad CS5 25. ^ "Web Browser Plugin Market Share" . StatOwl. Retrieved 2009-08-18. 26. ^ 98%: NPD study 27. ^ 99.3%: Millward Brown survey, conducted June 2009. "Flash Player Statistics" . Adobe Systems. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 28. ^ Shankland, Stephen (February 3, 2010). HTML vs. Flash: Can a turf war be avoided? . CNET News. Retrieved December 26, 2010. 29. ^ "Adobe Flash Player Version Penetration" . Adobe Systems. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 30. ^ Posted on Tuesday, Apr 27, 2010 by Phil Nickinson (2010-04-27). "Andy Rubin says Flash is coming in Froyo version of Android operating system" . Androidcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 31. ^ http://validator.w3.org/docs/help.html#faq-flash 32. ^ "Scrolling and Scrollbars (Jakob Nielsen's Alertbox)" . Useit.com. 2005-07-11. Retrieved 2010-1204. 33. ^ Nielsen, Jakob (2000-10-29). "Flash: 99% Bad" . Retrieved 2009-02-21. 34. ^ "Provide text equivalents for graphics - in Flash" . Skills for Access How To. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 35. ^ Solving Different Problems Penguin.SWF . Blogs.adobe.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-09. 36. ^ "Flash benchmarks on different operating systems" . 37. ^ Paul, Ryan (2009-10-16). "Hands-on: Hulu Desktop for Linux beta a big resource hog" . Arstechnica.com. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 38. ^ "Flash 10.1: Performance improvements for Mac OS X" . 39. ^ "ClickToFlash" 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. . Retrieved 2009-10-18. [dead link] ^ "Security bulletins and advisories" . Retrieved 2010-03-27. ^ "Expert says Adobe Flash policy is risky" . 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2010-03-27. ^ "Securing Your Web Browser" . Retrieved 2010-03-27. ^ "Pwn2Own 2010: interview with Charlie Miller" . 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-03-27. ^ "SecurityFocus search results for Adobe Flash Player Vulnerabilities" . Retrieved 2010-10-31. . 2010-02-06. Retrieved 2010-03-27. [dead link] 45. ^ "Flash Bug Report" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 46. ^ "Security Advisory for Flash Player, Adobe Reader and Acrobat" . Adobe Systems. Retrieved 201006-08. 47. ^ "Adobe acknowledges critical security flaw in software" . BBC News Online. June 7, 2010. 48. ^ "Security Advisory for Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Reader and Acrobat" . Adobe Systems. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 49. ^ "Flash vulnerability revealed for Android, fix coming November 9th" . MobileCrunch. Retrieved 201010-31. 50. ^ "Internet Security Threat Report: Volume XV: April 2010" . Symantec. April 2010. pp. 37, 40, 42. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 51. ^ "Adobe Acrobat, Reader, and Flash Player Remote Code Execution Vulnerability" . 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2010-05-09. . McAfee Labs. December 2009. p. 2. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 52. ^ "2010 Threat Predictions" 53. ^ "McAfee Threats Report: Fourth Quarter 2009" . McAfee Avert Labs. February 2010. p. 16. Retrieved 2010-05-09. 54. ^ "Soltani, Ashkan, Canty, Shannon, Mayo, Quentin, Thomas, Lauren and Hoofnagle, Chris Jay: Flash Cookies and Privacy" . 2009-08-10. Retrieved 2009-08-18. 55. ^ "Local Shared Objects -- "Flash Cookies"" . Electronic Privacy Information Center. 2005-07-21. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 56. ^ "How to manage and disable Local Shared Objects" . Adobe Systems Inc.. 2005-09-09. Retrieved 2010-03-08. 57. ^ Adobe Labs - Downloads: Flash Player "Square" Preview Release . Labs.adobe.com (2010-09-27). Retrieved on 2010-11-09. 58. ^ ">Flash Player support on 64-bit operating systems 59. ^ Huang, Emmy (2008-11-17). [http://weblogs.macromedia.com/emmy/archives/2008/11 /swf_10_spec_available_and_flash_player_alpha_for_64-bit_linux_on_labs.html "SWF 10 spec available AND Flash Player alpha for 64-bit Linux on Labs"]. Adobe Systems. 60. ^ November 2008 Penguin.SWF . Blogs.adobe.com (2008-11-17). Retrieved on 2010-11-09. 61. ^ Paul, Ryan. (2010-06-15) 64-bit Flash for Linux dropped as Adobe preps next version . Arstechnica.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-09. 62. ^ "Installing Adobe Flash 64 bit in Ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala" . Adammichaelroach.com. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 63. ^ Flash problems on 64-bit Linux | Guy Van Sanden's Home . Nocturn.vsbnet.be. Retrieved on 201011-09. 64. ^ Flash Player 10 for 64 bit Linux | Web Developer . Mat Wright (2010-02-27). Retrieved on 2010-1109. 65. ^ Install 64-bit Adobe Flash Player on Ubuntu (updated to 10.04 and closing of 64-bit beta) *n*x . Nxadm.wordpress.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-09. 66. ^ Ubuntu Flash PPA 67. ^ Adobe Labs - Flash Player 10 for 64-bit Linux Frequently Asked Questions . Labs.adobe.com. Retrieved on 2010-11-09. 68. ^ "Flash Player support on 64-bit operating systems" . Kb2.adobe.com. 2009-07-14. Retrieved 201012-04. 69. ^ Metz, Cade. "50 million user Scribd scraps Flash for HTML5" . The Register. Retrieved 2010-09-17. 70. ^ http://www.youtube.com/html5 71. ^ "Microsoft Silverlight Gets a High Profile Win: 2008 Beijing Olympics" . Retrieved 2010-02-23. 72. ^ "Microsoft Wins The 2010 Olympics For Silverlight" . Retrieved 2010-02-23. 73. ^ "Microsoft Working to Make Political Conventions Unconventional" . Retrieved 2010-02-23. 74. ^ "Netflix Begins Roll-Out of 2nd Generation Media Player for Instant Streaming on Windows PCs and Intel Macs" . Retrieved 2010-02-23. 75. ^ "Picture Perfect" . XML.com. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 76. ^ "xSWF: Flash W3C valid" . Hofmanns.net. Retrieved 2010-12-04. 77. ^ "Opera" . Svg wiki. Svg.org. 2006-12-27. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 78. ^ Quint, Antoine (2006-07-13). "First Firefox 2.0 Beta Released" . Svg.org. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 79. ^ "SVG improvements in Firefox 3" 07-20. . Mozilla Developer Center. Mozilla. 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2008- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 80. ^ "Adobe to Discontinue Adobe SVG Viewer" . Adobe Systems. Retrieved 2007-06-18. 81. ^ "Adobe, `Rich Internet Applications' and Standards" . Web Standards Project. April 19, 2005. Retrieved 2010-02-25. 82. ^ "UIRA, Unfreeze" . unfreeze.net. 2008-04-20. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 83. ^ "Richard Stallman on The free software movement and its challenges" . Australian National University, Canberra, Australia: Google Video. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 84. ^ High Priority Free Software Projects . Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 2009-07-09 85. ^ Hudson, Paul (July 2008). "Quick as a Gnash". Linux Format (107): 4849. "What happened is this little thing called "software patents". When you use MP3 or FLV, they're proprietary. And although we use FFMPEG and Gstreamer - we actually support all these codecs - we can't distribute Gnash that way. ...of course the OLPC project cannot legally redistribute the codecs. ...Gnash fully supports patent-free codecs such as Ogg Vorbis and Theora and Direc and stuff -- Rob Savoye.". 86. ^ "Gnash Introduction" . Free Software Foundation, Inc.. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 87. ^ Rob Savoye, Ann Barcomb (June 2007). "Gnash Manual version 0.4.0" . Free Software Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-07-02. Retrieved 2007-08-15. 88. ^ Kris Graft. "Scaleform GFx 4 Supports Flash 10 AS3" . Gamasutra. Retrieved 2010-10-01. 89. ^ "Adobe requests rtmpdump removed from Sourceforge" . 2009-05-08. Retrieved 2009-11-20. External links Adobe Flash Platform Blog - official news channel about Adobe Flash Adobe Flash for MS WinXP/Vista and Mac OS X [edit] Flash plug-in for MS Windows 9x / Macintosh OSX 10.1-10.3 / Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 and 4 FLA format specification Detect if Flash Player is installed Communities Adobe's Flash Forum FlexFlashForum.com - Flash Forum Actionscript.org - Community Resource / Tutorials Flash Forum / Questions and Answers vde shareware freeware free software vde Open source 2D 3D Flash builders Adobe Flash - Adobe Flash Builder - SWiSH Max LiveSwif Ming library - MTASC - swfmill - SWFTools Motion graphics & Animation editor software KToon NodeBox Pencil Synfig Art of Illusion Blender Geist3D K-3D OpenFX Seamless3d Adobe After Effects Adobe Flash Anime Studio Autodesk 3ds Max Autodesk Maya Autodesk Softimage Bryce Cinema 4D Dimp Animator Dynamation Elastic Reality Proprietary Express Animator Fantavision Fix8 Gryphon Software Morph Houdini LightWave 3D Liveswif MASSIVE Messiah Mediator Motion Moviestorm Pivot Stickfigure Animator Softimage 3D SWFTools SWiSH Max Spider-Man Cartoon Maker Strata 3D Stykz Swift 3D TISFAT Toon Boom Toufee TVPaint X-Men Cartoon Maker vde File formats Adobe Flash .as (ActionScript) .amf (Action Message Format) .flv, .f4v (Flash Video) .fxg (Flash XML Graphics) .mxml (MXML) .swc (Shockwave Flash Component) .swf (Shockwave Flash) Adobe Flash Player Adobe Flash Lite http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash[3/3/2011 3:27:25 PM] Adobe Flash - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Viewers Software Adobe Integrated Runtime (AIR) Gnash Lightspark Swfdec Adobe Flash Professional Adobe Flex Adobe Flash Builder Authoring Tools Server-side software Related topics vde Current products Shared applications Online services Past products included vde Current products Shared applications vde Desktop software Readers and players Server software Adobe Flash Catalyst Adobe Flash Media Live Encoder FlashDevelop Open Dialect OpenLaszlo haXe Adobe Flash Media Server Adobe Flash Cast Flash animation Local Shared Object Protected Streaming Real Time Messaging Protocol Real Time Media Flow Protocol SWFAddress SWFFit SWFObject XMLSocket Adobe Creative Suite Acrobat After Effects Contribute Dreamweaver Encore Fireworks Flash (Catalyst Builder) Illustrator InCopy InDesign OnLocation Photoshop Premiere Pro Soundbooth Bridge Device Central Dynamic Link CS Live (BrowserLab CS Review Acrobat.com Story SiteCatalyst NetAverages) Audition GoLive ImageReady Stock Photos Ultra Version Cue Adobe eLearning Suite Captivate Flash Dreamweaver Photoshop Acrobat Presenter Soundbooth Bridge Device Central Adobe Systems Creative Suite eLearning Suite Technical Communication Suite Acrobat Audition Digital Editions Director FreeHand GoLive PageMaker Photoshop Lightroom more Flash Player Media Player Adobe Reader Adobe LiveCycle Adobe Flash Media Server BlazeDS ColdFusion Macromedia JRun Adobe Flash Adobe Flex Adobe Font Folio Adobe Integrated Runtime (AIR) Technology Web Services Adobe Shockwave Digital Negative (DNG) Macromedia Authorware Macromedia FlashPaper Portable Document Format (PDF) PostScript Adobe Solutions Network Adobe Photoshop Express Adobe Premiere Express Bruce Chizen Charles Geschke Shantanu Narayen John Warnock Del Yocam Mergers and acquisitions Aldus Macromedia Scene7 Omniture Board of directors Acquisitions Categories: Animation software | Cross-platform software | C++ software | Graphics file formats | Mac OS software | Mac OS X software | Macromedia software | Adobe software | Adobe Creative Suite | Vector graphics editors | Web development software | Adobe Flash | 2D animation software | American inventions | Windows software | 1996 software This page was last modified on 25 February 2011 at 18:28. 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