Eolas Technologies Incorporated v. Adobe Systems Incorporated et al

Filing 1317

Emergency MOTION to Strike DEFENDANTS' LATE-PRODUCED DOCUMENTS, VIDEO DEMONSTRATIONS, SOURCE CODE AND PREVIOUSLY UNIDENTIFIED PRIOR ART by Eolas Technologies Incorporated, The Regents of the University of California. (Attachments: # 1 Appendix, # 2 Exhibit A, # 3 Exhibit B, # 4 Exhibit C, # 5 Exhibit D, # 6 Exhibit E, # 7 Exhibit F, # 8 Exhibit G, # 9 Exhibit H, # 10 Exhibit I, # 11 Exhibit J, # 12 Exhibit K, # 13 Exhibit 1, # 14 Exhibit 2, # 15 Exhibit 3, # 16 Exhibit 4, # 17 Exhibit 5, # 18 Exhibit 6, # 19 Exhibit 7, # 20 Exhibit 8, # 21 Exhibit 9, # 22 Text of Proposed Order)(McKool, Mike)

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EXHIBIT 3 IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS TYLER DIVISION EOLAS TECHNOLOGIES INCORPORATED Plaintiff, Civil Action No. 6:09-CV-446 (LED) v. ADOBE SYSTEMS INCORPORATED, et al. Defendants. DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 1 corroborates that before the invention by the applicants for the patents-in-suit, the disclosed systems and programming techniques were made in this country by at least BBN Laboratories and were not abandoned, suppressed, or concealed. 2. Other materials In addition to the above prior art references, Defendants identify the following patents, printed publications, product literature, and other materials that are pertinent to invalidity of the asserted claims. Defendants may rely on these references as invalidating prior art, evidence of the knowledge of those skilled in the art and/or evidence to support a motivation to combine or modify other prior art. Defendants reserve all rights to supplement or modify these invalidity contentions and to rely on these references to prove invalidity of the asserted claims in a manner consistent with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and the Rules of this Court. OTHER REFERENCES 1. Ashenhurst, Robert, ed, Letters, ACM Forum, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 2. Lippman, Andrew & Butera, William, Coding Image Sequences for Interactive Retrieval, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7 3. Tinker, Michael, DVI Parallel Image Compression, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 4. Ripley, G. David, DVI – A Digital Multimedia Technology, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 216 OTHER REFERENCES 5. Yu, Clement, et al., Efficient Placement of Audio Data on Optical Disks for Real-Time Applications, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 6. Crawford, Diane, from Washington, Two Bills Equal Forewarning, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 7. Stevens, Scott M., Intelligent Interactive Video Simulation of a Code Inspection, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 8. Dixon, Douglas, Life Before the Chips: Simulating Digital Video Interactive Technology, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 9. News Track, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 10. Press, Larry, Thoughts and Observations at he Microsoft CD-ROM Conference, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 11. Kocher, Bryan, President's Letter, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 12. Fox, Edward A., guest ed., The Coming Revolution in Interactive Digital Video, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 13. Frenkel, Karen, The Next Generation of Interactive Technologies, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 14. Mackay, Wendy & Davenport, Glorianna, Virtual Video Editing in Interactive Multimedia, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 32, No. 7, July 1989 15. European Patent 0483576, Application Independent Services Enabling the Incorporation of Hypermedia 16. U.S. Patent 5,297,249, Hypermedia Link Marker Abstract and Search Services 17. U.S. Patent 5,204,947, Application Independent (Open) Hypermedia Enablement Services 18. First International World-Wide Web Conference, Advance Proceedings, May 25-27, 1994 19. Second International World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web, October 1994 DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 217 OTHER REFERENCES 20. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume 1, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 1 of 7, Front cover - page 52) 21. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume 1, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 2 of 7, Pages 53-129) 22. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume 1, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 3 of 7, Pages 130-225) 23. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume 1, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 4 of 7, Pages 226-329) 24. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume 1, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 5 of 7, Pages 330-414) 25. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume 1, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 6 of 7, Pages 415-508) 26. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume 1, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 7 of 7, Pages 509 - back cover) 27. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume II, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 1 of 6, Front cover - 616) 28. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume II, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 2 of 6, Pages 617-716) 29. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume II, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 3 of 6, Pages 717-816) 30. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume II, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 4 of 6, Pages 817-916) 31. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume II, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 5 of 6, Pages 917-1016) 32. World-Wide Web Conference, Mosaic and the Web '94, Advance Proceedings, Volume II, October 17-20, 1994 (Part 6 of 6, Pages 1017-back cover) 33. Moran, Patrick, Tele-Nicer-Slicer-Dicer: A New Tool for the Visualization of Large Volumetric Data 34. Ibrahim, Bertrand, World-wide algorithm animation DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 218 OTHER REFERENCES 35. Akscyn, Robert et al., KMS: A Distributed Hypermedia System for Managing Knowledge in Organizations, Communications of the ACM, July 1988, Vol. 31, No. 7 36. Tanaka, Yuzuru, Intelligent Pad: A Hypermedia System Allowing Functional Compositions of Active Media Objects Through Direct Manipulations, Information Processing 89, Proceedings of the IFIP 11th World Computer Congress, San Francisco, U.S.A., August 28 – September 1, 1989 37. Ditlea, Steve, Hyper Ted, PC Computing, October 1990 38. Mayer, Niels, The WINTERP Widget INTERPreter – A Lisp Prototyping and Extension Environment for OSF/Motif-based Applications and User-Interfaces 39. Harrison, Michael, Defining Hypermedia: The Essential Elements, July 29, 1992 40. Vogt, Friedrich, Personal Computers and Intelligent Systems Information Processing 92, Proceedings of the IFIP 12th World Computer Congress Madrid, Spain, September 7-11, 1992, Volume III 41. Gronbaek, Kaj, Design issues for a Dexter-based hypermedia system, ACM ECHT Conference, Milano, November 30 – December 4, 1992 42. Buchanan, M. Celia & Zellweger, Polle T., Specifying Behavior Hypermedia Documents, ACM ECHT Conference, Milano, November 30 – December 4, 1992 43. Yoneda, Takeshi & Matsushita, A Time Dependent Multimedia Document as an Advanced Communication Media, ACM, 1992 44. Announcing tkWWW release 0.4, October 18, 1992 45. Will, Uffe Kock, Extensibility Open, Distributed Hypertext Systems, Ph.D. Dissertation, March 1993 46. Lombardo, Charles P., Hyper-NPSNET: Embedded Multimedia in a 3D Virtual World, Naval Postgraduate School, Thesis, September 1993 47. Hoimyr, Nils, et al., Distributed Engineering Data Management (EDM) Using HyperText, October 12, 1993 48. Lucarella, Dario et al., MORE: Multimedia Object Retrieval Environment, ACM, November 1993 DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 219 OTHER REFERENCES 49. Shackelford, Douglas E., The Architecture and Implementation of a Distributed Hypermedia Storage System, ACM, November 1993 50. Linton, Mark & Price, Chuck, Building Distributed User Interfaces with Fresco 51. Umstatter, Antya, Ping, April 15, 1994 52. Putz, Steve, Interactive Information Services Using World-Wide Web Hypertext, April 20, 1994 53. Ho, Frank Y., Design of the User Interface for a Document Browser Supporting Interactive Search, May 1994 54. Ressler, Sandy, Approaches Using Virtual Environments with Mosaic, Open Virtual Reality Test Bed, December 22, 1994 55. Foltinek, Darren S., et al., Electronic documents and the World Wide Web, CREWES Research Report, Volume 6, 1994 56. Weber, Jay, an idea for integrating WWW and MIME, November 27, 1992 57. Pearl, Amy, Sun's Link Service: A Protocol for Open Linking, Hypertext '89 Proceedings, November 1989 58. Raggett, Dave, Supporting the Book metaphor, November 23, 1992 59. Rossum, Guido van, et al., CMIFed: A Presentation Environment for Portable Hypermedia Documents, ACM, 1993 60. Fujikawa, Kazutoshi, et al., Multimedia Presentation System "Harmony" with Temporal and Active Media, Summer 1991 Technical Conference & Exhibition, Multimedia – for Now and the Future, Conference Proceedings, June 10-14, 1991 61. Ueda, Sunao, Hypertext System: TownsGEAR, JJITSU Scientific & technical Journal, Special Issue on Hypermedia, Autumn 1990, Vol. 26, No. 3 62. Nielson, Jakob, Hypertext & Hypermedia, San Diego: Academic Press, 1990 63. Berners-Lee, Tim, World-Wide Web: The Information Universe, Electronic Networking, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 1992 64. Krol, Ed, The Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog, Sebastopol: O'Reilly & Associates, 1992 DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 220 OTHER REFERENCES 65. December, John & Randall, Neil, The World Wide Web Unleashed, Indianapolis: Sams Publishing, 1994 66. Gillies, James & Cailliau, Robert, How the Web was Born, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 67. Howell, Gary Thomas, Building Hypermedia Application, A software Development Guide, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992 68. Branwyn, Gareth, Mosaic Quick Tour for Windows, Accessing & Navigating the Internet's World Wide Web, Chapel Hill: Ventana Press, Inc., 1994 69. About the Xerox PARC Map Viewer, March 14, 1997 70. Example Showing the Default World Map View, Map Viewer: world 0.00N 0.00E (1.0X) 71. Example Song Lyrics, The Limerick Programmer, David Diamond 72. Example Showing a Map of Swizterland, Map Viewer: world 46.92N 8.34E (64.1X) 73. Example Showing Digital Tradition Search Results, Folk Songs matching: "program*" 74. Interactive Information Services Using World-Wide Web Hypertext, Conclusion, Acknowledgments 75. Interactive Information Services Using World-Wide Web Hypertext, References 76. Interactive Information Services Using World-Wide Web Hypertext, Contents, On-Line Examples 77. Interactive Information Services Using World-Wide Web Hypertext, Introduction 78. Interactive Information Services Using World-Wide Web Hypertext, An Interactive Map Viewer 79. Interactive Information Services Using World-Wide Web Hypertext, A Folk Music Database 80. Duvvur, Prasanth, Managing Data on the World Wide Web "State of the Art Survey of Innovative Tools and Techniques", MIT, September 1995 DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 221 OTHER REFERENCES 81. Xerox PARC Map Server Usage Graphs 82. Cyberview – X 2.0 (a 3D Viewer for the Web), The Geometry Center, University of Minnesota 83. Hanson, Andrew, et al., Interactive Methods for Visualizable Geometry, July 1994 84. Tamara Munzer: Talks 85. Tutorial: the OOGL Geom File Formats (and Geomview along the way), The Geometry Center Home Page, October 14, 1996 86. Munzer, Tamara, et al., Visualization through the World Wide Web with Geomview, Cyberview, W3Kit, and WebOOGL 87. Burchard, Paul, W3Kit 2.2, An Object Oriented Toolkit for Building Interactive World Wide Web Applications, Geometry Center, The Geometry Center Home Page, Created April 18, 1994 (Last modified July 18, 1996) 88. Burchanrd, Paul, A Tour Through the Standard W3Kit Main Routine, The Geometry Center Home Page, Created April 18, 1994 (Last modified June 18, 1996) 89. Burchard, Paul, How W3Kit Works, The Geometry Center Home Page, Created April 18, 1994 (Last modified June 18, 1996) 90. Burchard, Paul, Standards and Portability for W3Kit, The Geometry Center Home Page, Created April 18, 1994 (Last modified June 18, 1996) 91. Burchard, Paul, The Object-oriented GUI Framework of W3Kit, The Geometry Center Home Page, Created April 18, 1994 (Last modified June 18, 1996) 92. Meyer, Daeron, Announcing: The Geometry Center's Interactive On-Line Gallery, February 11, 1994 93. Burchard, Paul, Information VR and Hyperbolic space, June 10, 1994 94. "Dialog Partial Results with Proximity", Pascal (Dialog File 144), INIST/CNRS 2010 95. "Dialog Partial Results – Terms", 2010 Dialog LLC 96. "Eric Bina Dialog References", INSPEC (Dialog File 2), 2010 The IET, Dialog LLC DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 222 OTHER REFERENCES 97. Marc Andreessen: Biography from Answers.com 98. Home Page of (Perry) Pei-Yuan Wei 99. Biography of Tim Berners-Lee, via www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/ (Viewed 3/9/2010) 100. Cailliau, R., Selected Papers of the First World-Wide Web Conference, May 25-27, May, Geneva, Switzerland, Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking 101. www94 Preliminary Proceedings, List of PostScript files for the WWW94 advance proceedings 102. Buchanan, M. Cecelia & Zellweger, Polle T., Specifying Temporal Behavior in Hypermedia Documents, ACM, 1992 (with highlights) 103. Lin, Jin-Kun, A Multimedia and Multisource Document Editor of an Open Architecture, ACM, 1992 104. Thomas, Eric, LISTERV for the non-technical user, September 18, 1993 105. Hughes, Kevin, Entering the World-Wide Web: A Guide to Cyberspace, October 1993 106. Ip, Horace H.S., et al., A Hyperdocument Architecture for Cardiac Catheterisation Documents, IEEE. 1993 107. Dutch Patent 44 40 598 C1 108. Kahn, Paul, et al., Design of Hypermedia Publication: Issues and Solutions, Dynamic Diagrams, Inc. 109. European Patent 0 650 126 A1, Annotation data processing system with hypermedia processable and active annotations 110. Dede, Christopher, Evolving from Multimedia to Virtual Reality, Center fot Interactive Educational Technology, Supplied by the British Library 111. Eichmann, David, et al., Integrating Structured Databases Into the Web: the MORE System, University of Houston, 112. Japanese Patent 123816 DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 223 OTHER REFERENCES 113. Srikanthan, T., et al., Multi-Media Network Mailing System, Nanyang Technological University 114. Lavenant, M.G. & Kruper, J.A., The Phoenix Project: Distributed Hypermedia Authoring, Biological Sciences Division Academic Computing, The University of Chicago 115. Munson, Ethan Vincent, Proteus: An Adaptable Presentation System for a Software Development and Multimedia Document Environment, report No. UCB/CSD-94-833, University of California, September 1994 116. CiNii Article, Survey of Hypermedia Studies, viewed April 8, 2010 117. NII Electronic Library Service, Information Processing Society of Japan (In Japanese) 118. Mauer, H., The A.E.I.O.U. Hypermedia Project, University of Auckland, IEEE, 1994 119. Silva, Mario J. & Katz, Randy H., The Case for Design Using the World Wide Web, University of California, 120. Leone, Andrea & Ticca, Antonio, Towards a user environment integrating hypermedia browsers, scientific visualization programs and numerical simulation programs, Centre for Advanced Studies R&D in Sardinia, Scientific Visualization Group, ACM, 1994 121. Pausch, Randy, et al., SUIT: The Pascal of User Interface Toolkits, University of Virginia 122. U.S. Patent 5,557,724, User Interface Method, and Apparatus Selecting and Playing Channels Having Video, Audio, And/Or Text Streams 123. U.S. Patent 5,787,448, Dynamic Liking System 124. Ohtsu, Takashi & Harrison, Michael, User Interface Management System Embedded in a Multimedia Document Editor Framework 125. Pitkow, James & Bharat, Krishma, WebViz: A Tool for WWW Access Log Analysis, Georgia Institute of Technology 126. U.S. Patent 5,495,581, Method and Apparatus for Linking a Document with Associated Reference Information Using Pattern Matching DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 224 OTHER REFERENCES 127. U.S. Patent 7,016,084, Method and Apparatus Linking Designated Potions of a Received Document Image with an Electronic Address 128. Materials related to the Cello Browser, produced in the disc [PA-NAT00000037] – [PA-NAT-00000041]. 129. Ogawa, Ryuichi, et al., Design Strategies for Scenario-based Hypermedia: Description of its Structure, Dynamics, and Style, ACM ECHT Conference, Milano, November 30 – December 4, 1992 130. Ferrans, James, et al., HyperWeb: A Framework for Hypermedia-Based Environments, Proceedings of the Fifth ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Software Development Environments, Software Engineering Notes, ACM Press, Volume 17, Number 5 131. Madsen, Kim Halskow and Aiken, Peter H., Experiences Using Cooperative Interactive Storyboard Prototyping, Communications of the ACM, June 1993, Volume 36, Number 4 132. Robertson, George G., et al., Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation, Communications of the ACM, April 1993, Volume 36, Number 4 133. Adie, Chris, Network Access Multimedia Information, Amsterdam: RARE 1993 134. Robertson, George G. and Mackinlay, Jock D., The Document Lens, Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, UIST, ACM Press, Atlanta, GA, November 3-5, 1993 135. Laursen, Andrew, et al., Oracle Media Server: Providing Consumer Based Interactive Access to Multimedia Data, SIGMOD Record, Proceedings of the 1994 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, Minneapolis, MN, May 24-27, 1994 136. Web printout, Martin, David C., Re: HTML 2.0 specification 137. Harada, Komei, et al., Anecdote: A Multimedia Storyboarding System with Seamless Authoring Support 138. U.S. Patent 5,499,369, Method and System for Connecting Objects Using alert and Running States 139. U.S. Patent 6,618,754, System for Transmission of Embedded Applications Over a Network DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 225 OTHER REFERENCES 140. Taubes, Gary, Do Immunologists Dream of Electric Mice?, Science, Vol. 265, August 12, 1994; 141. Mosier, Donald & Sieburg, Hans, Macrophage-tropic HIV: critical for AIDS pathogenesis?, Immunology Today, Vol. 15, No. 7, 1994 142. Foreign publication, Immuntest in silico, Geo Magazine, November 1994 143. Sieburg, H.B., The Cellular Device Machine Point of Departure for LargeScale Simulations of Complex Biological Systems, Computers Match. Applic., Vol. 20, Nos. 4-6 144. Sieburg, H.B. and Clay, Oliver, The Cellular Device Machine Development System for Modeling Biology on the Computer, Computer Systems, 1991 145. Kunzelman, Dafoe, et al., In Silico Knowledge Discovery in Biomedical Databases, Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Workshop on Neural Networks: Academic/industrial/NASA/Defense, San Francisco, November 7-10, 1993 146. Sieburg, Hans, et al., Testing HIV Molecular Biology in In Silico Physiologies, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB-93), MIT Press, Cambridge, 1993 147. Kunzelman, K.S. and Sieburg, H.B, In Silico Prototyping of Wetlab Experiments, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on AI, Simulation, and Planning in High Autonomy Systems, Tucson, September 20-22, 1993 148. Sieburg, Hans B., Methods in the Virtual Wetlab I: Rule-based reasoning driven by nearest-neighbor lattice dynamics, Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, 1993 149. Sieburg, Hans B., Physiological Studies In Silico, Lectures in Complex Systems, SFI Studies in the Science of Complexity, 1991 150. Kunzelman, Osterhus, Simulation-Directed Knowledge Discovery in Databases, Proceedings of the High Performance Computing ’94 Conference, The Society for Computer Simulation (SCS), 1994 151. Berners-Lee, T.J., et al., The World-wide web, Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 1992 152. Berners, Lee, Tim, Weaving the Web, The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 226 OTHER REFERENCES 153. Myers, Dale, Interactive Video, A chance to plug the literacy leak, USENIX Association, Proceedings of the Winter 1993 USENIX Conference, San Diego, January 25-29, 1993 154. Berners-Lee, Tim & Connolly, Daniel, Hypertext Markup Language, Internet Draft, June 1993 155. Friedberg, Jeffrey, et al., Extending X for Double-Buffering, Multi-Buffering, and Stereo, Version 3.3, For Public Review, January 11, 1990 156. Crowley, Terrence, et al., The Diamond Multimedia Editor, BBN Laboratories, Inc. 157. Thomas, Robert, et al., Diamond: A multimedia Message System Built on a Distributed Architecture 158. Foradick, Harry, et al., Initial Experience with Multimedia Documents in Diamond, 159. Hendry, Dave, et al., How People Use Softcopy Documentation: A Case Study 160. Kaashoek, M. Frans, et al., Dynamic Documents: Extensibility and Adaptability in the WWW, September 15, 1994 161. Tani, Masayuki, et al., Object-Oriented Video: Interaction with Real-World Objects Through Live Video, CHI ’92 Conference Proceedings, ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Striking a Balance, Monterey, May 3-7, 1992 162. U.S. Patent 5,669,005, System for Automatically Embedding or Incorporating Contents Added to a Document 163. U.S. Patent 5,812,862, Computer-Human Interface System for Compound Documents 164. U.S. Patent 5,835,919, Computer-Human Interface System which Manipulates Parts Between a Desktop and a Document 165. U.S. Patent 5,752,056, System for Binding Document Parts and Handlers by Fidelity of Parts or by Automatic Translation of Parts 166. U.S. Patent 5,778,383, System for Dynamically Caching and Constructing Software Resource Tables DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 227 OTHER REFERENCES 167. BookManager BUILD/VM: Preparing Online Books, IBM Doc. No. SC230450-01, Second Edition, September 1990 168. BookManager READ/VM: Displaying Online Books, IBM Doc. No. SC230449-01, Second Edition, September 1990 169. BookMaster General Information, IBM Doc. No. GC34-5006-06, Sixth Edition, June 1992 170. Document Composition Facility – SCRIPT/VS Text Programmer's Guide, Release 4.0. IBM Doc. No. SH35-0069-06. Seventh Edition, January 1991. 171. BookMaster Text Programmer's Guide, IBM Doc. No. SC34-5012-03, Fourth Edition, August 1992 172. BookMaster User's Guide, IBM Doc. No. SC34-5009-04, Fifth Edition, August 1992 173. Graphics Object Content Architecture Reference, IBM Doc. No. SC31-680401, Second Edition, November 1993 In addition, Defendants incorporate by reference each and every prior art reference of record in the prosecution of the patents-in-suit and any related applications, as well as the prior art discussed in the specification of the patent. 3. Motivation to Combine The United States Supreme Court has clarified the standard for what types of inventions are patentable. KSR International Co. v. Teleflex Inc., 127 S. Ct. 1727 (2007). In particular, the Supreme Court emphasized that inventions arising from ordinary innovation, ordinary skill, or common sense should not be patentable. Id. at 1732, 1738, 1742-1743, 1746. In that regard, a patent claim may be obvious if the combination of elements was obvious to try or there existed at the time of the invention a known problem for which there was an obvious solution encompassed by the patent's claims. Id. In DEFENDANTS' INVALIDITY CONTENTIONS 228

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