Elan Microelectronics Corporation v. Apple, Inc.

Filing 88

Declaration of Sean P. DeBruine in Support Elan Microelectronics Corporation's Opening Claim Construction Brief (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit A, # 2 Exhibit B, # 3 Exhibit C, # 4 Exhibit D, # 5 Exhibit E, # 6 Exhibit F, # 7 Exhibit G, # 8 Exhibit H, # 9 Exhibit I, # 10 Exhibit J, # 11 Exhibit K, # 12 Exhibit L) filed by Elan Microelectronics Corporation. (DeBruine, Sean) (Filed on 5/7/2010) Modified on 5/10/2010 (bw, COURT STAFF).

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EXHIBIT A ililil ilil]t ilililt illlililil]il ilililil° ililililt ililil il ]]l lill us005825352A United States Patent Bisset et al. nÁt [11] Patent Number: 518251352 t4sl Date of P‚tent: OcL 20, 1998 5,016,ŻA 5lŖ91. 5203,704 Gruaz el Ś1. ............................ 345/113 411993 Mccložžd .....,..-....................... 434/156 5 32'7,L61 7 11994 l-og‚n et a|. ............................ 345 /r'73 5,365,461. lLll994 Slein et al- ..,,................. ....... 364/550 [54] MULIPI∆ FINGDRS CONTACT SENSING METHOD FOR trMUTATING MOUSE BUTTONS AND MOUSE OPERATIONS ON A TOUCH SENSOR PAI) Inventors: Slephen J. Bisset, P‚lo Ažto; Bernard Kasser, Menlo Park, both of Calif. Assignee: Logitech, Inc,, F°eķonő, C‚lif. Appl. No.:608,116 [75] [73] [21] [22] 376,946 72/1994 Mik‚n ..................................... 345/r'73 5,432,531 7/1995 Calder et a°. ........................... 345/1'73 s,442,376 8/1995 TŚnneŻbaum et al. ................. 345/156 5,463,388 1oll995 Boie er a1. ....-........................... 341/33 5,495,ýJ7 211996 Miller et a1. ...-........................ 345 /173 5 5,52A,: 5,543,591 8/1996 Gillespie et al. ......................... fialra 6 6/1996 Arbeitm‚n et al, ................-....345/1'73 Filed: 5,565,658 l0/1996 Geryheide et ‚1. ..................... 345/174 5,648,642 1/1997 Miller et a1. .............................. 1'781Ŗ Feb.28, 1996 FOREIGN PAIENT DOCIJMENTS Relatd U.S. Appžic‚tio° Data [63] Continuation of Ser. No. 582t6& J‚n. 4, 1996, ‚bandoned. ,............................... wo 91∆3039 3/1991 WIPO , wo 97118508 5/19S7 WIPO ................. OTIIER PUBLICATI ONS G06F 3/033 tsll Int. Cl.6 ls2l Is8] Is6] G09G si00; C09G 5/08 U.S.C|......................... Field of Se‚rch References Cited 3451773:3a5/1.57 3451156,15'7, 345/760, 1'73, 17 4, 145; l7A1a; 34U33 Synaptics Brochure, "Synaplics Toých Pad," pp. 1-39. P rimary ExamŪner-Jeffety B.riet AssŖtant E)raminer--+a]ul B'ell, ^. Aftorney, Agent, o° lo°i,'°°---Townsend aDd Toý,,nsend ‚nd Crew U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 3,921,166 1U1975 volpe. 4,1.03,252 1/Ŗ7a Bobick .................................... 345/774 4,4s5,452 6/79a Schýyler ................................. 345/ķ3 Ūs1l ABSTRACT 4"55O,21 10ll9a5 Mabustlž ...........................--..... 345/173 4,639;72O t/199i R)'rnpalski et al. ..................... 345/774 4,6a6332 a/79n Grea°i‚s 4 et al. ........................ 3451173 Evans ............................-........... 341 133 4,'136,191 4/19ś Marzke er ‚1. .......................... 345/157 4,914,624 4/1990 Dunthoķ ...................-.-.......... 345/173 J33,222 3/l9AA Method aDd apparatýs for delecting an operalive coupling between one or mo°e flngersorother appropriate objeclsand a touch pad includes processes for detection of Żulliple maxima with i°termediate minima in appropriate sequences to cmžrlatc the opcrations of cýrso° cont°ol and býtton actuatioŻs iŻ ‚ poinling and control device. 31 Clains, 17 Drawing Sheels 705\ c-cuN08 P0stn0il tr]*'',f,] T ----š°r0 i FE Ż-1 Fmxl 0-r°řšf1 20\ I ar-jTD– ots°L°r---l @ f°!°-ldr-ž I oA r ]I -rorJcJipņD E_ ---- fi----- l,,,,,,,1H roucrr I ll ;, ll- roiomnr'd rl° ,, ]l Rt-----l ' lr,r;r.l :_,-- PRoltķl -arn,On witness Von H Ņ°4ea oarc Í"1' "o. f t' Ņ* J. lch°kiCSR f1660 U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 1 of 17 5,825,352 FlG I U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 2 of 17 5,925,352 sEr'rs0R Y DIRECTIOI{ x orn°clloil coHouclons ANALOO ŁULTIPLEXOR CIRCUIT T0 l°IEASlJRE C}|A|\°GIS IN CAPACITANCE ()T SENSOR CONDUCTORS AilALOG-TO- DIGITAL CONVERTER [lICROCONTROLLER INIERFACE IO PC OR OTHER DIVICE FtG. 2. U.S. Patent oct. 2l,tsst shecr 3 or 17 5,825,352 FtG, 3. FIG, 4. U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 4 of 1? 5,925,352 U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 5 of 17 5,825,352 SET Xslole = Peokl ll.ll+l Xsum XreighlSum = Xsun ' I(ll X = IweightSum * ll * (ll ) XpśkZ = X(N-l) Ft6. 6-t. U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 6 of 17 5,825,352 OR Ipeok2> Xobsolule' IreighlSum / Xsun Sl fi peokZ-XVolley) > (Xpeok2) /4? ond )(peokl>tlhresh? ond F/G, 6-2. U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 5,,825,352 3 o =g z'-\ 3 (- -'r \J ű- * \:{_ =C t\\ t I I tŚ \,-.\ \\–_ ar AI \l ts\ \--: Ů (°t ý \ \ \t-- (ž -ÕP U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 8 of 17 5,825,352 t*\ 705\ mEnill IBDII{Iil c = clJRsoR F= t3-c TOUCH PAD P0sm0°l Hl3- lfrE-il-il lTl-Tro-n A o.lrrr r° f-lwrnr cor.TAcT roucnsElsol [-j e L] Y PfiOFILE TOUCH PAO ffiEilin f3--Y PROTILE yrD[0 DISPLAY mmol°-l lrmin tT----] Ŗmo-il-l l7-T1 F--- l2selśtCl ti_-l u___l x li'l nq PROFILE [,t'll l )( Y PROTILE T()UCH PAD L_l Ft6. 78. O lwlrnroucH I llO;8i,,'*+" ' sE[soR U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 9 of 17 5,825,352 r30\ tő.------1 l2selecll 7401 lilE°°-u-l l;EŁ-imil-l l[E[-u--l tz-sef„űll ŮtuTÔdil-l l--1 Y PROFILE I3----1 Y PRONLE tTt ‹ T m nn L] x PROFILE IOUCH PAD Pž 9 PBOIILE r50\ lT--1 7551 fff[in mtrl ffimutm°{ Hg Y PROIIILE f'tno°l FI qq ržn L_l L] l'trll I TOUCHPAt} )( fI---l Y PROTILE TOUCHPAD I PROI'ILE PROFILI FIG, 7C. U.S. Patent 760\ Oct. 20, 1.998 Sheet 10 of 17 5,925,352 mý-l 7701 lilE°°t-] P9ro Y PROFILE n----1 ErwffiEl il I80a ITERŔ-] 9Pl L__l )( PROFILE n 790ra Y PROTILE Y PROTILT nt ŖumÕt L9m Y PROFILE n--- FITE E liExr-l qqq Y E FIG. 7D. nr.il PR0°il. U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 11 of 17 5,925,352 800\ |°BUIIOI{ llI{El\lU e5\ '',lll I l7-l°llmi-l---.l F nl E rqq L_ Y PROFILE Y PROFILE l0t,cltPA0 rol 9nP) 810\ l°uT-Tdil Il,EiIU I F°u-rroqF] lr-__-l nržn FIG, 78. U.S. Patent s20ņ\ Oct.20, 1998 Sheet 12 of 17 8208\ E-l r, Y PROTILT lr-Eiu-l ll l fBuTTo-N-l C= CURSOR mnmt 8I'TTO°I UP P0stTt0il Y PROFILE ", l," ll-l i l l TOUCll PAD I'rl /¬nnsrn il coNTAcT l'-,1 TOUC}IPAD lulttrr louclsEt{son lr-] 8254\ e x PROFILE 15 I Y PROTILE ffi tr-- '/IDTO DISPLAY DISPLAY f°tl-rru-[ž Burror{ Dorit f°mo-[] BUIIO!° DOII ltl [r 9e lt,irll 9n lrl Y PROFILE TOUCHPAD l,ll U x PROTILE )( PROFILE FIG 7F-/. U.S. Patent 8258\ Oct. 20, 1998 Sheer 13 of L? DISPI.AY '/IDEO ITUTTo=il-l C=ClJRS()R f-FýTmil 8lJTÔoil DoUi BUIloil Dolrl'l I P0slTl0°t Y PROFILE i,;l L_l x PROFILE l-j----l p) il-l T VIDEO li'i 9e 830\ tr-l Y PROFILE 825C\ lBmŮfl] BUNOil ftumil F-= l3 -Y PROIILE lilEfiu--f,| il rol n I L] Y PROTILE TOUCllPAD ooB.,TÔor°,,P ,,,J,,[-----_l 7F-2. U.S. Patent Oct.20, 1998 Sheet 14 of 17 5,825,352 Xfinger= 2 OR Xfinger " I At{0 Xmolion. Io bsolute - XobsolulePrevious Ymolion' Yobsolule -Yobsolule Prev ious U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 15 of 17 5,925,352 ANt) Finger= 2 BullonPrevious= Down AilD lFinger = 0 0R (Finger = I Reporl Bulton= Sel BultonPrevious= Up Up Previous= Fingei AI°D Report )(motion Report Ymotion Set XcbsolulePrevious' Xobsolule, Set YobsoluleP reviou s = Yobsolule, Set finqer Previous' Fing er U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 16 of 17 5,825,352 205 a0 2t5 XreighlSum = XweightSurn +il*X(l{ FIG U.S. Patent Oct. 20, 1998 Sheet 17 of 17 5,925,352 Set Xobsolule' )(weighl$um / Xsum fipeok2-XVolley)> (Xpeok2)/4? ond Xpeokl> Flhresh? ond F/G. 9-2. 5,825,352 MULIIPI,E FINGERS CONTACT SENSING METHOD FOR EMUIATING MOUSE BUTTONS AND MOUSD OPERAIIONS TOUCH SENSOR PAD RELAr'ňD Tbis requires an up-down-up-down frger molion to do the same tbing as simply the "down-up" motion of tbe mouse bulton. Io general, any touchPad eqýivalent 10 ‚ mouse býllor°-clicking function requires an extra "up ýp" the Żlcer mýst be lirred olr the ONA Apprf,cArroN INVENTION t šiiŚiL]t"",Ś:t;:;b;c¬Śse T1°° lime,aod stress ‚ssoci‚ted with the extr‚ molžŰn is This ‚pplication is a continualion ofU.S. p‚lent . tion Ser-Ůo. 0g/5g2,7ůg, frled Jan. 4, 1996, abandoŗ'ed. sigoificant Hum-an faclo°s studies have shown tbat such toucbpads yield lower produclivily lhan a mouse in many 10 applications. This somewh‚t limits toýchpads ro those FIELD OF THE applica- devices, and more particžrl‚°ly relates to louchpad devics There is therelore a Ded lor a iouchpad capabte of yielding which detect Śt leŚst the presence of one or more ýe same p°ocjucfivity ‚s ‚ moýse. such Ņs fingers to effectuale preslecled control Ůrnct°ons. t5 rh presnr invention relales seneraily ro roucbpŚd ffj*ill",i";"]",";ir3ž,%i:"lJ:r::iŚitŚTf;;.*:::.H;:"1 objects BACKGROUN'D OF THE INVENTTON ro,rch sensins.revices are welž koown, and rŚke a SUMMARY OF TIIE INVENTION nŁmber of dife°ent forms- Perh‚ps fhe best ktrowo are resislivememb°ane position sensors, whicb have bee° used ."J1.fÔÓilÔ1i:Ô.:1"#1i:i-Ôfl,Ói"'tsiTŚi3ji" frngers or other „ppropriate objecLs to a iouch sensor.'lŌe devices have been used as keyboards, position iŻdicatoŖ, embodimcnt involves ihe of„'capacitiie touch sensing Śnd so forth. olýer types of touch sensiķg devices 'se device sirķil‚r to thal described in ķ.S. patent applicatioi resistive tablets, surface acouslic wave devices, loucb stn_ ser. No_ 0g,47g,290, entifled Touch Sensing Method ancl strai° gages or pressure s0sors, aķd optic‚l 2r A-ppa°atus, fiIed Jun. Z, 1995, and Śssigned fo rhe ‚ssignee u "" pr"i"ot inrention'may be impiemented based on any con" -in numbe° of differenl aPplications for m‚ny years. Such vcntional touch sensing technology, altlough an exemplary :Ô:*Ô, - i°clude .. capacitance to virtu‚l groŁnd- Other capacitive techniques ereDce. are ‚lso known some touch sensitive devi-ces are k°own operation of the present itrveDtioD iDclýdes two aspecls: žrse interpolation lor more p°ecisely Ūdentifyiķg the deteštioo of multipli objects, typically flngers, and assign_ of a Żnger or 4° ment of various tužctioni to particulai acti„ns by the moveTypic‚l of eacb of these prior art devices is thŅl each ment of one or both frrgers. The detection funůtion can be them senses aDy contact Śs thal of only oŻe flnger at a general, but in a simple, exemplary implementation can be Cžrrsor movment is straigbtforward with one fingr, timited to a two-fing„r fu°ction such as the combination of lappi°g of ‚ finger oD the surface of the pad. c‚ Ż be de Lected the index Ż nge r a nd middle frnger. In general, these are Lhe and actd upon in a manner simiŐar to detecti°g lhe actua°ion 45 two most rleitrous fingens, and rhey w„rk well together. As of a bul1on on a Żouse. Single aDd double taps can be a result, for tbis exemllary embodiment, tŗe toucķpad need as simple equivalenls of single ard double mouse only distinguish betwŅen the two fingels in one dimeosion With a single-frnger touchpad, the click ‚nd drag function since the hvo frngeŖ are typicalŐy side by side. In addition, is morc diffcult- With s[gle flnge° doteclion, drŚgging the toýchpad Deed o°Iy detect thc sccond flngcr in rcasonbeen implementcd with scbemes such as ýptap (finger lifted 50 ‚bly closc proximity to th flrsr fi°ger. In most siruations, thc aDd pi‚ced dowrž agai° quickly), 1ap-and-a-half, °nd dist‚nce betweeD frnger centers will be less than flve ccnlidtag (drag lock týms oŻ ‚utomatically alter the finger meters. Addition‚l coķbinations of fi°gers, such as three placed in one locaŅiot without rnovfug for more lhan Żnge°s tapping simullaneously or other combinations, may cert‚in tiŻe, such as on scond). All of these methods also be implemented in accordance with the methodology of more time a°d/or more frnger moŅions tlan takes 1() 55 the prŰsent invention. perform tbe eqýivalent funclion witb a mouse, and rre Fot clarity oI cxplanation, the present invenlion can be intuitiv to ýsers f‚mili‚r with eleclronic mice. Prio° desc°il°ed in .ort „f ifs applications by establishing one louch pads are tbžrs less Śttraclive for geDeral use thaD frnger as controlli°g movemeit of the curm° ancl the s„cond frDger as controlling functions equiv‚lent to a moržse button Another cornmonly used fuDction in the prior art is thaL of 60 or switch. In this coDtexr, one  nger may be considered the clicking a box (or icon or displayed "button") or series "point' fnger, while the other is the "clicll' Ůnger. Varioýs boxes (sucb as "connecting the dots"). Wilh a mouse, convcnfional firnctions may then be defined accordingly. For cursor is ķoved into position by moving the mouse, then ex‚mple, "drag" may be efiected by movi°g tbe two frngers click ocqžrs with a dowD-up molion of the fi°ger to actuate in unison, "point and click' may be efected by moviDg the a bulto° or switch. Wilh a touchpad typical of the prior art, 65 cursor w.ilh the first ¬nger aDd tapping with the second the cursor is moved into posilion with the fnger, lhen flnger, "poinl and double cliclC'may be efected by moving click occurswith a tap of the frnger which moved the the cu°sor with the lžrst frnger and doubŐe tappi°g wltb the some invention are described ge°erally below, ‚nd žn dctail he°ej0 inŚfler.,A1tematively, the present invention may be ýseŅl with -' the method a°d apparatýs described in the U.S. patent uŻde° ‚nd around the location of the finger. Typical of application Ser. No.08/582,769, entitled Touch Pad Sensing capacitive Ņoých sensing devices are touch sc°eens and Method aDd Apparatus, having as invntors Bemi Joss, cŠpacitive pads which employ a matrix of row and column Bemald Kasser and StephD Bissel, frled on Jan. 4, 1996, electrodes ‚nd detect, for example, either tbe lrŚDscapŚci- ž{ aDd ‚ssigned to the ‚ssignee of the present invenŅioD, the latrce between row and column electrodes or tbe effeclive "- relevaDl portions of wbiŅh are ircorporated herein by refsensitrg, in which the locŚtion of a Ůnger (or in instaŻces aķother object such ‚s a stylus) over ‚ sensing device is determiDed by virtŐre of va°i‚lions iD capacilance yer aDolher roucb sensirs rech'orosy is capacilive :j"'f""0'0":"lJ Śn"lŌl^i:š"ff lJTŚiži.Ō;°'ŚÓi:Śi: stylus lo localion of tiŻe. aDd used clicks. h‚s sticky is a l‚ke not an a il mouse. of tbe the lhe cursor. 34 second flnger, aDd so on. "Click and Drag" may be s,825,352 apparenl tbat Ś"oy ot tbŚ." operalions will be inluitive _soon e'xperienced -ouť ua"r", as as the correspondence Also included within tbe present i°ventio° is the detection beiwee° mouse functioķs ;rid the two fr°gers is de°;onslated aDd location of more tha° two finge°s, wilh accompanying 10 the user, aDd tbýs their implementation iD a touchp‚d funcfional definilions permittiDg such multiple coDtacts to 15 indicate pointi°g device or olher coŻlrol operations, such as coŻtext makes theŻ Űspeci‚lly music‚l kybo‚rds addition to the foregoing functions, u,hich can In performed (albeit awkwardly ‚nd less iŻhrilively) with It is therefore one object of thc prcsent invention to veŻtiotŅI toých p‚ds, there are addilioDal functioDs that provide a touchpŚd system capable of detecti°g ‚ plýrality of be performed with two fingers and which can have substan- co°t‚cls sucb as fingers. tial analogs to the Ő°se of a moýse Ir is a turther objecr of the preseDr inveorion ro provide a - ,- -,-;'._:9:,!:y:1q cooveolionšl mouse lžrDclioDs. For exam°le. delectioD t"puole or loc‚rrrlg ‚ plu°t°rly ol cotrlads žocaLion of two ftogers will permit the touchpad ro reporl l]:of-"o"-ot]]:t su:b.as a bost sysrem rbe distŅoce bŤtweeo tbe rwo 6'ogers. Tňis ll is a Tg:rs' object of the present iDvention to provide a fuÕher be used, for example, in paiŻt ot otber prog;ms to method for detecting the presence ofmore lhan one flnger on Żine line widlh or ůther'spacing functionŪ or aoy olber 25 ‚ louch pad device. ''variable value'functioo. SimiJarly. tappirg wilb bolb gers at Lhe same tiŻe Ż‚y be deŮred as ‚tr It is ‚ still further object of the p°eseķt inventioD to shorthand method for a doŐrbl tap (such Śs may be deŮŻed provide a method for localitrg each of ‚ plurality of Ůngers for the middle bulton in Ņ I-ogitech mouse) or may on a touch pad device. defined as a special firnction, simiŐar to the "right button" It isyet another object of lhe presert invetrtion to provide functions of a mouse. Such special Ůmclions may a meth„d for effecting the ,,po;t aŻd click, functiŰn on a particžrl‚r valýe iķ operating systeķs $rcb as WiŻdov.,s ouchpad rhrough the use ofmultiple flngers. vr'here, for xample, implementatioD of tbe yet a furtheribject of the present iDveDtioD is to provide functioD is an important special fuDctioD. Such fuoction-scŅn a method for effeŅdng the ,,Ņlick and drag,, functiůn on a be implementd reŚdily wilb ‚ friple lžnge° tap, a double tap ls roucbpad tbrougb thežxe of multiple fingJrs, ol nvo 6ngers. or other convenient coobLnatron. of the present invention is 10 provide j-:lt^t A°olher tunction v°hich may rr" i-pr"-"oi"„ *itr, "Õ1"-t*1!-t " ,,dfag rocr<. r:nis n°ser delection is formed simply by moving the cuŖo° to the appropriate posifion with the firs1 frnger, placing botb nr$ and se.oķd flnge°s oŻ the pŚd, ‚nd moving bolh flngers logetber. The function may be concluded by simply raising one or bolh s frngers. Similarl° coDnecling the dots may be.performed lmply byEoviŻg the cu°sor from dot to dol witb t° Żrst fltger, and then clicking on the dot by tŚpping .with lhe scond fiDger Ir will be appare°r ro rhose skilt"d ]".+,,..":l th‚l lhese funclions may be de ned differentlv a°d still lall l0 within the scnpe of thŚ present iovenrion. IŪ wil° Ślso bc per- Most prior ‚°t toržchp‚d devices operate, like mice, in relalive modeby indicatiDg the distaDc travelled relŚtive to the st‚rting point of tbe molion. Touchp‚ds, on the other hand, can also be oper‚ted in absolutJ mode, where the ‚bsolute posirion of fhe finge° oŁ the pad is Šeścted and reporred rio rhe host system o; application.In absolute mode, multi-frnger detection allows thi frrst frnger to point to thť position, wbile fhe seco;d fingir performs ŗ""i.J ;;;;; ;"'u*t'tr" ' --'- ;;kk',';p*arion is desired withouirequiring a "-I-'" rcmovŚl ol lnc nrsl nngcr whrcn mrgnl lcsscn accŔracy or t"t:lult:n ,o desir‚ble. be concan 20 or:Y.i and to can aleter6nalternate, be 30 have 95 objecl.viewer r*o nžct-ioÔŲ;…F lffi;i::::""::Ô:i:l wbeo a drag tunctior is uoderwŚy, bur ‚r leasr ooe of lhe fingers reacbes tbe edge of the pad before °he drag function - is„mplete.Touchpad-operationmaybecontr"ll;„;;"i;-'" tain rh„ drag oodežf, foi exarnpte, ti*r nngśis "i" rhe pad wiihio a tbreshold p"ŚoŠ or oo" ioot°"i tbeo placed down on the p;d agŚjn within a suilable r1i:J."#ŚÓ.#:)sl"*: Śi":i ;ži;; fir;;Ůrr.--: . _--:--_: . ,, Yel aŻolbe. objecl of the plesent invnfioŻ is to provide a ror erecling on Ś touchpad, throush -':'!:9 of multiple flnger contacts, a plu°ality of enh‚nced the use 1""9 1fl1:1* rnvenlron' resulting imagŠ, or "ink," is defued uy tte moiio° ol tbe   rsL 5s FIG 3 shows a finger profžle for two non-ovcrlap?ing flnger džrringlthe period when the sŠcond Żnger is also Żngers as sensed by the Ptesenl iržvention. co„tact witli thc p‚d; gaps in thc ..i'k,, occ"ur when FlG.4 shows ‚ flnger profile for lwo closely-spaced secood tinger is lified awat ftom tbepad. The funqion Ż Dgers a s se Dsed by the present invention in some ways, be thožrghf of Ņs eleclronic finge° pain I i°g, bu FIC. 5 shows in flow diagram form the sleps lor a high bas the Ņdditional advanlage ofallowing mulliple ch‚r‚cters level algorithŻ tb° a pointing device according to the lo be wrilten on a touch pad. Thus, E'ith the ž$e of present invention. fngers, hand printing oI lext with gaps btween the and words becomes feasible and convenient, whereŚs iL FIG. 6 shows in flow diagram form the sfeps foa comimpractical with the prior art "őap and a halP' mcthod puling motion and "bulton" states. turning oo the FIGS. 7A-7F2 sho\r in di‚gr‚mķalic form an exemplary Yet ‚noLher funclion which may be implemented with sequence of Żnger conlacts aŻd moveŻenls across a touch present invention is use of the tožrchpŚd in ‚bsolýle seDsor. uJ*" time hr°clrons perio„. In some impŐemintations, highly exle0ded ti|°e 4j YeL a fýlhcr object of the present inwention is to provide a method and apPa°atus for clcctronic nngcr laintjDg. periods may be suintle in tžis contexi A furthe° fýncfion whicb Żay be readily implementeŅ Thcse and olbcr objecls of th i°vetrtioD may be befter $Ņith the pre sent inveŻtion is the ibitity to op…°aĢ žn relariv. appreciated from the following detailed descrřtžoŻ of the invenliorž, t‚ken together wifh the appended frgures. mode, wiere a first finger pe°fo°ms ; key fu°cljon, and ‚ second frnger controls some attribute of the operation per- so lllE FICURES formed by the frrst fi°ger' For example a 6rsl 6oger coofrc. lshowsa Dersoeclive view or a devic accordinp ro _ . -f lŚcting ‚ touch fad m‚y c‚xsc „ cursor to move across a .__ fbe Fresenl rnventlon' screeri, while contact (and removal) of a seconcl Ůnger wjtb FIG 2 sbows žn block diagr‚m form lhe electronics oflhe the scieen may turn žn image, o° "iŻlc' oo lana o"ft). Tbe presenl in tbe may, I 6° two letters js of ů5 the mode. r,r,.Ņlr ink. s,825,352 5 FIG. E shows ‚ more generalized case of FlG. 5 FIG. 9 sbows a morc generalized case oI FIG. 6 6 c‚pacilaŻce when Żo fiDger is present. This "no-flngel' capacitance is measured aDd slored at a time previous to Lhe beginning of the cycle described hereir, and is described mo°e fýlly i° U,S. patent application Ser. No. 08/478,290, Żled 7 Ju°. 1995 and commonly assigned. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring first to FIc. 1, a plýrality of a user,s frDgers and l0B ire shown positŚned o;er sufrcieDtly close p.o*i-ity to be oper‚tively connecled thereto. Movemeni of a singte flngcž over tŃe touchpad _l0 causes the cýrsor to move iD a now-conventional m‚n;er. However, unlike prior arl devices, various contol functioŻs may be performeŗ by the use of tle second 6nger, typically iŻ combiŻation willt the sam or ‚ related opeiadofof the 5 10A j° It bas ‚lso been found by aPplicaDt that it is Dot necessary, aII eobodioenŖ, to subtract the "no-frngel' capacitance a tJuchpa„ 20 in if techniqýes other than calculation of a centroid are used to locŚte lbe positioķ oftbe 6ngers, aķd sž.rch subtraction is not required even i° all i°stances in which a centroid is c‚lcul‚ted. However, in at least soŻe eŻbodimeržfs the se°sitivity and benc.lhe resolution of the calcul‚ted ¬nger location is eoiaDced by such subtraclion' Referri°g agaj° to the exemplary embodiment, the values first fi°ger. Operalions involving more thaD two fiogers may .. also be performed. [n an exemplary embodiment, the louch- '' ofŻoger-induced capacitanc aa then processed to calculate pad of the p°esent invention leporŖ to a host either the a position, detect whether one or more fngers is in oper‚five cont‚cf wilh fhe pad surlace, and 10 detect aDy chaDges in tbe relative molion ofa finger across the toýchpad or changes in "bultoD-' status. nurnber of 6ngers operatively coupled to the pad. If the cycle more maxima will be detecLed with an appropriŅte Dumber of intermediate minim‚ Althoýgh the Ó°ger profrle shown in FIc. 3 suggests that the intermediate minim‚ sep‚rati°g the two frngers js a zerc valýe, it is not necessary irŐ ‚ll iŻstances that the minima be commonly assigned with the present invention and zero. Thus, for example, FlG. 4 reflecls ‚ frnger p°onle with porated herein by reference a nonzro local miŻima 100 intermediate the lwo maxima 105 and 110 indicalive of two flngers operatively coýpled to The outpžrt of ķe capacitance measuri°g circuit is provided to an analog Lo digital converter 80, which operates a5 the loŐchpad. This fr°ger plofrle simply reflecls two frngers placd closely to one another, but stižl yields a valley for as described in eilber of the ‚bove-referenced patent measurcmeDt of the minima. cations 1o convert the capacrtanc valýes fŐom the circýit iblo ‚ digit‚l represntation.'lŐŐe analog to digilal To oper‚te efeclivelf the pres°t inveDtioD mýst delect 80 thcn supplics the signals to ihe microcontrolle° 60, ‚nd distingýish the presnce of a single flnger, ‚nd thc operales to form, ‚mong othcr thiÕgs, ‚ finger profile for one 50 presence ofmýlliplc fingcrs.As noted previously, the second o° mo°e flngers, X-Y cžrrsor dala, and conlrol sigDa°s. or additional fuŐge°s are typically involved to provide "butDependiDg on the operation being performed at the ton" or coDŻol functions, similar Lo aclýaLior of the bŻttons lar time, the outpul of microcont°oller 60 is then sýpplied or swilches on ‚ moýse. Allhoýgh the following example ‚n inLerface to a PC or olher device, sllch as a PS/2 interface, describes iD detail the llse of oDly rwo  nge°s, one for cursor an RS-232 inte°face, or ‚n Apple Desktop BŻs 55 cont°ol and Ś second as a býtton, the teachi°gs herein are believed $fficienl ro permit thos skilled in the art to A key feature of the presenf invention is its abilily distinguish thc presDce of multiple ‚Żgers either tožrching construct ‚pparala using multiple Angers Ior addidon‚l buaaons or in operative proximity to the toýchpad 30. In a 'lb avoid artifacts, a threshold may be Śpplied to tbe bolb eŻrbodiment, the operation of the ctcuit of FlG. 2 coDtinuously. As noled above, the cycle begins by scanning 60 the m‚ximuķ and minimum distaDce belween the mŚxim‚ lhe tr‚ces and me‚suring the c‚pacitaDce on each trace. lepresentalive of mýltiple Żngers. For example, a threshold the portio° oT each mcasžrrcd c‚pacitance that is induced requiring thc maxiŻ‚ to be .wilbin five centimeters of one the presence of a flnger is exlracted, aDd this finger-indžrced anothermay beýsed 10 limit the maximum distance behveeŻ capacilance is slored in RAM, as X(1) through X(Xcon) the  ogers; other thresholds may be appropriate in some Y(1) through Y(Ycon), as described below. Tbe frnger- ůs emlrodimenls. A threshold representative of the mi°imum inducd pofion of lhe measžrd capacifaDce is determined distance m‚y be coržfigured by establishiDg a maximum by subtracting a value, eŚch tr‚ce, represeDtiDg value of the local minimŚ 100. Referring nexl to FIC.2, the oper‚tion of rhe rouchpad 20 may be better appreciated. In p„rķcular, FtG. 2 shŚws °o ",, block aiagram foru ttre electronics implemented to fofm exemplar! touchpad 20. A touchpad matrix 30 is mmposed of a plrlriliry of iows 35 and columns ,10 of wir., o, affanged in ‚ convenfional manneŐ; se U.S. patenl app[-calioD Ser No. 08/321 ,98'7, 6led J2 OcL 1994, cnlitled Toucb Pad Senso° with Simullaneous Sensing, assigned with fhe present applicatior. The °ows and coluŻlns ate connected to an analog mŐrltiplexor 45 through ‚ r‚lity ofX (row) direction conductors 50 and apluralityof žŰ "Y (column) direction conductors 55, oDe conductor for eacb row and eachcolýmo. Under the control of a ķicroconlroller 60, the analog multiplexor 45 selects which tr‚ces of matrix 30 will be sampled, and the outpýt of those fr‚ces then provided to a cap‚citance mea$rring circuit 70. ODe °< suitable capacitance me‚surirg circuit is described io afore- " ‚rž is repealed rŚPidly eDough to update a graphical user inte°face approximately 30 liŻ°es per second or more, the appearaDce of smooth and instantŚneožls lesponse is provided to lte user' For fuDctions other than pointing, such ‚s handwriling with the finger, a faste° sc‚n rate mŚy be reqýýed ‚rd m°y, for example, be on the o°der of 200 scaÕs Per i.u.., ,. secono commonly Refening next to FIG.3, a flnger profile is shown indica?lý- the is '' tive of the presence of two f°gers, spaced apa°t from oŻe anolher. ID palicul‚r, the circžriőry software or Żarnware of the louchpad cŻcuitry, such as that showD in FIG. 2, detects a Żrsl maxima 85 indicative of a flrst flnge° in opeÕative proximity to the toýchpad 30, followed by a minima 90 indicative of a sp‚ce between the fingers, atrd further followed by aDother maxima 95 indicative of ‚ second Żnger operŚtively coupled to the touchpad 30. It will be apprcialed 1b‚1. for oper.rtions involving more than two fingeŖ, mentjoned U.S. patent application Ser No. 08Ŗ21,987, commo°ly Śssigncd u°ith the prcsent invention a°d inco°porated herein by Őeference; atother is described i° U.S. patent application Ser No. 08/478,290, flled 7 Jun. 1995, * eDtitled Touch Sensing Method ‚nd Apparatus aDd also incorthen appli70 converter which particýto (ADB). 10 lypic‚l cycles fhen by and the fŻ 5.825.352 7 In an exemplary embodimenl, lhe oper¬tior of the system of FIG. 2 is controlled in either frrmwa°e, softwa°c or hardware. Showri in FIG. 5 is a flow diagr‚m showing the general operŚtion of such software or ŻImware which is capable of detecling mulliple flngers, aŻd which ýses the algorithm of FIG. 6, discussed hereinafter. The varial°les fožrnd iŻ the flow diagram of FIc. 5 Ś°e defrned belov°: 8 as checked at step 490, the state of Ybutton is Őrp and YbutfonPrevious is Dowo, theD the vari‚ble Butlon is sel to Up at step 495. the button v,°as st to DowD at state 465, o° Up at step if the results at steps 480 and 490 ‚re NO, the process adv‚nces to step 510. At step 510, XmotioŻ is set to the sum of X‚bsolute less XabsolutePrevious, ‚Żd at step 520, Yr°ofio° is set to the sum ofYabsolŁte less YabsolutePrevious. Then, at step 530, 10 the state of Button is checked ‚nd, if it is changed by being Finger posilioD i° X di°śti@, cal@lŰtcd dý°irg tle either Up or Dowo, bolŐž Xmotior ‚nd Ymolion ‚°e sl to o enl cycle rel„tive lo Lhe s°sor pad, zero at step 535, indic‚ting that the ýsr bas acluated a Tae value „bove rored fron tle p°evioE cycle. bulloD and no cuŖor movement shoýld occr°Ņ sinilat Lo xabsohtePrevioýs. lD additioD, if Button equals Up or Down, the sl‚te of Has value Up or Dow° (reeardles of previoŻs 15 Bulton is reported at step 540. At step 550, Xmotior° Śnd Yķotion are coŻpared 10 zero, and if either » not ze.o theD XbuttonP°eviou Tle v‚lue above srored fJor L°e p…vious cycle. bolh Xmotion aDd Ymolion are reported to the microconYbýtto° SiDilar lo Xbu on, YbýLto°PFvroýs SimilýtoXbuttoo?revious. troller will be ‚pparent thal this iDdicates a cursor XmŰtio° ChEor motion i° the X direcLio4 °elaŁve Lo lhe movemeķt, lypically reflective of the movement of a siŻgle cýŖo° poeitio° of Lhe previous cycle (o y reportod 20 frnger over lhe touchp‚d, or lwo frngers in some modes such ileilher o' boķ Xmotion and YŮorion arc as Click-and-Drag. rc°-śrc). Ynotion Similar to Xmotio°. FurŅher, ‚t step 560, whether there is motion reported or Eurtor MŅy be Up Űr DoM (o y °epored ifa chaoge not, the variable XabsolýtePrevious is set to the valýe of froķ tle previoB cycle). Xabsolute, a°d at step 570 thc variablc YabsolutcPrevious is 2s set to the value ofYŅbsolute. Simil‚rly, af step 580 tbe valýe It will be unde°slood by those skilled in the ‚rt th‚t a of XbuttonPrevious is set to Xbufton, and at sĢp 590 the me‚ns fr‚nsmittitg infonn‚tion to an application process valýe of YabsolŐrtePrevious is st to YŅbsolýte. The cycle executing on ‚ host, $rch thal the cursor is a0oved or thenrepeŚrsby returning to step 400.Itv°illbe apparetrt that furŐction is performed. ln some instancs, driver software rhe forŚgoing algorithÕican bÍ readily extendeŚio include executing on the host may ascertain tle existe°ce of flnger °o aŅŅition„l ŻŪgeri beyond bvo, represent‚tive of ‚ddilional movement, while in other iŻstances inclýding the exemplary buttons. ln su„h an insrance, compare steps for current ‚nd embodiment described herein the determj°Śtioo of previot°s stŅtes of each buttoD would bŤ conducted, aod :'up,,' or ,,down,' conditioŻs would be repo°ted for each such movemen! occu°s i° the frrm\°°aro in tho pointing RefeŻing slill to FIG. 5,lhe cyclical process begins at bu°on. ln some emboŅimens ir may be ŗesireal to report..no 400, aŻd conLinues ‚t step 410 by scanning the cooductor 35 change" conditions, and the foreg„ing algorithm;uld be sensors. Tbe sensors may be sc‚nned sequentially ,"udŪy moŅlifred to provide su"n ž"polrti"!. concurrently, depending on the ha°dware impleme°tatio°. Deiending on the desired con guration, second and thžrd The scan p°ocess measures the vaŐues of finger-i°duced burtons may-be implemented, for„xample, either by requircapacitance for cach ofthe coķductors, aŻd stors tbe ing a cnmbination'of two or more finge;s to indicaie operaRAM ‚t step 420. The cycle process coDtinues by a0 rio"° ofa second button, o°by the inde:pendent moveme;t of Ierlorming the Xcompute loop of FlC. 6 discŁssed addirional flngers or otķer objecrs.ln this latter eķbodiķenl, hereinafter, and also t}že Ycompýte loop Ś°alogous^lo may be de;ir‚ble to impl;meDt distaDce thresholding, to 6, ‚l step 430 ‚nd 440, respeclively. ID ge°erŚl, tbe ensur; that movemeDt ofa second or additional button fŁger of the Xcompute ‚nd Ycompýte processes is simply is not rnis{‚ken for movement of ihe flrst or other býtton ev„luŚlc thc currc0t measurcments by calculatiDg lhe cen- 45 finper. tIoid of the finge° measurement, and by derecring whether ūet forth in FIC. 6 is a florv diagram setting forth the steps scond flnger is toýching fhe p‚d which determines for compý1iog motion and ,,butlo;,, states iri lhe X direction, býtton or vrhat ķay be rcferred to ‚s "Xcompule.:'A° aDalogou; In the excmplary embodiment, only ‚ chŚnge in calculation is performed fo° the y direciion, or whl maly be stale is reporled. As a result, at step 450 the v‚lžre of Brtton 50 referred to as.iycompute,,, fhe algoritbm Őrses the foÕoķng is set to No Char°ge. In šddilion, in Lhe exemplary embodi- variables and constaDls: ment a lap or double click by only a frrst fuger is Dot acted upon, althougl ‚ tap by a seco°d firžger or by rDýltřle fl°gers is acted ýpon. In the exmplary ana°gement, ‚ "bulton down" condition is only reported if botb fDgers ar xoo \,Śluos, stored i° reķory, of ¬ngrindýced po ion of in operŚlive conlact wit° t°e ’pacit‚r@ re‚sured o° e„cb condýcLor Naanes fronr The process continus by compariDg the current aDd I to Xcon. [wben °o nŻger is co°tacting tle pad abov previous butto° st‚tes of fhe X and Y conductors. First, at a condýcror, rh valýe is app°oxinately zero. In addilio°, x(0) is i°iriažÝed to „ wal@ ol0.1 step 460, the slate ofxbýtton is checked to see il it is Down \Ślue ol Ů°geFinduccd seŖor conducro° ccpacilan.e x(N t) and the state of XbuttonPrevious is checked to sce ifit is Up. eo for the p°eYiou corductor. Ifboth compares are lrue, lben the vŚri‚ble Býtlon is set 10 The °ýmber olse°so° co°drctoE in lhe X dhecLion. f)owD at step 465. In addition, ‚l stcp 470, thc statc of The Żiniķýn ttreshold tlat X must °cacl lefore a ¬°er is @nsidered l,r be prese°t- lseLs t°e torcl] sensirivity ot Ybu on is checked to see if it is DowD and the slate of Lhc pad.l YbutlonPrevious is checked to see it is Up. both XpŠk1 ri°ble to sto°e Lhe valŻe of the ¬6t !ak X vaiýe. comp‚res are 1rue, the variable Button Ŗ also set to Dow°, 65 Xv‚llev vŚ°iabže to sLore Lhe vŅlŻe ol a locŅl nririmýD (il Żny) Altematively, as determioed at slep 480, if tbe state of Xbržtron is Up ‚°d the slat ol XbulloDPrevious is Dowr, or, s If 495, or It "leport" a 6oger devicc. step o. i° valŁes FIC. furction lo a the state thetulton tůuc°paŅ. " if If 5,825,352 9 10 235 aŻd a repeat wilh aD increķentally higher N. If a second fitge° is louching lbe pad then eventually the value of X(N-l) will be ge‚10° than o° e$ral to the value of X(l'O, XpÝ12 X5uķ \Śriable to stŰ… ihe vŚlue of lhe secord peaŐ X valýe (il aiy). !Śriablc to a@nulatc tže sun of tle X values, Io° śntroid lślaLio°. Lo acomýlaLe lle sým oI tt X values, wežghLed by N (Lle tŰsitio! of the co°ducýŰr), for cetrtrŰid elcul‚Lior. 5 Xweightsým °/Ņ.iable such that fhe valley is defected-At this point, ‚I slep 262, the value ofxvalley is set to X(N-l) and Xslale is st to PeŚk2. The process then jumps to step 235, where it repeals from step 215 ýržless the last conductor iD lbe matrix has been XrL‚te ^ Tail, Ýriible wlich c‚n have valýes Pea!], l,„lley, Peal2 or ‚re lhe thŅ exeŮplary LŰ itrdic‚re whic! p‚rL of the Żnger proŮle ru°ently ssrching 6or Tle TŅil st°le is sinply E …Ůainder of Lhe scar Ņfter a seco°d peak (ir eķbodiŻen– has beer ide°dned. evalualed. On the nerl cycle, a NO resulf is reached at both step 225 10 and step 450, c‚using a jump to step 270. At slep 210 Õhe state of Xst‚°e is compared to Peak2, ‚nd a YES result v,/ill occur. This results in ‚ compare between X(°– ard X(N-l) at step 275, to look for a secoŻd peak, in a manner $°bstar- 235' and then lo slep 215 uDtil the cbange masured at fhe last co°duclor has been evaluated' As before, lhe value of X(– will eveDtýally start to vŠrial°les initiatized a°e N, which iiset to zero, aod fue *,alue 20 decreŚse. sucb that X(– will be less than X(N-1). A1 this of X(0), which is ‚lso set to zero. In ‚dditior, Xpe‚k1, point, ‚t step 278,1he v‚lue of Xpeak2 is set to the valýe of Xv‚lley, XpealŅ, Xsžrm and XweighŖum, a°e all set to zero. X(1.°-1) aDd the state of Xslale is set to Tail. Tl°e "t‚il" is the remaining portion of FIG. 4 following ttže second peak. In additioD, the stale of Xstate is set to Peakl. At slep 210 a loop, referred to Śs "Xloop" sfafls. The Vy'hile a Tail state is used in the exemplary embodime°t, pýlpose of Xloop is to c‚lclrl‚fe the X centroid, by ‚ccŐr- 25 such a state may nol be Decessary in all embodiments. mulating the sum and 'reigbted sum of the X values fo° all The process then cycles through uDtil the last condžrctor tbe X conductors from one to Xcon. Thus,lhe loop typically meŚsžr°ement has becn considered, at which poirt N does starls with lhe value of N=0 aDd incremenls by one at the eqžral Xcon when lhe check Śl sfep 235 is made. Witb aYES beginning of each cycle until the value of N=Xcon. Ōhe °esýlt, the p°ocess b°arches to a lhresholding comp&ison at steps of the loop i°clude step 215, wbere N is iDcremeDted 30 step 290. 10 N+1 ‚nd the value X(– of the cžrl°enl conductor is added In an exemplary embodiment, the Xcompute procss lhen 10 the prior Ņccumulated valýe, Xsrm, which then becomes continues by c‚ldrlating the centroid for the frngers the new value of Xsum. Tbe loop theD continues at step 220, detcctcd, so long a,s thc ŻŚxim‚ cxceed a tbreshold value. In where the prior value of XweightsŻm is added to a weightd accordaDce with the present invenlžoŻ, two appro‚ches rn‚y v‚lue of X(ž–, where the weighting is done by multiplying 35 be used ir calculatiDg ceotroid values. In a frrst X(10 by the °mber N of the conducto° being sampled, The iŻplementation, only a sirŐgle centroid value is calculated sum of XweightsŐm and N*X(N) then becomes tbe Der°/ for the combinŅtion of one or more flngers. ln this value of Xweightsum. arrangemenl, it will be app‚rent thŚt, when ‚ second finger Thc XI-oop continues at step 225, whcrc onc of ‚ series contacts the toýchpad, the centroid 'lumps" l‚terally of subloops is selected depending o° the valýe of Xstale. 40 approximately to the midpoiDt ofthe two flngers,In a seco°d Since Xstate is initi‚lly set 1o Peak1, tho fl°st sžrbloop iŻ°plementation, Í ceŻtroid value may be c‚lculated for each eDtred is the Pe‚k1 $rbloop, begi°°i°g al step 230. At step m‚xim‚, yieldiŻg multiple ce°lroid values when multiple 230 the value of X(°D is comp‚red to the value of X(N-1) Żngers interŚct with the p‚d. For puryoses of clarily, the ‚nd, if X(– is greater th‚n o. eqý‚l 1o the v‚lŐre ofX(N-1), followiŻg descrĢtion will be limited to the  rst implementhe R°sl pe‚k bas nol yet been reached. As ‚ result, the loop 45 tation. jumps to slep 235, at which points lhe valu of N is Thýs, al step 290 tbe values of Xpeakl and Xpeal2 are coķp‚red to the v‚lýe of Xcon. If fhe frnger-inducd c‚paci- compared to Fthresh, atrd if either or both are greater then lance measurecl at the last coDductor has DotbeeD evaluated, X‚bsolute is set to the value of XweighlsuŻlxsum at slep the resull is a NO aod the process jumps to step 215 to repeat 295, which c‚uses the X centroid to be calorlated. If neithe° with aŻ incremeŻled value of N. 50 peak exceeds Ftžresh, then no finger is deemed ptesent aķd At some vŚluc oI N Lbe valýe oI X(– is less than tbe Xbuttotr is st to Up at slep 315. v‚lžže ofX(N-l), af whicb poinl lhe check ‚t slep 230 yields Ifboth Xpea-kl and Xpeak2 we°e greale° thaD Fthrsh,lhe a NO. At this point, the pe‚k hŚs been tbund ‚Dd „I slep 232 XcomĢýte process conlimres at slep 305 by comparing the thevalue of Xpeakl isset to X(N-1) a°d the value of Xst‚te differeŻce betweeŻ XpeÍkl a°d Valley to the value of is set to Valley. The syslem ther jumps to step aj5, where a s5 Xpeakl divided, for example, by foŐ°. If the diffeŐe°ce is the check is made to see if the last coDductor hasbeen measu°ed greater of the lwo, then Lhe difference between Xpeak2 and by compŚring N to XcoB. ,As before, if the capacitance Valley is compared 10 the value of Xpeak2 divided, for change measrred at the lŚst condýcLor has not been cbecked, example, by four If thE diffe°ence is grealer than Lhe the resr t is a NO, and the process loops to step 215 and dividend, the XbutloD is set to Down at step 310. Olherwise, repeats. 60 thev‚luŰ ofxbýllon is set lo Up at step315. The comparison When the p°ocess begins with t°e next inc°ement ofN, Ś described above is provided lo eDsure that a legitim‚te NO wilŐ result at step 225, so that the process q.ill jump to v‚llcy ‚nd two lcgitimatc pe‚ks h‚ve been detected,lo avoid step 250, where a check is m‚de to see if Xstate equal artifacŖ. 11 will be appreciated, given the teachings herein, Xvalley. Since it now does, a YES resulLs and the process that olher coŻparison methods or divisors other tlžan foýr branches 10 step 255. At step 255 a X(– is compared to 6s may be ýsed tžJr this purpose. X(N-1). IfX(N-1) is not greater than or equat to X(–, the The Xcompute loop then ends at step 320. It will b valley has not yet °reen foýEd, causing a furtberjump to step app°eciated by those skilled in the ‚rt lhal fhe foregoiDg is r;;i;cil; " T…e ažgorithm for Xcompule starts at step 200, followed by iniri‚l;zŚton of variabl; ar srep 205. Fo; XcoŻ°pure, rhe "Ycompure" Ôŗriables and co°srans ditr"° Ś"niy;; " šiŌ:lŌ.,1ilJffi,r'i ŚŁq,ň"'.-'.ň.*°.Ų'r;:iJ. t1že process jumps to steP lhe-peak has nol been found, so X by y. - 11 manner. 5,825,352 12 a simplilžed Ślgorithm and does not inclŐrde compensŚtioD for settling, moislž!°e and Doise. Noise thresholdiŻg may provided in at least some embodimeDts, if noise causes curve to be noD-monotonic; setlling ard noisture may 5 de‚Il with in a similar be the be example, relative movemeDt of the first frnger, together \ž°ith a tap of the scond or more fingeŖ š1 soķe point, followed either by remov‚l of both fi°gers, fu°t°er movement of the flrst flnger, o° fŁrther movement of bolh flngeŖ Such sequences c‚n, essntiall° be viewed as a series of scans iD The l'compute loop is performed similarl% as noted wbicb one or more Żngers werc found to be eilher preseDt or above. Depenžing on the particular arrangem;nt desired, abseŻt i° Ņny givet scaD, wilh Ż°olion, or lack thereof, oflhe tnge° or, nngers across the touch serisor ir°terspersed and the ass„ciared hardware, the X and Y coŚpute processei m‚y be performed sequenķaly io vy'hile rhe torcgoing example describes idenrificalion of :i:r-y::l::őt minima and maxima in rhe x -d y i"1"Ś'J apparent lhat ao analysis aloog a diagonal or some oýber ,;n.i angýlar directioķ may be prefeÕed in soŻe josla°ces, aod is Referrhg ro FI6S- 7A_7R there is shown in diagram15 ma[c fon; an exmpl‚ry sequence involving opeiative still within the scope of the p°esent inve°tion. It will bc apprcci‚lcd th‚t the foregoing describes a new coupling of a plurality ;f fingersÔth a touch seo-*. io aDd žrseful method and ‚pparafus for detecliDg a pluralily of both a -cursož movťment „nd a cotrhol fuDclioD. "ouo More fiDgers operatively coupled to a toých pad seDsor for specifrc‚llf FlG. ?Ashows a sedes of Żovements ofone or enabžing a variety of moýse-like operatioDs. A second por- more flngers across a louch seDsor, inclýding various finger tion of the inventior iŻvolves using the previously detectioŻ 20 taps. FIGS. 7B-7F show, fo° each of the nuŻeric °efere°ces methodology to perforrD various crŐsor ķovement ard coriŻ FIC.74, ‚n exernplary video display, ar exeŻplary trol lunclions similŚr Lo those well known 10 use°s of positioŻ of oŻe or more Angers on Lhe toýcbpad, andX and electronic mice and t°ackballs. Y finger profrles appropriate to lh‚l flnger contact. It will be As previoýsly noted, the flrst Żnger Ūs most commonly helpful to de6ne celain conventions used in FIGS. TA 7F associatd, ir the prior ‚n, with cursor movement, °rhile 25 beÔore discýssiDg these flgures. In FIG. 7A-74 contact varioýs tappingmolions [e.g., tap Śnd tap-‚°d-a ha]f] ofŅhat btween a flDger and th touch pad is indicated by a solid flrst finger bave been impleķen°ed to perform various circle within the flngertip; an abseDce of contact between ‚ conlrol fuDclioDs. Unl <e such prior art, however, va°ious fingerlip aDd the touch seDsor is iDdicaled by the absence of circle within the frnger tip. A t‚p-i,e., an up aķd down movemeŻts (including sequences of taps) of additioŻ‚l Żngers or combinations of the first and ‚ddition‚l frŻgers aŐe 30 rŻolion- +y a finger is indicated by a dashed circle. Moveprovided to enabl such conhol functions in the present ment of the frngers fiom a ¬rst to a second poi°ő while in i°veDtio°. DependiDg on the implementation desired, it is contacl with lhe touch sensor is indicated by a solid arrow also possible to implement a superst of the prior aŪ cont°ol Movement of the frDgers frcm a first to a scond point r°°ith functions together wilb the mo°e lobýst control function set lhe frngers not in contact is indic‚ted by a d‚shed Ślrow. 15 Witb lbese conveŻlions io miod, FTCS. 7A-7F ca0 be berler ‚vailable wilh lhe present invenlio°. Note that iD the preferred embodiment, the ýser may understood. In p‚rticular, and $'ilh reference to FlG. ?A in combinaarbitrarily choose which finger he or she ýses as the "Rrsf" or "second" or additional frržgers. Thus, for example, one lion with FIG.7B, an initial series ofscans 700 indicates lhe user m‚y choose the inclex ¬nger as the frrst frnger and the presence of a single Żnger in contact with the touch scnsor, middle flnger as lhe scond finger, while Śnolher usr may 40 °√.ith the cbanging XJ locatior belweer 700 and 705 prefer tže reverse or some diferent combination. ID the indicating relativ motioD by the fltrger across the toŐlch reDtly. "itn"i o„", oÔ -"*i- belweencbanges i t d#"fi"*,'ižÔÔ # t - l1Ő:hpi9: -1".:l*ķ" the nuŻber offiŻgers in contact with the seqž°eDce can fhen be analvzed to onlv a cufsor movement is involved of ii:'*":.Ô,i'j1t":"Ô'""ŚšŚiši:"t"Ō:tr",f"ő prefeffed embodiment, the only distinction betweeD the second aržd additional nngers is fhe seqýeŻce in which are pl‚ced in contact wžth the touchpad surface, or removed froŻ it- In Śny cŚsc wbcrc ‚ second or additional fingcr or 45 flngers is placed down ‚fter a fŖt 6°ger, or multiple frng°s, is ahe‚dy in coDtact with lhe pad, the newly placed frngers can be in any relalioDsbip to those alreadyiD coDtact wilh  rst, they At 710, Ņ secoDd frDgr is detected in cotrtact \°°ith tbe tcuch seŻsor, and conli°ues to be operarively coupled to the sensor for several more sc‚ns withoul sigDifrc‚Dt °elŚtive sensor. motion Śc°oss thc scnsor At 720, thc sccond fllžgcr is removed, wbile the first lžnger remains. From 720 unlil 730 (shown in FIG. 7C) the flrst lžnger continýes ils relative molion, while at 740lhe second  nger is again placed down. pad, sých as to ķe lefl, to lhe igbf, above o°below. The The scans of the sensor theD detect bolh the frŖt and secoDd reqýžrcmeŻl is that, jn the p°oflle of finger-induced 50 flnge.being moved together acŐoss the seķsor until lhe scŚn c‚pacil‚nces, Lhe proŻle ol tbe newly pl‚ced flnger exhibits al 750, lhen both flržgers are removed al 755. Thereaflet ‚ zero value or a local minimým on eacb side of ils borh fiķgers are ag‚in placed on the sensor at 760 (shou,n in value, iD at least oDe of the X or Y directions, so that it FlG. 7D), where they remain for a few mo°e sca°s until770, be distin$rished f°om the olher IžDger(s) in conlact with al which lrme lhey are both removed. Three fngers Śr 55 placed on the seŻso° at 780, and lemoved a few scaķs later Ir paliculŚr, the ‚bilily o[ the previoýsly desc'ribed at 790. Thereaftsr, lhrce frDgers Ņre placd otr the setrsor al 800 (FIG. 7E), moved ‚cross the loýcb sensor for Ś few odology to °ecognize mulliple lžngers ‚llows fhe fžrst to se°ve, esseotially, as the "poinf' flnger, while additional scans from 800 to 805, Śnd Ņžre ther removed at 810. FinŚlu ingers serve as the "click" finger(s). Combinalions of ‚s showŻ at 820 (FIGS. 7F1-2), one flnger is placed down first, second, and perhŚps addrtioDal fiDgers can then eDable ůo Ő'hile the adjacDt Żnger is moved, sŁch as might be ným°ous conventioDal fuDctions to be perfo°med based desirable for marking texl or olher functions. Vy'hen the the mapping of a variety of sequences of taps or finger is moved as far as is practicable, the moving finger is picked up at 825 and placd dowD again at 830 for further movements to a sel of coDvetrlional pointing fuoctioDs, where tbe pointing device could be a touchpŅd, movemeot.'Ihe moving flnger can be picked up aod placed mouse, lrackball, joyslick, or stylýs, for example. It will be 6s down again Ņs often as desired. Eventually the other, subapparent 10 those skilled in the a°t, given the foregoing stanlially fixed frDger is lifted at 835, caýsing a "buttoD up" condition. descriplion, thņl the presenl invenlion can detect, lhe only toýchpad. pe‚k may the methfžnger the on finger device for 5,825,352 13 While Lhe foregoing seqýelce can be programmed to FIGS. 5 and 6 are in most cass refered to by the refereŻce deŻne any number of cursor movement and control numeraŐs ýsed in those Żgures, fŐrDclions, Śn exempl‚ry de¬nition of the fŁnctions associID FIG.8, the process begDs iD a maDner ideDtical toFIG. ated with sých sequences cŚn be tže followiDgž For the 5, starting at step 400 aķd followed by scaming the con- t4 period from 700 through 705 the rel‚Live motion of Ś siDgle 5 dýctors Ņnd sto°ing the results of the scan itr memory at step finger can be defrŻed to mean cýrsor movement for 405, followed by Xcompute ald Ycompule at steps ,lil0 and period, from fhe beginning point uŻtil the relative 4,10, respectively. For this embodiment, Xcompule is sho\°°D point. Du°ing the period 710 to 720, a second flnger in FIG. 9, and Ycompute is identical to Xcompute. At step detected ‚nd then reķoved, wbich is defrned in an 850, a determination is made .°°hether two frDgers arc i° plary embodiment as ‚ single finge° tap which may be a ro coDtact with the loýchpad by evaluating both Xcornpute and "slecf' function $rcb as selecting one item frcm Ņ screen YcorŻpute. If neithe° Xcompute nor Ycorlpufe indicatc the preseDce of two fingers, the aŖwe° is NO aķd ibe process menu. During the period 720 ýntil 730, the single again moves the cursor, while Ś1 740 the sco°d drops to step E55. However, if either the Xcompýtre °outine reappears to enable a difierenl function. The second or the YcoŻpute loulire indicates the preseŻc of two moves ‚cross thŰ sensor, together wilh the Ůrst finger, ýntil 15 flnge°s, the answer at step 850 is YES and the process moves ‚t755 both fingers are removed. Again, such seqýcnccs-Śll to stcp 860, where the value of the vŗriabl FINGER is set to 2. of which m‚y be regarded as gestures-can be mappd coDt°ol functioDs in nume°ous ways, but one reasonable If the answer at step 850 w‚s NO, then a deleŻtinalion defltrition is thŚt tbe p°esence of two Ůngers engaged has to be made at step 855 whether oŻe or no flŻgers ‚re in variables Xtnger and relalive motion is a "drag fuDclioD," such as where a° eŻtity 20 cortact.°°ith the lorŐch sensor. wŅs selected by the frsl tap and dragged lo ‚ new Yfrnge° do notboth equ‚l 1, then fhe coroparisoķ atstep 850 where it is dropped by the removal oI both Żngers al is Ś NO ‚nd it is delermined th‚t no frngers ‚re in coŻtact wifh fhe touch sensor In this cŅse, the vadable FINGER is Then, at 760, bolh fingers reappear and remain for a addition‚l scans žrntil bolh ‚re removed at 770, This geshrre, set to 0 at step 865. However, il lhe va°iabls both yield a 1, which may be considered a 'two Żnger tap," can n‚ble 25 then ‚ determinalion is m‚de thal one fnger is iD coDtact with the seDsor, and the variable FINGER is st to 1 at step ŻŐrmeroŐs fuŻctions, býl an exemplary definitiotr is clŅssical "double-click' of a standard left moýs býttoD, 870. the click ofa middle l°uttoD oD some tbree bulton mice, ID either eveDl,lhe prccass then moves to step 875, where as those sold by Logitecb, lnc., and could, for example, XŻ°otion Śnd Yroofion ‚°e calculated iŻ a manner identical activate a function or applicatioD associated with th iteŻ to :o with FIG- 5. The process then cortinues at step 880, where which the cýsor is pointing the variable FiDge° is compared to the value of FingerPreNext, the sequence from 780 to 790, wheD the vious. the value of FiDger difers from the valýe of fingen reappear and arc then removed, is a "tbree FingerP°evious, then a button actuation is assžžmed to have l‚p", ‚°d c‚n be regarded, for exaŻžple, ‚s a right rŻožrse occured, and Xmolion and Ymotion ‚°e set 10 ze°o at step býtton click which may, for ex‚Żple, activate ‚ menu 35 885. Howeve°, if the value of Finger equals the value of specifrc to the ilem to which the cursor is pointing. FingerPrevious (i.e., the cuķeot number of frDgers coDlactfhe sequence from 800 until 810, iD which lhree ing the pad is the same as in lhe previous stat–, then the comparison of step 880 yields a YES, ‚rd the pnocess r°oves reappear, move across the toýcb sensor and ‚re removed, may in an excmpl‚ry embodiment be seen ‚s to step 890. At slep 890 a comparison is mŚde to determine shortcr°t to a multisequence function. Fo° ex‚mple, such a 40 whethe° there hŅs been motion in either the X o° Y direcmovemeDt might b dfined as a scroll function, tio°s. If neither Xmotion nor Ymolion is Donzero, a NO might olherv/is require the usr to move the cýŖor to rcsults aDd the process moves to step 895 where the va°iable sÝoll bal, dr‚g Ņnd drop a scrcll box, and retum the MotioŻ is set lo NO. The s‚me lesults obtains if the process that eŻding is exemflnger fi°ger flŻger Lo in locatio°, 750. few the or such If three frnger II FiŻažlt fingers then Ś mouse up the moýse (while coDliDuing to hold dowD the býtton) and From either step 895 or step 900, the process moves to llacing the mous down again at a positioD convnient for step 905, where a check is made 10 delermine whether further ķovemeržt of the ķoýse. Ore exaŻple of the ýse of 50 ButtonPrevioŐrs w‚s up ‚nd the nŐrmber of flngers detected such a sequeŻce is lhe ma°king of texl. The algorithm for is two. If the ‚nswe° is NO, the process moves to slep 910. recognŅing Żovemenl by one "cýrsol' fl°ger while the However, if a YES is obtained, the process moves to step other "button" frķger is maintained in position is a generŚl- 915 whe°e the state ol the Butto° va°iable is repofed to the ized case of the algorithm shown in FIGS. 5 and 6, aDd is host as DOWN, and the vanable BŻtloDPrevious is set to described in glealer detail in FIGS.8 a°d 9. Other functions 5s DowŻ. which can bc implemntd with such gsturcs includ Ņn Referriržg to the wo°king ‚re‚ of the screen. Finallf goes throýgh step 885. However, either Xmotioo or 820 throýgh t3Ocan be analogizrd to holding down ‚ rnoýse 45 Ymofion is nonzcro, a YES re$lts Śt step 890, ‚nd lhe process moves to s°ep 900 where lbe variable Motion is sŅ button (for example the left moýse bulton), rolling a wh‚tever dist‚nce is corvenienl for the use°, then picking to YES . v/hich a cu°sor the sequence ftom if exemplary algorithm shown in FIGS. 8 and 9, a determinalion is made wbether zero, o°e or two frngers are i° contact with the touchpad. Depending on how many frngers identified, v‚rioýs operations are permitled. It will be appre- 65 ci‚td fha° FIG. 8 is analogous to FIG. 5, while FIG. 9 Śnalogoýs to FIC.6. Forconvenience, steps unchanged "ink" function (menlioneŅl ‚bove), entry oI v‚riŚble valýes, whelher eilbe° of two g°oups oI condilioDs exisl. A YES ‚nd žrse of the seržsor žn Śbsohile mode. result may be oblai°eLI °l BuLlonPrevious Ls DOWN aod ard Referring next to FIGS. 8 ‚nd 9, Lhe generalized case ttže value of the Finger variable is zero; or ifBýttoŻP°evious associated wilh FIGS. 7F1-2, but also applicable 10 tŗe 60 is Down aDd the variable Morion is st to YES and the remainiDg functions, may be better appreciated. In tže variable firger is set to one. If none of these coDdilions agŅrin 1() step 910, a check is mŅde to detelmine are is from exist, a NO result is obtaiDed and the process moves to step 920. However, iI a YES does result, then the process moves to step 925 a°d reports to the host that Buttoo is Up, while also setting the variable BržltonPrevioýs 1() Up. If a NO resulted at step 910, at slp 920 a comparison is made betwcer vari‚bles FiķgerPrevioýs ‚nd Firger, and the 5,825,352 same Żnger or fingers aqoss tbe touch sensor, to evaluate those value as Finger, and MotioŻ has occurred (i.e., Motion is seque°ces either locally or via softwar oŻ lhe host, and to Yes), tie process moves to step 930 ‚nd both Xmotion and rcport Śppropiiate signals to cause cursor moverŻents or Ymotion are repo°led. The p°ocess then moves to step 935. conlrol functions to occur itr applicatioDs prografns o° oper_ However, if the compa°ison at step 920 yields a No, tbe s aŻnq enviroDmnls. process moves directly to step 935- Al slep 935, the value o[ ,;-.,--..,,-. described varioýs embodiments of the Having tury xabsolureprevious is ser ro r°e value of x„ķšrl;. #;iŁ preseŻt- iDve°lioo, rŻcroýs alterDatives and eqžrivale°ts yabsotureprevioýs is*r t.lb" of ofi"b-;i;i;-;;;; which do.not dep‚rt ftom the invenlion wiŐl be Śpparent to "^h" value of FingerPrevioýs is set 10 t°" ri"i* ""rr" ;i ,""°,ŚLrn; ro lt the "ž proccss tberi moves to step 940, *rr"r" lbo* ttt;lltŅ be « invention not io the a'1 by is therefore intended th‚t but limited the foregoiŻg descriptioŻ, jumping back to srart. R„feiring nexr to FlG. 9, the xcoķpure process is shown o°ly by the ‚ppended claims wbŚt is cl‚imed is: in detail foi the generalizeŠ case snown in'Ftc. 8. -Ņ\s °oted 1. A method for detecti°g the operative coupliķg of previously, the YcompŐrte process is identic‚l and is thereis the 15 state of the Molion vari‚ble. If Fingerkevioýs t6 to ihat shown in FtG. 6 up through ste! 290, ‚nd the preceding steps will therefore not be discussed again. However, if a No resulls iŐom the comparison atstep2gO, a determinatior is made that no fingeŖ are in conlact with pad. This caŐrses lhe v‚riable fore not shown separalely. The process of FIG. 9 is identical ,5 multiple flngers to Ś louch minima fo[owing second maxima sensor i°volving the ste?s of scannhg ķe rouch sensor to (a) ideDti_tf a fust maximŅ in a sigial corresponding to a-frrst flnger, (b) identify a the XÓ°ger 1o be set to zero at step 20 ii a signal th; Ůrst r°axiŻ-a, 1Ú)'tentify a corresponŠižg ro a secŠnd 970. sreps 295 and 30s ‚le unchŅnged ftom FIG. 6 and will not if N. .;J;;;^ žň " comparison at slep 305, then ‚ determination is m‚de th‚t . ff:T^['-.jt' one ringer is iD conract wir° r°e sensor, aišihei"il;'il ,r ^",i:,Ō: -'^:lo,,"j- 9f c]Śim 1 tuŐther includins the step of v‚riabžexrinserisserrooneatsrepgz5.ňyiŚ;;;,Óil'"::T:':q:.f.T!T.deviceclicktunctioDtooccurinresponse teast a second maxim‚' resurr ‚r srep 305 is a yes, tt u Ņ"Ņ"..io„lož"b ffiil;ž " lo"j"-t":l.tj-:t " 1 Ůrrlher incl'dins the step of "o be discussed t-urrher, Horvever, rwo flnsers ‚rc in conracl wirh ,h" *"*;Ōiš ;"-;;;;bi; xfinge° is ser ro rwo ar step 980. RegarctlesiTrži" ""-t* or fligen in conracr wit ir" ""n"oitr" f,ioš* step 320 and ends until the next cycle. Another tunction achievable with the ard ŚpparŅrus of rhc prer.nr inu"n,ion rryotbÔ::t:iTri:: edse rock. Because a rouch sensor can ter-ms, wbere oo tbe seosor nt?::dTg-::- finger following said mlinima, anŠ of lhe simullateoýs presence of T-oi"*loD tw^o fi°gersin response to identi cation ofsaid Żrst and :':111e" ;;;;b , :::19e- *"1i:"r*"i'"iff"f "iiT;: --l;,T::to:1,* tuBction 10 occŔr in respons "aim filšiÔ",.'u,Żs 10 to the eŻablins a "selecl" functioŻ in respo°žs al least-a seco°d maxima the srep or the detection of ýe operalive couplžog occurs, Ņ;;;;';;ffi Dertrg Ś the Ō:]Őő*-i,lŐ'lltly ot rures' saro maxrmas‚id liŻes largesl value on oDe of due to involving;;;;;; 1"":1^Llljt]::-11-1 "tenalfrnger of a b"f"."'f#š;""";;i;; * "ry"'"#l'-'-',lgtng t-t]o.it-tclaim drvle°ein said maxima are peak ŗÓr;;;;i: 3 R: 1 turther comp°isios the sŐep of iiŁi;šffi;š ^^11:--:t*^1-* 'laim between said fl°st maxim‚ and sŚid bul°on down, purs ir back d"*" ,d -;;;"';;;;-rf ;; :::^l1Tq.ij""ll"* p(ede…ned threshold u conrext of a louchpad, °o-".rr"r, ,".o.rur „iilš1"*š dn*"Ł """"ooŚTÔT:,to^ claim 1tu'ther comprising the steps of: n r°aybe perceivd Ņs re°minario° of rhe funi'ri;;;; ilil o, Tt-Ittno!.of sŐrch terminalion was not intenŅled. To ‚void $ch orobleri's. providi°g a first control fýnction i° response to the delectioD of the movement of two finge°s: the function in which the ýse. w‚s engaged at thŚ dme the detccfing the reŚching of an edgc of s‚id toýcb snsor by flngers hit the edge may remain aclive i.e., locked in-for s‚id two fingers; a delay period. If the fiDgers are placed dowŻ on the toýchPad within lhe delay period, the usr continues wilh lhe 50 detectirg ‚ Żrst tiŻe corresponding to the °emoval of said e‚rlier lunction. Il the user does not plŅce down the frngers  ngers from said Ložrch sensor; within a predefrned delay, th functioD is termi°ated aod a dekcting a second time corresponding to the leplacement °ew fu°ction begins wheD the ýser again plŚces tbe 6°gers of said rwo frngen on said louch sensor; anŗ in operalive conlact wrth the sensor *::'^"^iŌq,:jj It \\.irr b appreci‚red rrom rhe roregoins rhar rhe preser! 55 *::tt are wltol° a preoerermrneo itme lrmrl "lj::.,::*':t--T:-",t-'T,lijil.1--ft,1.:'^tol i°ve°tio° ŅLlŗws numeruus multi-6iger- qesrures' lo b. "t]es derected and converLed ro mouse-related fuoš::^tj:::.:, roiffi. ilrti"o trrt- I turrher comprising rhe srep of: ing a cursor and cootrol of oper‚ting environmeots or i- _^-_'-":' deteclitg a distance between said frrst Ś°d second ý'plications programs. I-Iowever, whi» some exemplary fuDcfions ‚nd cxemplary definitio°s for p„ticul‚r sequeocrs oo --mj t'. 11. Th melbod of claim 1 further comprising the step of: have been provideŠ ab„ve, it is to be žndcrstood ýat rhe providir°g ‚ drag control fŁnction i° respons to detecli°g prcsent invcnLion is not Őimited to the ‚ssocialion of a a movement in substa°fial žrnisoŻ of lwo said fi°gers. particular functioD with a paficular sequence or to Ņlny 12. The metbod of clŚim 1furthe° comprising the slep of: particžrlar set of fýnctions. lnsteacl tbis ‚sprct of the invention is directed lo the ability lo identify and process various 65 p°oviding a click function in response to the removal and sequeDces in which one or more Żngers are eilber absent or reappe‚rance of said second maxima within a predepresent, i°te°spersed with motion or lack of motion of the te°mined period of time. is possible to detect that one orÓore fingets hui. rhe e.rse ot rhe sensor tn i""o'""", "o,'" cooti°že ķe movement he was engaged i° wbeo he hit cdse; ror exampre, a drag runction which the rwo fi'sers hir the edse dragged b‚s Őeached i1s desrination. In rhe mouse, tbe žrser simpry pictsup tne mouse ,.u.n"Ņ "1"'jiT^1Jl-'-' ",n"Ôi.;.i""Ņ"ž„ ,-^1.*"^l:P-:j,.:t^."11*_ -_i;,1':^n:l::l :.r-:l*._t-gt^o::^T:tl"o^'ig.l9^.1"X:l ir ,r i-1iTlŁ:ji",ryncrron °n respo°se žo °nc dclcclton ol al 1"Y,n"j:T.j1o"^t:Ôl ,TÔ:1 13.The method ofclaim 1fýrlber coķprising lhe steps of: detectiDg a moveŻent of said frnt maxina; detecti°g a rcmoval aDd replaceDenr of said maxiloa wrtn°n Ś prcoežermrneo trķe penoo' r7 5,825,352 18 23. The touch sensor of clŚim 18 further coķprisirg: means for providing a frrst control function io respo°se to tb: d.:l:c,ti:i of the Żovemett of lwo flngers: meaos lor detecli°g the re‚chiog of an edge of said touch ķent of said frrst maxima; and providing a controŐ futrctio° in response to sŚid co'Õotli°s Ś cýrsor tunction io ,".po*. ro said moveand replacemeDt of said second 14. The method of claim 1 further coŻprising the step t ."iŚÓ:t :Ó::,iž'r" l"otŚiž'r" conespo'di°s ro rbe maxima. removal combinatioŻ of a nuŻber of frtrgers detected, * eŚcb olher amoýnt of time s‚id fingers are „etected. and any - .of ' 24-'fte touch sensor of claim 18 further comprising: movemenf of said frngersl 15 means for deLecting a dislšnce belweeD said flrst aDd 15. The method of claim l furtber comprising tbe step of maxŕnŚ' determidng if said first and second maxima a°e within 5 --secoDo 25 The toucb sensor of claim 18 furlher comP°ising: centimeters-, and only providing s‚id indicatioŻ of lhe presmeans for providi°g a drag coDtrol fuDction in rcspoDse to ence of °vo frngers i? said fŁst and scco°d m"ximŚ u." selecting aķ appropriate co°trol of: 10 furclior basd on a

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