Apple Inc. v. Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. et al

Filing 661

EXHIBITS re 660 Administrative Motion to File Under Seal Apple Inc.'s Notice of Motion and Motion for Partial Summary Judgment Exhibits to Mueller Declaration ISO Apple's Motion for Partial Summary Judgment [660-9] filed byApple Inc.(a California corporation). (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 2, # 2 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 3, # 3 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 4, # 4 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 5, # 5 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 6, # 6 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 7, # 7 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 8, # 8 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 9, # 9 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 10, # 10 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 11, # 11 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 12, # 12 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 13, # 13 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 14, # 14 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 15, # 15 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 16, # 16 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 17, # 17 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 18, # 18 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 19, # 19 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 20, # 20 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 21, # 21 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 22, # 22 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 23, # 23 Exhibit Mueller Decl Exhibit 24)(Related document(s) 660 ) (Selwyn, Mark) (Filed on 1/25/2012)

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Mueller Exhibit 21 US006928604B2 (12) United States Patent Park et al. (54) TURBO ENCODING/DECODING DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PROCESSING FRAME DATA ACCORDING TO QOS (75) Inventors: Chang-Soo Park, Seoul (KR); Joong-Ho Jeong, Seoul (KR); Hyeon-Woo Lee, Suwon-shi (KR) (73) Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (KR) (* Notice: Subject to any disclaimer, the term of this patent is extended or adjusted under 35 U.S.C. 154(b) by 0 days. (21) Appl. No.: 10/393,784 (22) Filed: (65) Mar. 21, 2003 Prior Publication Data US 2003/0188249 A1 Oct. 2, 2003 Related U.S. Application Data (63) (30) Continuation of application No. 09/282,851, filed on Mar. 31, 1999. Foreign Application Priority Data Mar. 31, 1998 (KR) ........................................ 1998-11380 (51) Int. Cl.7 ............................................... H03M 13/03 (10) Patent No.: US 6,928,604 B2 Aug. 9, 2005 (45) Date of Patent: (52) U.S. CI ........................ 714/788; 714/762; 370/470; 370/472; 341/51; 341/94; 341/95 (58) Field of Search ................................. 714/794-796, 714/752-758, 788, 790, 792, 701,712, 774, 786; 370/333, 349, 337, 394, 473, 368, 347, 252, 441, 342, 316, 468, 331, 442, 470, 472, 476; 455/436, 442; 341/50, 51, 94-95, 143; 382/239, 251; 375/341 (56) References Cited U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS 5,212,684 A * 5,307,351 A * 5/1993 MacNamee et al ......... 4/1994 Webster ...................... 370/280 370/470 ¯ cited by examiner Primary Examiner~3uy J. Lamarre (74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm~ilworth & Barrese LLP (57) ABSTRACT Disclosed is a turbo channel encoding and decoding device for a CDMA communication system. When the input data frames are very short, the device assembles input frames into one super frame of an appropriate length and then encodes and decodes the super frame. After frame encoding and decoding, the frames are reassembled into the original input frames. 33 Claims, 6 Drawing Sheets APLNDC-WH-A 0000016618 U.S. Patent Aug. 9, 2005 Sheet 1 of 6 US 6,928,604 B2 Xk dk 16 -I IN TERLEAVER ] G2 G1 ~-1 FIG. 1 APLNDC-WH-A 0000016619 U.S. Patent Aug. 9, 2005 Sheet 2 of 6 US 6,928,604 B2 + APLNDC-WH-A 0000016620 U.S. Patent Aug. 9, 2005 Sheet 3 of 6 US 6,928,604 B2 APLNDC-WH-A 0000016621 U.S. Patent Aug. 9, 2005 Sheet 4 of 6 US 6,928,604 B2 lores Turbo Encoding Chonnel Interleovin9 .. II .... I IJ II FIG. 4 APLNDC-WH-A 0000016622 U.S. Patent Aug. 9, 2005 Sheet 5 of 6 US 6,928,604 B2 toms Subfrome Subframe ~2 Subfrome #1 !I Turbo Encoding #1 Turbo Encoding #1 I Channel Interleaving to Channel FIG. 5 APLNDC-WH-A 0000016623 US 6,928,604 B2 1 2 vary from several ms (milliseconds) to several hundred ms. TURBO ENCODING/DECODING DEVICE For example, in the case where the data is transmitted at a AND METHOD FOR PROCESSING FRAME data rate of over 32 Kbps, the number of data input to the DATA ACCORDING TO QOS turbo encoder is larger due to the high data rate, the turbo PRIORITY decoder requires more memory and calculations to decode the received data. The turbo encoder exhibits properties This application is a continuation of copending U.S. where an error correction performance is enhanced as the patent application Ser. No. 09/282,851, filed Mar. 31, 1999, frame length of the input data becomes longer, however an which claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119 from an appliincrease in the memory and calculations is required in a cation entitled "TURBO CHANNEL ENCODING/ 10 decoder. DECODING DEVICE AND METHOD FOR PROCESSIn addition, if the length of the input frame is too short, ING FRAME ACCORDING TO QoS" filed in the Korean e.g., less than 8 kbps/10 ms, the interleaver 16 in the turbo Intellectual Property Office on Mar. 31, 1998, and assigned encoder cannot sufficiently decrease the correlation among Serial No. 98-11380, the contents of each of which are the input data, thereby deteriorating the error correction incorporated herein by reference. 15 performance. That is, when the frame length of the input data is longer (or the input data rate is high), the turbo BACKGROUND OF THEINVENTION encoder structured as shown in FIG. 1 and the turbo decoder 1. Field of the Invention structured as shown in FIG. 2 require a lot of calculations The present invention relates generally to a device and and memory to perform encoding and decoding. Otherwise, method for encoding and decoding channel data in a mobile 20 when the frame length of the input data is shorter, the turbo communication system, and in particular, to a device and encoder may exhibit lower performance results, as commethod for encoding and decoding channel data using a pared with a convolutional encoder or a concatenated turbo code. encoder, thereby increasing the BER. 2. Description of the Related Art Accordingly, it is possible to decrease the required calAn encoder using a turbo code (hereinafter referred to as 25 culations and memory capacity required for decoding by a turbo encoder) encodes an N-bit input frame into parity appropriately varying the processing size of the data input to symbols using two simple parallel concatenated codes, the turbo encoder, independent of the data rate for the wherein an RSC (Recursive Systematic Convolutional) code corresponding service, while fully securing the low BER is generally used as a component code. required in the communication system. FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate structures of conventional parallel 3o SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION turbo encoder and decoder, which are disclosed in U.S. Pat. According to the present invention, as embodied and No. 5,446,747 by Berrou, incorporated herein by reference. FIG. 1 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a broadly described herein, a channel encoding and decoding conventional turbo encoder. The turbo encoder of FIG. 1 35 apparatus is provided including a first constituent encoder for encoding data bits of a super frame or plurality of sub includes a first constituent encoder 12, a second constituent frames, an interleaver for interleaving the data bits of the encoder 14 and an interleaver 16 interconnected there super frame or sub frames, and a second constituent encoder between. For the first and second constituent encoders 12 and 14, an RSC encoder can be used, which is well known for encoding the interleaved data bits of the super frame or in the art. The interleaver 16 has the same size as a frame 4O sub frames. The second constituent encoder is coupled to the output of the interleaver. length of the input data (i.e., N bits), and decreases the The channel encoding/decoding apparatus can be used as correlation of the input data bitstream d~, provided to the second constituent encoder 14. Therefore, the parallel conpart of a base station or mobile station. The novel turbo encoder would be included as part of a channel transmitter catenated codes for the input data bitstream, d~, become x~, (i.e., d~, without modification) and Yak, and Y2~, the outputs of 45in accordance with an exemplary embodiment. The turbo the first 12 and second 14 constituent encoders. encoder makes a determination as to whether to segment one FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing a configuration of a input frame into several sub frames or continue several input frames into one super frame. conventional turbo decoder. The turbo decoder includes an It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to adder 18, subtracters 20 and 22, a soft decision circuit 24, delays 26, 28 and 30, and MAP (Maximum A Posterior 50provide a channel encoding device and method for variably encoding input data frames to sub or super frames of Probability) decoders 32 and 34. The turbo decoder further includes an interleaver 36 which is identical to the inter- appropriate length according to a QoS (quality of service) of leaver 16 of FIG. 1, and deinterleavers 38 and 40. The turbo data to transmit. decoder repeatedly decodes data received by the frame unit It is another object of the present invention to provide a using a MAP decoding algorithm, thereby decreasing a bit 55 channel decoding device and method for decoding encoded error rate (BER). frame data whose frame length is appropriately varied The utilization of interleaver 16 of the turbo encoder of according to the QoS (quality of service) of data to transmit. FIG. 1 implies that encoding and decoding should be perIt is still another object of the present invention to provide formed as a frame unit. Accordingly, it can be appreciated a turbo channel encoding and decoding device and method that the required memory and calculations required for the 6o for disassembling a long input frame or high data rate into MAP decoders 32 and 34, shown in FIG. 2 are proportional multiple sub frames to be encoded, and for separately to a value obtained by multiplying the frame size by a decoding the divided encoded sub frames and then reassemnumber of states of the first and second constituent encoders bling the decoded sub frames into the original frame length. 12 and 14 of FIG. 1. It is further still another object of the present invention to In a mobile communication system, voice and data are 65 provide a turbo channel encoding and decoding device and transmitted at a data rate of several Kbps to several Mbps, method for assembling short input frames or low data rate and a frame length of data input to a channel encoder may into a super frame having an appropriate length to encode APLNDC-WH-A 0000016624 US 6,928,604 B2 3 4 the assembled super frame, decoding the assembled encoded during the corresponding service. In a CDMA mobile communication system in particular, since the output power of a super frame and then reassembling the decoded super frame base station or a mobile station is limited, it is inadequate to into the original frames. increase a transmission power of only a certain user for a It is further still another object of the present invention to provide a turbo channel encoding and decoding device and 5 high quality service. This is because when the transmission power of the specific user is increased, interference to other method for determining an optimal length of the sub/super users will increase in proportion to the increased transmisframes by analyzing a quality of service (QoS) such as frame for a method length, time delay tolerance, error tolerance, receiver com- sion power. Therefore, there is a demand services with capable of providing various multimedia plexity (especially receiver memory), a data rate correspon- reduced interference to the other users by minimizing an dence to a service type of input frame data to be transmitted, s0 increase in the transmission power. and disassembling or assembling an input data frame into In another example, a short packet data transmission sub or super frames according to the determination. service requires a low data rate and a very low error rate. However, if the time delay is out of the question, it is BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS reasonable to decrease the error rate even though the time The above and other objects, features and advantages of 25 delay is somewhat increased. the present invention will become more apparent from the In the meantime, the turbo encoder for forward error correction, exhibits properties where shows a property that following detailed description when taken in conjunction the bit error rate (BER) or the frame error rate (FER) are with the accompanying drawings in which like reference varied according to the data size of frame (i.e., the number numerals indicate like parts. In the drawings: 2o to be FIG. 1 is a a block diagram of a conventional turbo of data bitsof the processed in a prescribed time) determined by length input data frame and data rate. The turbo encoder; encoder consists of constituent encoders having a short FIG. 2 is a a block diagram of a conventional turbo constraint length, however, the error correction capability is decoder; improved as the correlation between the data input to the respective constituent encoders is decreased, due to the FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating a block diagram of a 25 existence of the interleaver in the turbo encoder. The corchannel transmitter including a turbo encoder according to relation between the data input to the respective constituent an embodiment of the present invention; becomes lower, FIG. 4 is a diagram illustrating a method for assembling encoders encoder becomesas the data size of frame input to the turbo greater. Therefore, an increase in and turbo encoding input frames according to an embodi3o the frame length of the input data improves the error ment of the present invention; correction capability. However, an increase in length of the FIG. 5 is a diagram illustrating a method for disassem- input frame causes an increase in the time delay at the bling an input frame and turbo encoding the disassembled encoder and the decoder. frames according to an embodiment of the present invention; FIG. 3 illustrates a configuration of a channel transmitter and turbo encoder 35 including a invention. The according to an embodiment of turbo encoder shown in FIG. 3 FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating a block diagram of a the present disassembles segments one input frame into several sub channel receiver including a turbo decoder according to an frames or combines or concatenates several input frames embodiment of the present invention. into one super frame by counting bits of the input user data DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE in accordance with provided message information, and 4o thereafter encodes the segmented or combined frames with PREFERRED EMBODIMENT a turbo code to transmit the encoded frames via a transmisA preferred embodiment of the present invention will be sion channel. The term "message information" as used described herein below with reference to the accompanying herein refers to information about the QoS, i.e., service type, drawings. In the following description, well known funcrate of data such as voice, character, image and moving tions or constructions are not described in detail since they 45 picture data, size of the input data frame, permissible delay, would obscure the invention in unnecessary detail. and permissible error. The message information is Communication systems of the future will have capabili- exchanged between a base station and a mobile station ties for providing a plurality of services with varying QoS during a call setup and the exchange of the message infor(Quality of Service) characteristics, and QoS parameters mation is continued until termination of the corresponding including a time delay, BER, and frame error rate (FER). service. Further, predetermined information between the 50 Services may be generally divided into high error rate base station and the mobile station, determined during the services and low error rate services. Those services which call setup, can also be varied during the corresponding can be provided with a high error rate include: voice service service by data exchanging. That is, the message informawhich requires a relatively short time delay, and a short tion including information representing the size of the frame message service (SMS) which permits a long time delay. On 55 to be processed in the turbo encoder can be reset according the other hand, services requiring a low error rate include: a to a rate of the data to be serviced. For example, when 10 ms video conference service requiring a short time delay, and a frame data is serviced at a data rate of 2048 Kbps, one data still image or Internet file transfer service allowing a rela- frame consists of 20480 bits. In this case, the turbo encoder tively longer time delay. Further, the same service may have according to the present invention segments the 10 ms frame different time delays and data rates. 6o into 4 sub frames, turbo encodes the four 5120 bit sub For example, in the image service for transmitting and frames, and then recombines four encoded sub frames into receiving moving picture information, a data rate is 32-2048 a 10 ms frame for channel interleaving. The turbo decoder Kbps and a permissible time delay is in the range of 10400 then decodes the four encoded sub frames and reassembles them into one 20480-bit 10 ms frame. ms. The data rate and the permissible time delay can be, however, varied according to a number of criteria including: 65 FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a channel transmitter a class of the user or terminal using the service, a class of the including a turbo encoder according to an embodiment of base station providing the service or a channel condition the present invention. APLNDC-WH-A 0000016625 US 6,928,604 B2 As shown in FIG. 3, user data (UD) is received by a transmission delay from several tens of ms to several source data encoder 42. The user data UD has a data rate of hundreds of ms and requires a BER of 10-6-10-7. The over several tens of Kbps, such as character, image and performance of the turbo encoder is enhanced as the frame moving picture data, as distinguished from voice data havlength of the input data is increased. However, additional ing a much lower data rate on the order of several Kbps. The 5 calculations and memory is required in the turbo decoder. source data encoder 42 encodes the received user data UD There is a trade-off between performance and decoder as a fixed length frame whose length is determined in complexity. In the case of the packet data service, for accordance with the service type and then provides the example, it is possible to satisfy both the required BER and encoded fixed length frame data to an input of a bit counter moderate decoder complexity by enabling the CPU 46 to 50. For example, the source data encoder 42 typically s0 generate a sub/super frame control signal for segmenting/ encodes voice data with a 10 ms frame format, character combining the output data from the source data encoder 42, data with a 20 ms frame format, image data with an 80 ms frame format, and moving picture data with a 40 ms frame of M-bit length, into sub frames or super frames of N-bit length. format, and provides the respective encoded data into the bit That is, the frame segment/combine information storage counter 50. A central processing unit (CPU) 46 transfers information about the QoS, i.e., service type of the user data 25 unit 48 stores frame segmentation or combination informato be transmitted (e.g., voice, character, image or moving tion for increasing the length N of the sub frame or super picture) and the data rate to a message information receiver frame for a service requiring the low BER and for decreasing 108 of FIG. 6 via a message information transmitter 44. The the length N of the sub frame or super frame for a service channel transmission device of FIG. 3 can be equally applied requiring a short time delay and a high BER. The CPU 46 to both the base station and the mobile station. 2o reads the frame segment/combine information from the Although the present invention is described with referframe segment/combine information storage 48 according to ence to an embodiment which transmits the message inforthe service type and the frame length of the input data. mation to the decoder using a separate transmitter, it is also Segmenting or combining the frames input to the turbo possible to transmit the data size information by loading it encoder can be more readily appreciated from the following in a head area of a transmission frame during data trans- 25 example. Assume a frame size of the data input to the turbo mission. Referring to FIG. 3, the CPU 46 reads, from a frame encoder is 20480 bits/10 ms, for a low BER service having segment/combine information storage unit 48, QoS infor- a data rate 2048 Kbps. In the mobile station providing the above service, the turbo decoder requires a memory capacity mation including information about service type of data to which is proportional to 20480 multiplied by number be transmitted, corresponding data rate, permissible delay, 3o soft decision bits. An increase in bits memory capacity of theof the permissible error rate (BER or FER) and frame length, and mobile station causes an increase in complexity and cost of information about service class of the base station or the mobile station. Next, the CPU 46 makes a determination to the mobile station. However, in the service having a data rate of 2048 segment the received frame and therefore must also determine the size and number of the segmented frames, using the 35 Kbps/10 ms, if the channel encoder divides (i.e., segments) a frame input to the turbo encoder into four sub frames (i.e., read information. Alternatively, when constructing a super frame, the CPU 46 may determine to combine the required 10 ms/4) and encodes the sub frames, and a turbo decoder in the channel decoder then decodes the sub frames and frames and therefore must also determine the number of reassembles the decoded sub frames into the original frame, frames to be combined, using the read information. Based on the determination, the CPU 46 provides a frame segment/4O the turbo decoder requires a memory capacity which is proportional to 5120 bits multiplied by the number of soft combine control signal and an interleaving mode signal to the bit counter 50 and a programmable interleaver 52, decision bits, thereby causing a reduction in the required memory capacity. respectively, to perform turbo encoding. That is, according to the QoS of the data to transmit, the CPU 46 determines Furthermore, for a low BER service having a low data rate how many consecutive input frames should be combined to 45 of 32 Kbps/10 ms, each data frame input to the turbo encoder generate a super frame, or alternatively determines the will consist of 320 bits. If encoding is performed at a data number of sub frames which will be generated by segmentrate of 32 Kbps/80 ms (i.e., each frame consists of 2560 ing one input frame. The turbo encoder then turbo encodes bits), the time delay is somewhat increased, as compared data bits of the super frame or data bits of the respective sub with the case where turbo encoding is performed at the data frames. As previously stated, the QoS may include input 50 rate of 32 Kbps/10 ms (i.e., each frame consists of 320 bits). frame length, user data rate, permissible delay, permissible However, it is possible to decrease the BER for the same error rate, etc. signal-to-noise ratio Eb/No or decrease the Eb/No value for In determining whether to disassemble or assemble the the same BER, thereby increasing the overall system capacframes by the CPU 46, the following criteria are considered. ity. In general, for transmitting packet data, the mobile com-55 In the mobile communication system, not all the users or munication system uses a low data rate of below several tens mobile stations are provided with the same services. Instead, of Kbps, with a transmission delay from several tens of ms the available data rate is limited according to the user class, (milliseconds) and requires a BER on the order of 10-2-10- the mobile station or the base station. In addition, the 4. For example, if the output frame of the source data available data rate may be limited due to the memory encoder 42 is 10 ms long and a permissible delay time 6o capacity determined according to the class of the respective permitted in the turbo encoder is 40 ms, it is possible to mobile stations. Accordingly, when the data rate is variable combine four 10 ms frames output from the source data from 32 Kbps to 2048 Kbps according to the service type (or encoder 42 into one super frame, which will be input to the service option) and the permissible time delay also varies turbo encoder. Therefore, the error rate of assembled packet from 10 ms to 400 ms, the device according to the present data can be decreased. 65 invention can vary the length of the frames input to the turbo For transmitting character, image and moving picture encoder according to the class of the user or mobile station data, the mobile communication system has a permissible the class of the base station service type or the channel APLNDC-WH-A 0000016626 US 6,928,604 B2 7 8 condition while satisfying the required error rate of the bined by the bit counter 50 the interleaving address mapper corresponding service. For example, when channel condi74 maps the input bits to the interleaved data buffer address tions are less than optimum, the device according to the corresponding to the interleaving processing result so as to present invention can satisfy the error rate required by a perform interleaving, and provides the interleaved data to an corresponding service by increasing the length of the frames 5 interleaved input data buffer (ILIB) 78 in the first buffer 54 input to the turbo encoder and thereby permitting an increase or an ILIB 90 in the second buffer 56. in the time delay rather than increasing the transmission The first and second input buffers 54 and 56 each include power. two input switches, two output switches, an input data save The frame segmentation or combination information, which is the message information being exchanged between buffer (IDSB) with input and output ports connected to ones the base station and the mobile station, contains information s0 of the input and output switches, and the ILIB with input and output ports connected to the other ones of the input and about the size of the frames to be encoded/decoded, wherein output switches. In the drawing, reference numerals 16 and the frame size may be determined according to user data 88 denote IDSBs, reference numerals 78 and 90 denote rate, input frame length, permissible delay, permissible error ILIBs, reference numerals 80, 84, 92 and 96 denote input rate and the channel condition, etc. 25 switches, and reference numerals 82, 86, 94 and 98 denote The bit counter 5!) counts N bits of the input data according to an N-bit frame segment/combine control signal output switches. All the switches are controlled by the CPU 46. The switches 80, 82, 84 and 86 in the first input buffer output from the CPU 46, and provides the counted N bits to 54 operate as a mirror image and alternate with the switches the programmable interleaver 52 and first and second input 92, 94, 96 and 98 in the second input buffer 56. That is, input buffers 54 and 56. The bit counter 51) also generates a bit 20 switches 80 and 84 in the first input buffer 54 are in the ON count termination signal to the CPU 46 whenever it counts state and the output switches 82 and 86 are in the OFF state, N bits of the input data. Therefore, it can be appreciated that while the input switches 92 and 96 in the second input buffer the bit counter 5!) segments or combines the input frames 56 are in the OFF state and the output switches 94 and 98 are into sub or super frames having a specific length, under the in the ON state. control of the CPU 46 which uses the QoS information, such 25 Accordingly, when the bit counter 50 counts N bits of the as the service type and the data rate of the input data, stored input data under the control of the CPU 46, the data output in the frame segment/combine information storage 48, and from the bit counter is first stored in the IDSB 76 in the first provides the sub or super frames to the programmable buffer 54 through the input switch 80 which is initially in the interleaver 52 and the first and second input buffers 54 and ON state. At this moment, the counted data bits output from 56. 3o the bit counter 50 are interleaved by the programmable An interleaving processor 72, a component of the prointerleaver 52 and then stored in the ILIB 78 in the first input grammable interleaver 52, reads interleaving parameters buffer 54 through the switch 84. If the bit counter 50 from an interleaving parameter storage 7!) according to an generates a bit count termination signal for the sub/super interleaving mode control signal output from the CPU 46 to 46 process the read interleaving parameters, and provides the 35 frame of N-bit length, the CPUfirstthen repeats the above procedure after switching the input buffer 54 to an processing result to an interleaving address mapper 74. output state and the second input buffer 56 to an input state. Here, the CPU 46 provides the interleaving processor 72 As a result, the next N bits counted from the bit counter 50 with the following interleaving information. and the interleaved data from the programmable interleaver First, in the case where a turbo interleaver having a single 52 are stored in the IDSB 88 interleaving method is used as the interleaver 52, optimal 4o input buffer 56, respectively. and the ILIB 90 in the second parameter values are provided as the interleaving informaDuring this operation, a first RSC (RSC1) 58 and a second tion. The optimal parameter values are determined to have RSC (RSC2) 60 receive the N-bit sub/super frame data and the highest performance according to the length of the data the corresponding interleaved data output from the IDSB 76 information bits sequence to be interleaved. The parameter values can be determined by experimentally obtained val- 45 and LIB 78 in the first input buffer through the output switches 82 and 86, respectively, and then performs turbo ues. Second, in the case where a turbo interleaver having one encoding by the N-bit frame unit in the same manner as the turbo encoder of FIG. 1. or more interleaving methods is used as the interleaver 52, Next, when the N-bit frame data is completely stored in optimal parameter values are provided as the interleaving information and are determined to have the highest perfor- 5o the second input buffer 56, the first input buffer 54 is again mance through experimentation according to the length of switched to the input state and the second input buffer 56 to the output state. Therefore, the RSC1 58 and the RSC2 60 the information bits for interleaving and the variable length turbo encode the data which are alternately output by the of the interleaver in the corresponding interleaving mode. N-bit frame unit from the first and second input buffers 54 For example, in the case where the required transmission delay time is short and the input data frame of the turbo 55 and 56. encoder (i.e., the output data frame of the source data The turbo encoded bits from the RSC1 58 and the RSC2 encoder 42) is small in size (or length), a uniform interleaver 60 are multiplexed by a multiplexer 62 and then interleaved such as a block interleaver or a cyclic shift interleaver is by a channel interleaver 64. In the case where the several used for the interleaver 52. Otherwise, in the case where the input frames are combined into one super frame and the data required transmission delay time is relatively long and the 6o is turbo encoded by the super frame unit, the channel input data frame is large in size, a non-uniform interleaver interleaver 64 performs channel interleaving by the super such as a random interleaver is used for the interleaver 52. frame unit as shown in FIG. 4. On the other hand, when one From the foregoing description, it could be appreciated that input frame is segmented into several sub frames and the various interleavers can be used according to the size of the data is turbo encoded by the sub frame unit, the channel data to be interleaved. 65 interleaving is performed by the input frame unit as shown The interleaving address mapper 74 receives either sub in FIG. 5. That is, the channel interleaver 64 performs frames or super frames of N-bit length segmented or cornchannel interleaving by combining the output symbols of the APLNDC-WH-A 0000016627 US 6,928,604 B2 9 10 turbo encoder, encoded by the super frame or sub frame unit, leaver and a deinterleaver in a turbo decoder 116 according as large in size as the input frame. The interleaved data is to the analysis, thereby performing turbo interleaving. In modulated by a modulator 66 and then transmitted through addition, when the receiving data is sub frame (actually the a transmission channel 68. received data is an original frame size but the frame is Thus, the novel channel transmission device shown in 5 encoded by sub frame unit), the CPU 112 outputs an N-bit frame segment control signal and a frame combine control FIG. 3 combines the input data frames into super frames to signal after turbo decoding according to the read message increase the bit number N when a low BER is required from information. Here, the information stored in the frame an analysis of the QoS information such as the user’s service segment/combine information storage 110 is similar to that type (e.g., voice, character, image and moving picture). Otherwise, when a low decoder complexity is required, the s0 stored in the frame segment/combine information storage 48 of FIG. 3. When the receiving data is super frame, the CPU novel channel transmission device segments the input data 112 controls the turbo decoder to decode the received frame frame into sub frames to decrease the bit number N per as it is and then a frame segmenting control signal after turbo frame. In this manner, the channel transmission device can decoding according to the read message information. maximize the efficiency of the turbo encoder. The bit counter 106 consecutively provides the data FIG. 4 is a diagram for explaining the operation of the 25 output from the demultiplexer 104 to a frame buffer 114 by invention, wherein the frames are combined at a low or the N-bit sub frame unit according to the N-bit frame medium data rate and then turbo encoded. For example, a segment control signal. Switches 126 and 132 in the frame parameter J can be varied from 1 to 8 according to the buffer 114 are initially in the ON state and the other switches number of the frames to be assembled. In the turbo encoder, the bit number of an input data frame, which is determined 20 128 and 130 are initially in the OFF state. by multiplying the bit number of original frame by the frame Therefore, the counted data bits output from the bit number J, may be limited depending on user data rate and counter 106 are initially stored in a first N-frame buffer decoder complexity. (N-FB1) 122. Upon completion of storing the N-bit data output from the bit counter 106 in the N-FB1 122, the bit FIG. 5 is a diagram for explaining operation of the 25 counter 106 generates an N-bit count termination signal. invention, wherein a frame data provided at a high data rate Upon detecting the N-bit count termination signal, the CPU is segmented and then turbo encoded. A parameter I can be varied from i to 4 according to the number of the segmented 112 turns off switches 126 and 132 in the frame buffer 114 sub frames. Likewise, in the turbo encoder, the bit number and turns on the other switches 130 and 128. Then, the N-bit of an input data frame, which is determined by a value data output from the bit counter 106 is stored in a second obtained by dividing the bit number of original frame by the 3o N-frame buffer (N-FB2) 124. At this moment, the received number, I, of the segmented sub frames, may be limited. data stored in the N-FB1 122 is decoded by a turbo decoder 116 having the same structure as that of FIG. 2. The data on the transmission channel transmitted by the turbo channel encoder of FIG. 3 is decoded into the original Accordingly, under the control of the CPU 112, the data by the turbo channel decoder of FIG. 6, which is more 35 N-FB1 122 and the N-FB2 124 in the frame buffer 114 fully described from the following description. alternately receive and store the data output by the N-bit unit from the bit counter 106, and the stored data is decoded by FIG. 6 illustrates the turbo channel decoder configuration the turbo decoder 116. The decoded data output from the according to an embodiment of the present invention. The turbo decoder 116 is reconstructed into the frames of the turbo channel decoder of FIG. 6 counts bits of the user data input by the N-bit sub frame unit according to message 4o original length by a frame reconstructor 118 which is controlled by the CPU 112, and then output as the user data information to decode the input user data and thereafter, through a source data decoder 120. combines the decoded data into frames having the original length, thereby reconstructed the user data. When the user In summary, the turbo decoder 116, broadly described, data consist of by N-bit super frame, the turbo decoder receives a super frame consisting of multiple frames or decodes the input user data and thereafter segments the 45 multiple sub frames segmented from a frame, and turbo decoded data into frames having the original length, thereby decodes the received frames. The frame reconstructor 118, recontructing the user data. under the control of the CPU 112, reconstructs, when user data decoded by sub frame unit, the output of the turbo Referring to FIG. 6, upon receiving a frame of N-bit decoder 116 into the original frames in response to inforlength through the transmission channel 68, a demodulator 100 demodulates the received frame data and provides the 5o marion about the frame size and number of the frames constituting the sub frame or information about the number demodulated data to a channel deinterleaver 102. The chanof the sub frames segmented from the input frame and the nel deinterleaver 102 descrambles the demodulated data size of the sub frames. That is frame reconstructor 118, frame and applies it to a demultiplexer 104, which demulsegments super frames or combines sub frames in response tiplexes the multiplexed data symbols and parity symbols and provides the demultiplexed symbols to a bit counter 106. 55 to the original frame information. Here, a message information receiver 108 receives message The turbo encoder of the present invention also includes information regarding the service type of the user and the a method in which any one of the bit counter 50 and the data rate that the message information transmitter 44 of FIG. buffers 54 and 56 for interleaving, shown in FIG. 3, is not 3 has transmitted, and provides the received message inforrequired. In the frame combining operation, the data bits are mation to a CPU 112. 6o sequentially stored in the memory (i.e, buffer 54 or 56) for The CPU 112 analyzes the message information provided interleaving the number of the frames to be combined. Data from the message information receiver 108 and reads frame bits are sequentially output to the RSC1 in the turbo encoder segmentation or combination information from a frame in quantities equivalent to the number of non-interleaved segment/combine information storage 110 according to the combined frames. Data bits are output to the RSC2 in analysis. Also, the CPU 112 analyzes the interleaving infor- 65 quantities equivalent to the number of combined frames mation included in the message information and provides an which are interleaved to the addresses of the interleaving interleaving mode signal and a parameter value to an interaddress mapper generated by the interleaving processor. APLNDC-WH-A 0000016628 US 6,928,604 B2 11 12 In another exemplary method, in the frame combination 9. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim operation, the input data bits are sequentially stored in the 1, wherein the number of input data frames to compose the memory for interleaving. Data bits are sequentially output to super frame is determined by a receiver memory size. the RSC1 in the turbo decoder in quantities equivalent to the 10. A channel encoding method for a mobile communisize of the combined frame size. Data bits are interleaved to 5 cation system having turbo encoder input data frames of the RSC2 and output in quantities equivalent to the size of variable size, comprising the steps of: the combined frame size. determining the number of input data frames to construct Accordingly, the turbo channel encoder of FIG. 3 and the a super frame; turbo channel decoder of FIG. 6 combine input data frames concatenating the number of the input data frames into a into a super frame to encode and decode the input frames by s0 super frame; and the super frame unit when the input data frames are too turbo encoding data of the super frame consisting of more short, and segment an input frame into multiple sub frames than one input data frame. to encode and decode the input frame by the sub frame unit when the input frame is too long, to increase transmission 11. The channel encoding method as claimed in claim 10, efficiency. wherein the turbo encoding step further comprises the steps As described above, the embodiment of the present inven- 15 of: tion segments or combines input frames into sub frames or encoding data of the super frame; super frames of an appropriate length when the input data interleaving data of the super frame; and frame is very long or short, and then encodes and decodes encoding data of the interleaved super frame. the sub frames or super frames. In this manner, it is possible to reduce the number of required calculations and memory 20 12. The channel encoding method as claimed in claim 10, further comprising the step of channel interleaving the turbo capacity required in the decoder, while fully securing the encoded data in accordance with the size of the super frame. performance of the turbo code encoder. 13. The channel encoding method as claimed in claim 10, While the invention has been shown and described with processor determines to the input reference to a certain preferred embodiment thereof, it will wherein theif the data rate of the inputconcatenateis less than data frames data frame be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes 25 32 kbps/10 ms. in form and details may be made therein without departing 14. The mobile communication system as claimed in from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the claim 10, wherein the number of input data frames to appended claims. construct the super frame is determined by a permissible What is claimed is: 1. A mobile communication system having input data 30 delay. The mobile communication system as claimed in 15. frames of variable size, comprising: claim 10, wherein the number of input data frames to a processor for determining the number of input data construct the super frame is determined by a permissible frames to concatenate to compose a super frame; and error rate. a turbo encoder for turbo encoding the super frame 35 16. The mobile communication system as claimed in consisting of more than one input data frame. claim 10, wherein the number of input data frames to 2. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim construct the super frame is determined by a receiver 1, wherein the turbo encoder comprises: memory size. a first constituent encoder for encoding data of the super 17. A mobile communication system having turbo frame; encoder input data frames of variable size, comprising: 40 an interleaver for interleaving the data of the super frame; a decoder for turbo decoding data being received as a and super frame including a plurality of original input data a second constituent encoder, operably connected to said frames; and interleaver, for encoding the interleaved data of the a frame reconstructor for segmenting an output of the super frame. 45 turbo decoder into a number of original input data 3. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim frames in accordance with a message information about 1, wherein said interleaver includes an interleaving address the original input data frames constituting said super mapper for interleaving the data of the super frame. frame. 4. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim 18. The mobile communication system as claimed in 2, further comprising: 50 claim 17, further comprising a processor for determining a a multiplexer for multiplexing respective outputs of the number and a size of original input data frames constituting first and second constituent encoders; and said super frame based upon received message information a channel interleaver for interleaving an output of the about the number and the size of the original input data multiplexer. frames combined into the super frame, and providing the 5. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim 55determined number and size information to the frame recon1, wherein the processor determines to concatenate the input structor. data frames if the data rate of the input data frame is less than 19. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim 17, wherein said message information is received 32 i/10 ms. 6. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim during a call setup. 1, further wherein the number of input data frames to make 6o 20. The mobile communication system as claimed in the super frame is determined by a data size of a frame. claim 17, further comprising a processor for determining a 7. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim number and a size of original input data frames constituting 1, wherein the number of input data frames to compose the said super frame based upon received message information super frame is determined by a permissible delay. about the number and the size of the original input data 8. The mobile communication system as claimed in claim 65 frames combined into the super frame, and providing the 1, wherein the number of input data frames to compose the determined number and size information to the frame reconsuper frame is determined by a permissible error rate. structor. APLNDC-WH-A 0000016629 US 6,928,604 B2 13 14 21. A channel decoding method for a mobile communiturbo encoding the super frame which is composed of a cation system having turbo encoder input data frames of number of input data frames. variable size, comprising the steps of: 25. The channel encoding method as claimed in claim 24, wherein the predetermined value is less than 32 kbps/10 ms. turbo decoding data received as a super frame including 26. A channel encoding method for a mobile communi5 a plurality of original input data frames; and cation system having turbo encoder input data frames of segmenting an output of the decoder into a number of variable size, comprising the steps of: original input data frames in accordance with message determining a number of input data frames to construct a information about the original input data frames consuper frame according to a QoS (Quality of Service); stituting said super frame. 22. A mobile communication system having turbo 10 concatenating the number of input data frames into a super frame; and encoder input data frames comprising: turbo encoding data of the super frame. a processor for determining to concatenate a number of 27. The channel encoding method as claimed in claim 26, input data frames to compose a super frame when a data rate of the input data frames is less than a predeter- 25 wherein the turbo encoding step further comprises the steps of: encoding data of the super frame; mined value; interleaving data of the super frame; and a first constituent encoder for encoding data of the super encoding data of the interleaved super frame. frame; 28. The channel encoding method as claimed in claim 26, an interleaver for interleaving the data of the super frame; a second constituent encoder for encoding output of the 2o further comprising the step of channel interleaving the turbo encoded data in accordance with the size of the super frame. interleaver; and 29. The channel encoding method as claimed in claim 26, a channel interleaver for interleaving the output of the wherein the QoS includes a data rate. turbo encoder. 30. The channel encoding method as claimed in claim 29, 23. The mobile communication system as claimed in 25 wherein the data rate is less than 32 kbps/10 ms. claim 22, wherein the predetermined value is 32 kbps/10 ms. 31. The mobile communication system as claimed in 24. A channel encoding method for a mobile communi- claim 26, wherein the QoS includes a permissible delay. cation system having turbo encoder input data frames of 32. The mobile communication system as claimed in variable size, comprising the steps of: claim 26, wherein the QoS includes a permissible error rate. comparing a data rate of input data frames to a turbo 3O 33. The mobile communication system as claimed in encoder with a predetermined value; claim 26, wherein the QoS includes a receiver memory size. deciding to compose a super frame if the data rate is less than the predetermined value; and APLNDC-WH-A 0000016630

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