Cambridge University Press et al v. Patton et al

Filing 324

DEPOSITION of Daphne Greenberg, Ph.D. taken on April 21, 2011 by Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, Inc., Sage Publications, Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit D-1, # 2 Exhibit D-2, # 3 Exhibit D-3 - part1, # 4 Exhibit D-3 - part 2, # 5 Exhibit D-4, # 6 Exhibit D-5, # 7 Exhibit P-1)(Rains, John)

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E X H I B I T 3 Chapter Research Design and Issues Methodological for Adult Development and Learning Grace Both adult areas of research search that in their practices opment and learning to opportunity but also about Decisions and related the made by not the aim here sues types of those to is involved working provide points research some topic the explanation blending together priateness in this that combined of which of just one are greater are may be of entire topic first key of The findings issues section of statistical cance with ones research the and to generalizability mea discusses appro measurement scale clinical versus the evaluating the development briefly addresses chapter significance respect of how reliability validity scales change of the third section measure The and issues sampling including of designs sequential influence cross- the signifi importance of findings is for STUDY TYPES devel at various on texts The these final issue be Rather useful adult referred detail to can including descriptive various evaluating areas Readers with the of The asked as chapter overview and the such Issues of be need pursued research on focuses sample measurement disciplines should that be designing publications lar an of of type surement endeavors in opment and learning to scope the and types study quasi-experimental section research researchers in the devel several longitudinal second of separate questions individual included are sectional unique previously should of the in challenges that youth experimental re of adult describes chapter tradition new the theories of Willis Sheriy have investigators yet the own its type relative the intersection out new face two these carve has the to respect Given the at Each right and established are learning own with conducted is conducted research and development and traditions Caskie Experimental Studies particit devoted to section of In an experimental assigned to study membership in participants one of Defendants 52 Exhibit 3 - 1 two are or randomly more Exhibit 6Eeie6- IESQ groups RESEARCH that will be clinical trial compared For example on et al 2002 to one of group the than behavior Thus for word should in artificiality mental the are the results too of generalizability leads trols in the lab that desigus are discussed number useful for interventions of the comparison relation to the experimental group pre- and erwise is no important intervention that may result than once i.e the of experimental design group factors to all The placebo design on the the behavioral placebo outcome of being to must not the treatment measures it that arid oth but any in gain tested the more has type group control include For may be that type of intervention research de same This control treatment to the The second nonspecific and vention cient confounding of trainers having conducting at all site ito will issues practical the including few in intervention ex necessity at the same with the type of inter who are equally interventions multiple avoid to com salient result profi intertentions in evidence initial estimate treatment critical administering of Be of factors most across design con comparison may the and number this of Although design number on differ to Studies the group battery contact effect placebo considered and an practice design provides chological and simply from use of Quasi-Experimental control for providing effect score or of the in problem useful type constant Additionally with in different effective very Willis design vary used receives receives assessment intervention be designs group that that group postinterventinn receives behav ist be change held being more optimal Hofland same determine to producing the distincfly the this may difficult for groups experimental These be con of to using experimental comparative more sessions training needed be all determine the or of several for to hrst to interventions factors conducting or control no-treatment comparison of design an the First uses cause can con number may with exist ponent level two at cerns the experimental of types adults might seem this compo else while holding Finally which can groups intervention para approaches determine in an the sessions comparing of different varying compared 1981 of imple the by mie training and identify components the in therefore Fourth the increased tervention it Having decrease volves site in terms intervention of difficult generalize havioral sign effect selling particularly with rc Lon women also to limit Human for the in the five may be and separately components factor example Baltes if may be it to can difficult For experi situa various is systematically experimental stant of National for greater world real 2001 Willis more it to study findings artificiality one number may Center to control controls design to effective of condi design components requirement of most involves of real the combination or being example e.g Men study greater making setting ior to For of the studys many experimental con would Although study 1992 the generalize assign the various ability Comparison identify nent to the is design group implemented essential independently help of are An tervention metric concern variables Older of the approximate men this control that many included only Research on gender too intervention which in 53 ISSUES their treatment to control component design combination groups studies to of the equally researcher about said designed Surveys Resource be for be to the of participants the hetween-group ment used is and factors Third variable the validity validity of the study gitudinal to also controlling search allow blindness tion using random of the variables should process designs experimental studies external the ex an influence may experimental internal studys tions studied confounding possible decrease grouped that through ment experimental trol i.e being among group or that variable the control to variable are or construct or groups Ball assigned randomly control independent outcome distributed groups training or adults randomly participants participants the predict cognitive condition which were ACTIVE in the of older training participants assigning perimental on the three By other cognitive AND METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN any psy at maintain studies is groups exist for entirely groups the such existing These as studies 1979 ies studies shortly lii pendent are studies practice are educational age studies be level studies Campbell and differences described in greater assigned include stud to an multiple variables or grouping variables which mixture of randomly assigned variables Exhibit 3 - 2 as pre of quasi-experimental cannot most compare randomly Cook of changes examples individuals to quasi-experimental 1953 of age he of interest or age called Cross-sectional because include gender Stanley longitudinal detail characteristics are Campbell wants to low- appropriate cannot individuals because signed and researcher which to random assignment which possible sometimes ever level difficult effect Many age inde may and FOUNDATIONS 54 i.e classificatory that define the 1990 the compared with three verbal sificatory perimental which to signed When is unknown may different For example cohort experiences influence internal the factors differences behavior were than other pose we levels were of the randomly e.g in as training fac the variable sis different for belier of the memory can that are examine decrease variable memory number of other be with related variables conducted condition on struction and If the signment of all the experimental and would it e.g due to who in improvement the receiving received the gender in the assignment had the sample would have been the experimental group and founded may variables not insidious tion been such be as as if as such as in older and ban campuses all real group adults younger with Alternative are conducting and lion than Two methods are basic likely to be used quantitative all random into Con group exam- maybe or loca from subur explanations for researcher or she under in into When he in center ords has study viduals qualitative may they be also oriented The For between supported 1988 study Exhibit 3 - 3 in simply and et al in behaviors and 1980 and in the men rec demon interactions staff of indi citizen then are members whether they resident Am naturalistic of the senior that terms behaviors conducted the store residents individuals observes behaviors coded observation the e.g grocery in Baltes home dependence which or about example also with environment park nursing observed were naturalistic contact researcher natural library quantitatively uses direct no information strated ato more in descriptive considered although for observa naturalistic The methods not may study are women site more incorporated fact that yet all study groups study randomly and at descriptive case whether If to assigned rather come from an urban adults be not are conditions any experimental are hypothetical studies assigned studies distributed control this in confounding all equally the to measure the men and the obvious environment college used rela Studies individuals studies descriptive partici the women were In been interactions or to instruction have of as fathers outcome parentchild instruction of in to mothers untangle to impossible observed differences any be with child of were would condition their explain are could sup assigned entirely there that status tionship parentchild techniques completely confounded pant effect of quality consisted group the participants child-rearing control to on tlse because that by causal rathcr For example on study instruction corre reported differences group variables caused we performance made at ba have if courses socioeconomic these to be nut e.g variables However memory of responses sessions training education adult could conclusions more ses strong number between one would perfonnance participant con to explain trying lated i.e to ability that concluding and of correct training to participants of training design number variable assigned If number the found were and between dependent variable to sta simply is randomly parametric sessions end were to used measure relationship the independent assigned correlation it and individuals or not each experimental extraneous interactions as the linear variable independent whether the is random assignment statistical relationship describes mislead is conclusions Correlation Descriptive rearing pie that of type the which dependent we the the causal whether on the positive to other to represent studythe that to the by or variables are in the we want caused due than describe sions young.and education the or construct which or for as development validity of that clude those compared independent age groups and learning as truly gender the be randomly are are including Confounding the females or with covary not such differences i.e age difference that tors whether ex to used was tistic cannot regarding were groups clas the contrast design males and is make to correla that imply causation ability dependent actually study and conclusions individuals or conditions This in that ing admonition necessarily the used been not when considered be always well-known the does not lion experirnen six cueing In group preexisting individuals group and quasi-experimental variables adults has assignment Thus included experimental it causal design made in old age of random Dudley old integration integration variable one conditions because quasi-experimental conditions verbal cueing and young to assigned and should differences group compared For ex Puglisi of variables assigned be will recall two conditions crossed that groups who were randomly tal randomly Smith Morrell Park ample not caring observation for young DESIGN AND METHODOLOGICAL RESEARCH children en in public naturalistic la rd- is iit to in adults learning may be more ample one might turn lead en efficacy le acy to number its to their might be nal In contrast tact to the observation at study the tense detail-gathering study only way studies of case be found of Examples more 2001 studied were jects about questions and of lyzed and rated process data collected from about their over their late lives forties the case studies Paul and John tail incorporation chological study of that specifically identity in open-ended were sessions Schaie late determine or men calculator adolescence in great to de administration with of the men and the psy to be to In other may be that period their time Exhibit 3 - 4 the data between the less than of may the age individ experience held of learning cal or without addition the the in on it by hand experience In collected that older with increases with on if adults problems rather tisne of it cross-sectional only one should measure participants at co frilly i.e niatura younger may have influence are birth For example problems effects cross- cannot age is de Baby born in differences explanation mance cannot be examined because different study cohort-specific the the was from ability the typically used outperfonn words is e.g years increased by hand that participants observed to cohorts problems ment i.e any alternate younger noted case study in cross- groups age mathematic do simple math culator the developmen however simple mathematics an in of differences found that However the due are cohort of test working 40 about confounded of must be drawn whether to mind are cross-stctional were book of researcher longitudinal range group then age groups uals e.g cross- and membership or the which Thus appear on con Cross-sectional particular in keep Cohort year in study included demonstrates the the sectional the to age definition horts study time inform age changes and cohort studies by timed James William may occur of l3oomers By in in is some abortion planning important sectional Mea ana when interest 1996b is fined can for to necessary process males presented both bends various Lachman point also self- or in on appropriate very possible adults also is cognitive al 1986 differ about point exam eta1 1990 1984 particular differences 1978 for work study range tal at other researchers attitudes infor grouped have performance groups age of age tion collected were interviews men sectional study case psychotherapy of of and Honos-Webb on reported and and development individuals Levinsons interviews measures approach of four Cohn of be to influences identity also behavior It The two sub of Levinsons Levinson tend studies identity period or behavior vnting influences also composed multiple men one at Park et Costa for When various struct and 1998 Jelalian 1986 how are studies memory McDowd Lachman knowing age numerous attributions McArthur conduct to semi-structured development the con be e.g Cervone self-esteem Finally of adult also how of 2003 The the the gather assessed are grotsps in to is Participants characteristics and domains to case can all example Craik studies individuals use given study differences differences age about case of therapeutic transcripts For training case Gillem current and depression In 1995 woman who had completed sures the the their and Greenberg Stiles the as biracial experiences then time medical research primarily on in age and age ined cross-sectional about by of about in Stake biracial their members bmily task the of focus mation In addition quantitative with schedule terview their two in development in observation situation described case feasible studies study than qualitative Throne of case of the examination or under make to more information can The personality con direct method the direct case process Detailed inter individuals measures individuals study the using include or psychological 2004 the an uf naturalistic individuals and records of liter observing by extensive and process to interviews ducted self- to assess accurately involve few involves method may and Computer method descriptive research study addition in efficacy researcher Typically computer which self-perception difficult studies case between in alone observation of but may be more process through ig made as to Studies Cross-Sectional skills measured indirectly of errors such di skills computer tests also ex lack in their self-perceptions changes about of study For adults new learn the under that expect Test development given into and were interviewed matic Apperception observe to were wives Although used of adult individuals would course ta the be types to tap difficult with literacy could certain rect contact observed were places observation 55 ISSUES perfor study point in FOUNDATIONS 56 When tial vant between be that of equating is that demographics the may the with equivalent the of bias For individuals in survivorship for inclusion the is the into exam may it reexamined Steen possi selection of study at have again changes The nal data same twice studies Alwin sometimes ent that this be found because not attributed of type show research on shown and the the adult wide were that but ent nal data whereas data gitudinal sectional difference age most to With design this age time For age are the their senior with this and Nordie of year in complex Research 75-year-old Denmark in set membership group at of two more their and and in their single-cohort to environment ment of sim occasions 1987 exam to from Finlandwho twice twenties slightly study included three during up late longitudinal individuals in the of later during which of age changes one case two sort of change the influence implication Elder possible 50 or to that the the that change in had for the to years In as this change in occurrence of 11 2001 September in likeli specific perceptions due States between years assume likely the States from age three had cohort this anxious peoples on we perceived are people reasonably occurred than to during period influence also the United the more maturational three-year that the about United the on explanations during 2000 in reassessed on as attacks Exhibit 3 - 5 that in age measure of their opinions we If times re behav about changed different found become might terrorist Caspi has attack attack the The increase the and perceptions that individuals the was more any observed that and the the certain to that means effects year occurred to vari dependent period increase sessments de longitudinal the in 50-year-olds 53 they re the construct time terrorist the countries were at years events the study single-cohort something terrorist observed in the calendar be least accompanies inform The confound next of study that effects the of single-cohort i.e due likelihood 53 in differences example suppose group can cannot changes between For lon be found ii age that hood followed the is than the women of any cannot change rather with of cohort membership same of study time-of-measurement at age over the cohort assessed is 2003 mid-fortics project and specif period overview extensive experiences type over change adulthood time-of-measurement 2004 Schaie more mid- on Aging Sweden continued studies development Also within changes Moane college early adult into with and individuals similar studied being cross- profound comparable of individuals or sample once de childhood 2001 share this about searcher asked lon variables longitudinal of personalities finally more single observed cohort of ioral subject obtained Schaie single-cohort is example Helson ined and the An the of study searcher abilities in longitudi for assessing design all longitudinal creased basic time due ilar do some depend dependent pattems Because occurring example same replicated in the caution 1968 Strother The was stud types continued the adult Hofer with cross-sectional For reflected Sehaie and confounds studies differences shown information three of adulthood assess of studies gitudinal able For the not changes than on age were for other age decrement between age range substantial variables been or later samples sign mental of to designed variable with trends collected wide over cross-sectional age development data which locations understand young midlife per that longitudinal have assessments of into three longitudinal to we those individuals stated begun with studies However age treated differ concluded longitudinal discrepancies longitudinal population same ovcr at dependent must be as have Investigators individuals the and as well change chronological conclusion 2001 development representative in longitudi study and on to cross-sectional always has samples cross-sectional differences could such of time over time over 2001 age understanding to of predictors compared i.e ages essential Campbell exaririiie through or behavior and to obtain Hofer arid in adult velopment individuals gained are construct variability time of to is study group collections in change the longitudinal assessments multiple from 75 years ically the albeit aged example Studies Longitudinal in of assessed assessments of cohort Schroll Berg second this single was ies Heikkinen With 1997 sons hood The purpose 80 age Viidik Sehaie educational there Furthermore rele relationship variable groups to find experiences individuals age influence dependent poten groups on old of older study and or bility the young comparing difficult levels and age in ple cross-sectional conducting problem of the for and the meaning Bem time of finding 1987 of measurement particular in longitudinal found that can construct or study sample of RESEARCH II ill-tempered ye tain which adults reached adulthood leagues on if pcriods to perform ability had less tudinal better times in the 1920s worked outside the poverty 55 different lescents ft status would for suc can particularly of ipants men might asked in longi implications at male ado cluded who contend indicator of whereas longitudinal single-cohort Several on design of these discussed design wherein one with intent the tion on also be to designs this 2001 and religion existing information the collection throughout of ple from prospectively data collection tained these the ies 1986 problems the use First religious participants willing to curred over complete period all of on 65 and four age In sign participation of as accurate that of utility the are of the as the as decreased to accelerated by Dun growth for true lon Hamagami these growth amount of difficulty insight data could sim Large-scale longitudinal pa longitudinal and This further de Duncan that the estimates provide patterns data corresponding errors the for both and MeArdle increased parameter needed Farring modeling growth accelerated standard cohort unstable the However estimates the demonstrated from Duncan distinct into stud cohorts studied is the differences Ohlin investigated 1992 both longitudinal Duncan cohort latent shorten longitudinal link Tonry incorporated context per ulations to being to reduce independent one 1996 found ob no are design also research developmen cohort no ranges Hamagami were also for of several age estimates gitudinal must accelerated collecting designs and collected data costs Hops the two of assumption from the and lead to range parameter 1996 aim data McArdle also designs Because missing collected demonstrates into the design stud differential Sequential Designs Alwin Campbell of from obtained healthy waves decade years colleagues were histories who were of design religiosity sam of retrospective recall with included Following religious entire the study Li Alpert 1999 1991 ton at in sampling proposed to overlapping Strycker rameter aged her for as been necessary time collected ied may for measures and such have longitudinal data which outdated designs the over from longi studies Longitudinal These Under i.e lost on pro partic implications time and accelerated adulthood and aging of reliability those and the This example development and 2001 with of Meador between had been 1996 Alwin of trajectory can data adults to George participants vival amount data section possibility of design longitudinal tal and the time over attrition Reasons chapter the becoming supplementing by study information histories life of adult only health and relationship retrospective community-dwelling on which older participants periods in older course Their life can data asking Flint adults health on of the by of the study in the informa Longitudinal Hays in older section data of this with monetary individuals waves earlier time George health of group retrospectively about later collected prospective ftiture of individuals conducted 2004 type basic section this in of data studying information in far presented of collecting group Campbell so considered is begins obtained recall are The designs sequential the beyond exist designs discussed in are in the Time-efficient the to results time of period is longitudinal to study participants addressed questions it most adoles for extensive the study time consuming desires of for longitudinal and use all at Collecting expensive due the are the of re faulty the out data level by advantages many when one studies influence trition its range Also age tudinal an an over wide mother for typical meaning be biased no time over current pointed to preferable disadvantages cess Gorman 2004 different very without data may have 2004 despite change the having was of not today Other i.i home Of course study is be may be periods including may it al et data retrospective ear these different 1930s George In For example and Hayward have cents in history Yet on style are as col been call or 57 ISSUES time earlier at states involvement implication the for that have also and focused personality outcomes they had lime period by religious by lime this success Questions may study the by Caspi labor current influenced prerequisite job physical and impact have been poorer as during where confrontational having Ii workplace lime lier skills involvement influenced outcomes emphasis greater religious to As partially in society that interpersonal in the cess It least Specifically out pointed placed at was main result tended significantly had occurred that changes 1928 adulthood into style men experienced these as born around boys this personality AND METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN enough testing Second the that recall and oc of Data acquisitions cross-sectional can be extended sequences Exhibit 3 - 6 that or into Baltes are initially single-cohort cross-sectional 1968 Sehaie structured longitudinal or as either study longitudioal Baltes 1975 FOUNDATIONS 58 Sequential studies velopment to time frame cross-sectional from tudinal uals every into 2020 could the who were uals this assess 45 In gin in viduals with The then be time point and each of the of individuals cal included longitudinal in cannot original the rate be obtained most tudinal cohort effects effects First lime of the domly with at the an age lime chosen under problem which design in tween from midlife capture of range have years using in of differ information are cohorts times the between sign are rich in that analysis changes In might include can they effects on the are velopmentalists age and analysis be variable the being the years Second of widths between old from participants that match the at this full age with 1965 several to and amount measurements of Using age time the of Many de studied in the analysis of in cohort- that time-of- performed assumption Cmup of Example Sample Most Data Time Time data collection Bas ed on Collection Efficient Design Time Time Cohort 35...39years to consider this be 40-l4years pass case period of range con time mea specific individuals from de efficient the who to age are lime point drawn are the first to new of data most cohort interested six adding analyzed age changes under from testing by Sehaie of most cohort Schaies identical individuals midlife relative measurement using proposed strategies the 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sequential and group age 40- to this Time and 44-year-old analysis until pending on between waves wait In of data the time-sequential the study hecause sequential no occurred have on cross-sequential Time contrasted The the or changes year-old age same the i.e would be ples of first each porate found those from tested at of these of tests in Schaie to the these age Time i.e dctailcd that effects practice and attrition and Caskie age also cluded be 2004 individuals in the cause to be to the situation and SAMPLING AND of after other The way viduals researcher who will has important the studys obtains participate implications findings In other the actual in his or her for the words group of with type of of sam- learning more investigation generalizability the indi graduation students ified to random ensure Exhibit 3 - 8 could in currently disabilities complex sample that Pro 911 the in type of The more are of 2001 will for applied for to those schools high Stratification sample 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