Cambridge University Press et al v. Patton et al

Filing 324

DEPOSITION of Daphne Greenberg, Ph.D. taken on April 21, 2011 by Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, Inc., Sage Publications, Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit D-1, # 2 Exhibit D-2, # 3 Exhibit D-3 - part1, # 4 Exhibit D-3 - part 2, # 5 Exhibit D-4, # 6 Exhibit D-5, # 7 Exhibit P-1)(Rains, John)

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Chapter 20 Advanced Avenues Adult in Development and Learning The Role of Doctoral and Robert Barrier Judith Stevens-Long this chapter we graduate studies in In intended its of spring the at and 2002 assessing covered graduate on outcomes behavioral focused on such areas clinical study such One to of to this presentation some attendees the was anxiety for responsible on as of ates are panying emotional graduate them become distinction and assessment study responsible here between behavioral they for changes might them what by sulted graduate develop what graduate of with Re called and Nyquist the in appears study Jody started Bettina that statement advances in reac man part that has hy in condition inform ate delineating make cultural moral and Scholarly us better differences ethical educators Exhibit 3 - 20 455 to United medicine in nature our work in and of few social of the life sci hu and humanities the and dimensions our re en only the daily understand States has and training new 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kind sions and as or that and some attitudes and of writers action perceived we might be are by and freedom often can or 814 consider of choice opportunities inter Gist 1989 human studying wisdom dimen derstanding education Brandtsthdter is nition Hill the to the Exhibit 3 - 24 self- Zim such advantage their capabil opportunities 1990 clearest stands research at the behavior work implications between relationship and time in 1992 greater such developmental has their Finally develop through Elias Wisdom emotion to take and extensively mainstream reflexivity such 1990 found facilitate engaging Sehrauben dis also that tracking and the persevere students behaviors of in effort likely to include Cer sense themselves for greater Martinez-Pons more In expressing In control be between strong goals more are Pintrich of learning ities of feelings link learning with schoolwork learning to relate higher Examples their have been on another ilure These with individuals ob Certainly self-regulatory study directed and merman in relation expend tasks tasks confronted personal set inter individual that goal values personal the of greater organizing in span variables Students With interested personal intentionality example attention values serving for we chosen is accompanied paying 1998 of development be to here although awake of beliefs the to appear interested sleeping behavior personal this not staying basis preted are that Brandtstadter Jochem refers development or behaviors to at longer completion EDUCATION How action-related forging strongly 1986 Peake self-efficacy by is Self-efficacy CONATIVE to likely strong unknown is life suspect of these learned are enable more is are they that the that and development learning vone actions adaptive would believe conditions over re strongly people behavior their out or planning development the one ever If in between at reparation also are tran linked action to attempts own and flexible that are and example self-efficacy Moreover change education for to make to mismatches actions their during circumstances current create to to begin begin cognition lead of control likely see uncharted Conative and feelings relationship the the emotion et to maturity behavioral levels lated lead peopl.e Emotions signal self-punishment and they anything wisdom we Baltes researched and if on might accompany on high advantage well less work and with little is that intellectual and socioeconomic Even there age in the Certainly research developmental emotional the between Mismatches teaming unex processes time Emotions hopes comes have that and execute of periods processes serve sometime adulthood and plans mediate or that argued young long previous forms varied to such more complex cogni and and ac often often they own development their spire over and perhaps representa interplay monitor in the beliefs Figs or that they consequences Development-oriented Although are tend 257 1999 that and conclusions differing implies experience possibilities reality Brandtstadter choices or and in goals adolescence and goals events maintains intention unintended ac how cognitive overdetermined are one or changes to see social of about more complex permit emotional intellectual than pected from means It universe more cbs thinking thinking of the of interest ex the to and other Brandtstader action means actions memories and and plans beliefi behavior affects feeling tions capstone transition how fluence transfor of product operational assumptions minimum at the pectations how in what influence evaluation Deegan may be with begins whether and emotional tive but one just Dewey put of this that postformal in differing as ing much perspective personal that so formal solving problem here argue not is process problem self interested particularly tor of aspects the transforms by stu the ex encountered essential although self process in the are read that uncertainty 322 We 1991 Hill and dissertation writing maintain authors mystery and distributed widely the 459 STUDY 2002 on un and behavior intersection Kamer for of cog argued that wise rather open Achenbaum dom and adult Pascual-Leone the may even and that very hand shows 1983 of that the and one with the to seems number im other in the unique We kind the central to of grad Kitchcner In their noted lieve that that interviewees doctoral that world porate students These interests and knowledge than less of the the there study Young faculty sibilities of tion from wisdom is There kinds of only planning and tangentially evidence and to the suming cor the that is the narrow context research for the respon evalua the college service to the research to graduate kinds that of study particular contexts optimal development on of are gradu in the which it is of From outside Knowledge Freire dispensed culture this as entity consumption or as embedded form commodity acquired entering knowledge surrounding so preconstructed 2000 quite in or ideology gain perspective amassing informa with synonymous is of externalized an as considerations knowledge sources tion whether over of of perspec the most that context freely on view from for internal be stu derived transformation personal ing how can that multiple critically suggests bankable that flexibility greater to hold in show studies isolated exists ready as dependent collegial however self them university work students it thought through these is this 1981 King student openness knowledge that seen of 1992 matriculation to reflect ideological treat one Clearly particular of from scholarly related and They how demonstrate product other expressed teaching community some actions most conducive research university undergraduate abstract of todays outside unprepared an 1990 ability undergraduate Magolda Baxter knowledge from which years studied increased the making problems overemphasizes and is an and tives work claimed also of ed of graduate Kitchener All progressively thought ways in required concern seem the to re changes conception general undergraduate work postgraduate dents researchers have 1984 changes cial graduates prepare disconnected traditional often curricular university often traditional much is are be industry collaborative practitioners Even in the interviewees are optimal graduate work real-world boundaries ever not lack and working thinking does their training Ph.D.s Many others and in business connect meaningfully 2000 Woodford the of the over Brenner Generally and Nyquist paper of AND LEARNING in the learning of Sinnott education uate in ucation practice accompany that capacity self OBTAINING overview described and knowledge Schon the of of awareness PERSPECTIVE an provides have searchers evi does not On 20.1 pro is reflection cope of but education situations transformation perspective for to conflicting this expect form scholar-practitioner capacity allows increased PATHWAY FIRST ON KNOWLEDGE Table appears wise gaining use contexts DIFFERENT 1998 There certainly the consis are and become the on action uncertain might eduation cultural THE the during developed education to will person research midst to related is it em action and and of an obtain gaining community learning developing include per Bacelar thinking emotion to advanced that ply relativistic related foundly the development knowledge understanding and exceptional resister highly in complete learning on we cx chapter to They study perspective this lead reality be 1996 They require more that graduate different social as wise have to to experience open govern internal leadership Nazi Staudinger as of or being and nominated are services like self mdi to conventional outer who that inner positions human Wisdom dence with one norms the integrate hold Reich allows conventional to experiences and part of avenues the of membership people in dialectical context 2000 to seen in the second different wisdom concerns tend tently In four that that proposed Furthermore Third wis students Labouvie-Vief from ployed defensively characterized ate plore to ing behavior sons respond 1991 others understanding both affective to allow that ways communicates and caring viduate in than Orwoll behavior as 1990 interact people remain AND LEARNING MEASURED AND APPLIED DEVELOPMENT ADULT 460 in their Early see truth structs lar as Aronson the in one Kitchener 1981 ten is As come Exhibit 3 - 25 to the belief correct premature students and of problem solution to 1990 any on and 1977 given will prob King students problems po schema solving Kitchener undergraduate closure into rigid 2002 Markus also con white experience notion that Brenner consequence to black to forceflt Alcert the most careers absolute related Wilson itself uncover lem of This tendency categories reveals college matter of without TUE ROLE OF DOCTORAL TABLE 20.1 From View of and Absolute as of Knowledge The Nature Knowledge environment The commodity as horn preeonstructed that product that knowledge Knowledgc without to is absolute declarative 1991 to solutions It tend to and adopt learner has defend difficulty contradictory integrating fixed Learners position and incorporating is to the through perspectives possible becomes thinking of opposing juxtaposition 1981 King Kitchener perspectives 1986 Baltes 2000 al all 1992 poblem Polanyi 1966 Dixon et tacit of alternative relative explore Magolda dialectical as 1979 Sternberg attempt often product multiple regarded 1986 Baxter findings to Soloway Scribner The and leading Ehrlich and relative as Brockett 1991 Wenger articulate formulation 1987 the broader in context Lave seen is Knowledge difficult Learners situated as and of observation act Jarvis dialogue seen is Hiernstra explicit and Relative constructed socially the very social/cultural/ideological culture or ideology Knowledge as through and Knowledge reference Complex as treated is transformed context-free is Learning of Knowledge reflection be reviewed can be external 2000 Freire learner assumes can that th 461 Contextualized Deeply viewed is absorbed View To Deeontextualized and Knowledge STUDY Basseches 1984 Problems are usually Wagner Sternberg for are established 1995 Uedlund 2000 Pogson to move all views tendency examining concepts into to closure premature or to pigeonhole simplistic that al 2000 related is complex and often are solutions are formulated are of learning aspect 1966 Dixon Polanyi 1990 wisdom to by the guided Arlin This Sternberg 1986 Baltes create without first 1989 Cockrill experiences stereotyped problems and problems way Sternberg Kelly 1955 that see unstructured et constructs impermeable and 1986 Tennant Sternberg Leamers clear solution problem 2000 Crigorenko Simple and fur learners predefiricd parameters analyze and categories and deal with with issues complex this the 1986 Swezey information discrepant to ability Strerifert Domangue 1978 Learning is as experienced purely cognitive process to Ability synthesize forms tascual-Lcone seem to exist system because in potential from isolation are solistions Proposed in repercussions the surrounding to likely the system more adopt with working elements including analysis of thought emerges 1992 Labouvie-Vief 2000 systemic that problensa number containing unconsidered are Diehl Learners be limited larger 1990 Labouvie-Vief Problems rational objective emotive subjective perspective are nnbonnded of complex and interactive Ackoff factors interpersonal 1981 examining first belief often and belief ing with The lems rameters solution and of hold students that and problem contain information to existing have Mezirow in tend the to overuse solving and be to work 2000 reinforced clearly Often arrive of by prob defined pa predefined the at the problem correct As students they years and constn.scted and They tightly Sinnott Moreover develop problems embedded more in greater 1984 dialectical of college flexible an Exhibit 3 - 26 extensive is actively given King of appreciation and increased an through perspectives education approaches summary of other ability the itera Basseches helps to social 1992 Magolda Kitchener thinking opposing undergraduate in Baxter 1990 develop integration 1984 knowledge context move toward tive their how see Brenner perspectives to to ideological 1981 through progress begin Kitchener learning predefined statement needed positions difficulty knowledge provide their Furthermore defend information classroom for problems to rigidly environments in the the them constructions younger views possible contradictory learning all systems static that all leads students unstructured this research DEVELOPMENT ADULT 462 Ernest that and Pascarella eluded when AND LEARNING MEASURED 1991 Terenzini Patrick freshmen are to con- senior- when facilitated was Learning students more are address no skilled than more can more develop works to deal are side one with are why worked an ity much an room Marcia for future Baxter We and ran simulated airlines the in search In ished has the level highest of reached senior of year measured reasoning This study by increased figure was one and to of the student graduation pared and niors when Similarly among thinking between year freshmen he educabori following version he thinking The described one allows thinking of analysis to analyze within relationships problems particular competing system thinkers also exhibit lem see great contends but that as source positive are increases an as that of linking status prob We contend here one adult capaci thinking that Instead education tor to scholarly students self and the their roles that require of their and tive as exposure students to make Gritical complex self-monitor problem can the two graduate the exploration years following degrees of the as Baxter they discrepant They demand often one must is value op. contradictory seemingly br their formation solutions eduea- Magolda projects with the who student pres- com set of unique accustomed is such environments learning to situa produce of deal of put anxiety challenge has As one doe- to iiig that the my greatest post-courscwork 21 essentially cogni suddenly increas problems one 1990 tional of their 2001 good it problems their Arlin completion learning of their thesis or dissertation students For candidate tations guides and of fonnulation become students the way focus structured ter the the adaptations to carefully Postgraduate that innovative identify problems felt large-scale and of with responsibility take to postgraduate more creators to to aware 1978 thinking curricula direct tion approaches processes ingly issues complex 1986 contribu their views existing analysis differenti postgraduate both knowledge is effectively and undergraduate becoming reconstruct reconstruction more need toral this of analysis Swezey Domangue and community learning dramatically in the selective more Un complexity cognitive for de of the during process avenue important of cognitive postgraduate of un complex highly one development extension begin in the call deal plex that velopments years linear black in views adolescence past to ents than more an as 197 perspectives tional fers believe Streufert 1989 dialectical more He concluded change well and learning isnt much too no gray with there things to work thinking- when you dialectical unfortunate in dialectical academic with clearly not dif to sensitivity posing there ties contradiction of is increased integration information thinkers did otherr any always think systems require Basseches contradiction lot provides problems and ation Gockrill Dialectical than because taught there to encouraging move beyond to within relationships with were opportunity structured the fin airline as dialectical for Dialectical busi- of structured postformal their completely not answer right and white and strong the one se college found and way took just answer right undergraduate 1984 com Basseches college members faculty relationship in the populat4on no airlines our said like to deal try one always 12% teacher We run to different the fact approach contextual out their the done ever was partici there knowing In top different ferent have to study wanted they completely at the up was it re longitudinal undergraduate how three ness class 102 found were pants And leaves development 1992 Magoldas of only businessi we had nine groups and nine and all of them chose differenh class in There airline answer because right frame education cognitive from excerpt team-based simulation 155 undergraduate an ques way particular of description philosophies Generally in she provided example students one and under to issue abstract complexity things complex involved it perspectives intellec able complex sophisticated to there greater better of evidence which for have answers in that they flexibility stand problems correct and reason using ill-structured verifiably tual at multiple tioning seniors acknowledging 196 level compared AND APPLIED In under reported with became who The Exhibit 3 - 27 in loss of myself the did think role things expec now this was to this process navigat degree blurred structure Not only of been my student and provide process confidence the timelines unspoken would sense in years changed of portion shift but was the only my educa leave also me lost mainly due THE ROLE OF DOCTORAL feeling the structural seemed somehow that to be to and void able do to should be self-motivate Kerlin able to of fill than better in deeply affect created 29 1995 student and his the her or the implications may how knowledge of of 463 community learning view students STUDY that is for the process creator The that toward move when ported less is they dents progress work and from and structured that solutions broader which Candy 1991 As they tion knowledge students and themselves perceive evoke and reframe 1997 shift dialectical as of their in and bedrock out view the and larger Learners known do Technical not and reflect how ence position seldom the on To of what limits is being of More of the on it resides occurs landscapefocusing phenomenological the content methods or surface the at used the analysis in come to and learner views which lies the learning external the to as hidden uncovering process something Learners increasingly Kitchener and Schon reflective encapsulated occurs in between process and piecemeal insights experience drawn when it process with regarding occurs Learners is Reflection segmented and the learning relationships dialogue Reflection they do critical do or in gaps include to in the 2000b personal/critical and self ideology Privett Kitchener cognition 1990 Brenner double-loop and hegemonic 2000a learning see how self-reflection They process King reflection-in Argyris mirror and as window the question How with interacts can engage The self the as self the as window my personal biases and assumptions influence my learning approach and the conclusions draw The self as mirror What raises the back qsiestion being reflected raises will is to me about learning Exhibit 3 - 28 how change as re The pres 1978 learning disconnections self work epistemic action learners in every open dynamics power engage about reflection 1981 largely when 1990 Brookfleld 2002 The field undergraduates exist for constitutes follow from that problems self assume ones instructor topic self reflection expand assumptions The as self-monitorwlsat what Meacham ting Learners only to rule in expert and Critical Eneoisspossing know not lean when Reflection one members frequently as works community studentteacher in how commu of Self Learners is acquired their peripheral student emerges constructed discover allows community differentials ever the knowledge learning power systemic in the how assume initially power inure within junior-level between The Use occurs contributor other for lationship problems 20.2 accepts enter Large system as knowledge mentor they Review knowledge of Students now They TABLE From Myopic ex of self as ill-defined change Sinsilarly forma role dis changes socially must Knowing practice it the students construction and what of considered postgraduate nity of the overview section may be knowledge issues an presents this learning process Hiemstra problem toward perspective view of part Unstructured If the surrounding environment the in realize contextual view 20.2 cussed 1991 Wenger systemic Table and of Brockett THE LEARNING IN they reflection to PATHWAY GAINING COMMUNITY constructed come consider to and analysis in Bredo begin more adopt isting Lave 1991 problems ideological formed is MEMBERSHIP consideration and cultural THE SECOND postgraduate socially Postgraduates include must social is observation through 1987 to ill-defined to than As stu prescribed undergraduate how knowledge Jarvis dialogue of from transformed and experienced previously sup is environment learning rule-driven may have sec to complexity face structured what come cognitive students function of my be- FADULT DEVELOPMENT 464 and student tween Most ting hegemonic In such part In as on dependent by process lion for be to to the Of course also to of edges the stitutional Mercer and of Students are seen kids Bartlett guage as constructs relation and fication of or disciples Mercer concluded which and complex many in process such lan power oversimpli and fruit of negotiations made explicit plained that durance contest their jump through students time felt was that ity to for within as and hoops whether the or professional experiences their instructors that process of rules the en to never faculty actually and power take and the role can also describe the this be are the process ers Exhibit 3 - 29 to by that relationship Mezirow in which 2000 we have an understand the active meaning supervi These revised and power au to role in inequities discourse dialogue of ac expertise becomes discourse defined the topographer for experience while minimizing hierarchical guide interactive Isben Judith power 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postfonnal 1989 Personnel heuristics Journal behavior Eds Andreoletti development Pedagogy self-efficacy efficacy and Management Commons tural Anchoring of judgmental judgments self-efficacy 2000 Gist 1986 Adult develop Continuum learning lifelong adult of the in New York Plenum San Jossey-Bass Peake action for Dynamics Demick In Handbook of pp 5570 web mental learning Handbook Nor- 2002 Stewart development cognitive Freire Self-direction Francisco Cervone Cockrill the pp 113133 systems wood NJ Ablex Fischer IC Yan Jossey-Bass Candy San adult computer in factors coping Linking Eds education continuing Francisco of context Hayes learn to Leadership 2000 Wilson adult on how stress of Merriam Caffarella and Learning Impact experience 473 in 26 Adult development the study 3268 of adoles New York 474 DEVELOPMENT ADULT 2002 Wisdom Kramer Eds letti 130152 New the transcendent Eds Young Eds MA Reading women changing profession journal Markus ecutivee lessons How of experience on develop the ex 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college Jossey-Bass Nature life everyday Commons of insights from character Sternberg in Postformal In 19% 1991 How and devel CA Barbara intelligence Human development Eds spectives Stein Terensini affects student Some In Practical competence Staudinger the and Research exper Medicine manuscript Santa action in thonght foundation Univer Seattle of on report Unpublished University Eds 1984 stage Staudinger 53557 Re-envisioning pro Books medical on Academic Interim study Thinking 298325 New image x-ray How Basic Boshuixen New York Cambridge 1981 The theory for mon Psychology Memory and Cognition 14 Woodford Nyquist Graduate Sinnott Simons of final Develop 293-3 11 tic Johnston York perspective 2000 origins Sinnott Mexirow pp 133 progress Core adult Human practitioner New implications of practical istics of adult In Sri The operations reflective action diversity 1986 1330 theory transformation in theory processing and Fielding jossey-Bass 1988 The of think to Learning The and Theory Scribner Jossey-Bass transformation 1998 Behavioral 65611621 Cambridge dimensions Transformative Myles-Worstey ment develop Xavier McCarroll Norman Schoenholx-Read Stern- and Francis American self cognitive Wagner Learning on cisco In inquiry Cansda development in think opment origins NS ca with critical 346370 1983 tise MA nature reflection Saint thesis Dialectical cognitive Schmidt Paper Advancement wisdom of loss its 181211 2000 Mezirow 16 1973 Press San learning sity The the for Boston Wisdom 1991 Mezirow of fessionals June education graduate Association Education Higher Meacham in ineffable at presented tive 2002 Rela 41 496515 1990 Stevens-Long develop- intercultural of Rogers phase Books McClintock masters dialogical Schon Morrison adult practitioners Antigonish Riegel and China within self critical Facilitating ment Lombardo The 2002 Unpublished 6378 Psychology McCall in processing of Contrasting journal development reer entist self journal City 2853 10 Toward of Personality the States Richardson and formation Hillsdale Garden dimension tacit International na 61643677 1977 Self-schemata pp 149183 Conceptions 15 tions Higher the of the classroom in perceptions United University Are academic in Schunk In 1991 Univer about Education ton the Legiti Cambridge The and learning learning Student 1966 Privctt Situated tasks moti engagement Doubleday Pratt Oxford mind/id Bolt Students cognitive consequences NY Press 1990 of the of participation Lomperis of York York NJ Erlbaum and person Whit New power 1991 Cambridge 1988 and Addison-Wesley peripheral Social Eds Causes ment The Wenger hire Meece Cavanaugh .1 Gerontology 1997 of Self 1992 their academic spirituality Polanyi 1999 and beliefs classroom pp 103119 intellectual New years Schrauben vational of and of ethical college Wilson Pintrich Press University Langer mate views Cambridge Cambridge Fonns the in Eisendrath of mature transcendence In development Lave and 1970 Jr Rinehart Press University Miller Diehi 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2000 Taylor on for teaching Wilson In and It education con critical Eds Hayes education continuing pp Jossey-Bass the of alt Harvard 1985 Sternberg knowledge reflective prac Educational Re real-world Practical intel Journal 1986 of role and of Personality Thought MA Cambridge Zimmerman MIT and Social tacit Psy sex and use 5159 Exhibit 3 - 40 in self-regulated gsftednesss Journal of 2nd language rev Press 1990 Martmnez-Pons differences grade The pursuits 49 436458 chology egy and change Learning developmental of adult in ligence ed pp 63 434458 view dent 2000 An Taylor 1995 years teacher in Eds Hayes education Wiley 132146 San Francisco Tsemrnel 1993 Zen and Vygotsky 1986 York perspectives sciousness tice self-development continuing Handley Tisdell Wagner ineffable and 475 jossey-Bass Handbook on of mature 2003 Swezey and Bass Rontledge personal Graduate Streufert agers Philadelphia intelli Miller McClintock Stevens-Long Jossey psychology wisdom mr for learning Wilson Pogson the adult 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