Cambridge University Press et al v. Patton et al

Filing 319

DEPOSITION of Patricia Dixon, Ph.D. taken on April 20, 2011 by Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, Inc., Sage Publications, Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit Defendant Ex. 20, # 2 Exhibit Defendant Ex. 21, # 3 Exhibit Defendant Ex. 22, # 4 Exhibit 20, # 5 Exhibit 21, # 6 Exhibit 22 -part 1, # 7 Exhibit 22- part2, # 8 Exhibit Plaintiff Ex. 18, # 9 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 1, # 10 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 2, # 11 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 4, # 12 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 8, # 13 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 10, # 14 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 11, # 15 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 12, # 16 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 14, # 17 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 15, # 18 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 16, # 19 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 17, # 20 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 17 - Seamans)(Rains, John)

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E X H I B I T 22 Radal Identity American Children in African and ExperIential Antecedents ognItIue BENNETT CAROLYN identity and cialization that Black behavio and has the xamine are to readiness 1985 the ages older Black and the The children remain societal understand This chapter development how children come considers the cognitive abrupt changes to been view that reveal display larger in studies Eurocentric within so member in both display White-biased age context racial racial racial Recent findings and of on the cognitive readiness of the child identity parental stress with correlates variability McAdoo whereas that and individual treatment of the family racial on self-concept and/or traditions counterparts recent emphasis world of group White their role focuses historical and White children between choice ence and intraindividual development cognitive Americans ignores developmental societal determinant ship as dicate on African but too often MURRAY MANDARA JELANI Most research Development Black integrated with It is societal this paramount framework themselves maturation prefer Only minimally of the and child to if their within 73 Exhibit 22 - 1 Defendants pytil Exhibit MESSAGES RACIAL 74 the of family context e.g ditions racial membership system and education media determinant as and of socialization race er mainly cial racial to shape think monly able fact that quite but entities react people the to as may depend of issue part and members of ways much on the these social in persons context and context social wishes and agreement from the part recognized socially and recog ramifica may identify than in groups legally political desires com distinguish social by springs Therefore defined People as sharply set are have persons politically 1998 Jones groups to and manners language socially may mainly Also the race with which people on phenotype more an refer religion boundaries their group designations hair texture and fa ethnic groups and important different as in boundaries racial sharpness nized race tions overlap and sometimes of races biological Whatever it is between of skin colo as of origin base genetic to the phenotype racial ref racial group designations country heritage race has Although due ethnic whereas tra stress the concepts understand first usage such phenotype persons sociocultural current In language Race one must identity ethnicity and identity historical that group and individual treatment of DefkiIng To understand and societal their be pheno type Identity or particular good at or sports and the feelings like The racial How Children nitive the racial issue the individuals here is aspect with how Racial of the them African self mirror in salient schema is including Black of race when social or mental attributes perceived people American children decode develop social develops as in identity and can have conception an influence on Fishe 1978 Amsterdam 1972 Exhibit 22 - 2 By age Mane general of do and under they begin to their 1988 Rathe Infants and separate surroundings children can Lewis recognize issue critical is self Bandura 1986 they mature come aware that they are unique independent Bertenthal of schemas identity humans dividuals behavior identity e.g lam Black do not enter the world with notion system am shy tam tall am Black lam e.g Kunda 1986 associated an organized essentially self complex and often abstract concept the form the characterize that of representation stand about Markus settings is self-concept beliefs this need cog be to from other in Bandura 1986 themselves Brooks-Gunn in 1979 Development 75 and autonomous from oth Racial children By age ers Although many ways states In racial of that tions themselves or are usually as into insight their membership This chapter examines the development affect of racial true peo and at beliefs toward higher group racial socialization and peers Second move and the conse individuals membership significant members family race racial by two in occurs it seen and media images teachers as in the readiness family that view development identity development identity to self-knowledge of understanding quences separate 1998 who such forces gain increased tributes affect begin Douglas and macrosystem ple factors First people Cook others as 1988 Neisser general themselves see Identity certain factors cogni and historical tradi societal in identity American African chitdrern Readiness Cognitive of the self-concept The content about themselves formation Newcombe 1952 stages logical others 1986 Semaj cognitive for human all of people Mote volves two to in tal ing mental structures sons mental the ft sensory them is theory stage sense and to received begin stage to this Piaget and the incorporation meaningful allows people in their level to Social with other by chil shaped in adaptation accommodation of environmen form respond fit to exist new envi to present mental which changes experiences the cognitive is to process new development with from the interactions into refers situations fit their For by the bio different more sophisticated assimilation color Assimilation The preoperational Thought processes from awareness abilities occur in per or stimuli during the years of first life is and deal with the world mainly through children understand messages become abilities reciprocal structure In Piagets sensorimotor determined environment skin as experiences Accommodation are innately processes cognitive such experiences stages qualitatively Piaget of invariant sequence social theft to According through is in Branch maturation 1985 Spencer by children interlocking Assimilation ronmental cognitive specifically drens adaptation with cognitive proceeds The beings constructed is 1985 growth Each the childs knowledge and the way children process and convey linked development sequence as is and the starts involve motor behavior about symbols age such used and ends as to react about skin color that to age repre Exhibit 22 - 3 RACRL 76 sent MESSAGES the in objects cretepresent able refers the is 11 and age does internal and identity cial identity the the Direct learning process the color the family and color cations Hodge their group about masculine In attitude like sum although mines the identity development by their societal 1975 Trost than females and boys cognitive racial into context Exhibit 22 - 4 own clear need value are their and communi character negative gende respect to girls being comprehensive in such Hyde 1983 when the tomboys participate and playing baseball ethnic identity re culture children to the several most boys being ego in of by Western reinforcements results but various including human ex influence preference and blacks both 1995 and childrens that valued Black number Thus perspective are influenced playmates and consideration awareness an egocentric ra significant readiness determines and/or they acquire must take male trees racial Holmes Similarly with which sizable prefer as climbing activities of developing because vary with 1983 for racial human of may formation Within are highly people negated boys being pable societal is for adoles until complexity Katz 1975 them of whites value more valued want to be they racial situation inform and polit have society learning Struckmann males are centric conflictive social not their it is assumptions direct White and white that and wider Childrens relevant to occurring groups many non-Whites racial stage behavior from race racial from parents often accounts more complex in placed view e.g people would have children non-White of mechanisms other than inforcements all of of part-whole Marcia factors be inter characteristic e.g full that realize yet The last that indicates aware of the transitory the were the only antecedent variation within tendency is thinking logical or age is they would that within is or the preschool at Eurocentric periences states objects stage can that Another are not or objects an understanding to literature intentions and and reversible to classify abstract become readiness cognitive Given and feelings situations If children race The of individual the thoughts involves it ramifications cence owing classify is con concepts constancy racial be that are objects awareness theoretical and so on The formal operational groups ical to ability which enables relationships about e.g stage occurs operational only with as racial or some action that to by the individual stage such ideal hypothetical term operation this are concerned real or tangible to visualize nalized environment The concrete and 11 Children tween ages social children are context model of the age of the child ca deter identity and the Racial Awareness Racial and Children ties make and among distinctions 1983 material am learn skin color Semaj 1985 our in The goes tures of people racial label of dolls or dards of 1987 though her skin brown the closer aged and possess no complex ideas about It is that proposed themselves reference to others in of acquisition part of the Other racial sell sociocultural ries but world McCabe la are stan as 1989 that her daughter at mother was White even Black believe identity that light in her that chil abstract knowl 1992 begin 1987 Butler 1989 Ruble so see Wardle than rather for category theorists knowledge pic Preschoolers which serve years children expand developmental context for Coarse 1992 which that socially race describing following the permanent is or identity the in be which person identify White than racial school constancythe researchers argues to information by the middle membership from others Butler Most cognitive on concrete to her to come statement will did not have child edge rely affective 1988 skin color as thought dren to or themselves brown The White she that mother recounted mothers skin color was mind her mother was fact Spencer such 1988 One light young childs the or before they and hair textures hues mothers objections is symbolic measured by showing children usually qualities Burns 1979 or ethnic racial correctly differentiate Spencer despite the age to comparison Ramsey label different aware of phenotypic keenly is than skin color their American racial to apply what de as groups is rather with skin years chil Hart 1982 Damon placed on 1988 Emphasis For instance African as society of not linked is in certain truck Hart qualities aware 1988 Spencer ability with salient catego identify recognize In the preschool brown have fire ultimately determines brown skin she has beled and they can membership have become Children that terms of in racial differences categories boy Damon concrete qualities in racial possessions and gender when characteristics by physical Harter of the awareness racial possess dren describe themselves fined kiesdity Deuelopnient tot knowledge refers Racial awareness 77 Development Identity This approach greater attention For instance interactions 1994 and of does to not collective Vygotsky 1962 are the source meanings theory to include the for reject interpretive places of mental social mainstream role of theo reproduction children functioning in social Peterson concepts Exhibit 22 - 5 RACIAL MESSAGES 78 about Knowledge 1979 Brooks-Gunn two develop in of development racial and Whites and between Spencei 1982 readiness and group be can identity messages are rounding of the evaluation racial of own racial racial or to the definite We is Blacks attitudes Black children so that the childs in changes developing Although some of these sociocultural their which at both between cognitive practices variations in in racial link in context societal for only and given the immediate effect will to on the most focus and sur family show children Therefore and awareness racial and the degree categories group the of contact important behavior stage the wider society terms of the age and the choice be world the in is an abrupt change messages often mediate community in to expected consistent variation but appears construction their and sociocultural cognitive with White-based finds the preoperational There the degree groups readiness cognitive ages after preferences Thus racial alone because exist can Amir 1969 identity that different Lewis simultaneously grows Neither situations social of both by research others 1985 has with child The importance revealed to response that the interaction and self Spencer occui identity which they salient identify sociocultural socializers The Role of Symbols Children in general are influenced In our society black fairy tales only that and dark are black ing she test was Black was asked generally children often used they said the knew am childs In an peach with or pink skin color my be considered in understanding self-conception of of One heart which Exhibit 22 - 6 racial related childs the use of racial color identity from and that heroes and other things reject flesh by Holmes 1995 study little is although girl peach and the skin color of people environment including society gleans test she picked doll color but sociocultural Misunderstanding may of child that who was so 1992 girl of Clark 1947 to take the color to color themselves that on thc outside child and the Black If wear black Hall ethnographic were not they Black white the by Clark along given good is and witches in dressed and symbols by the language white Russell Wilson pink to color herself that bad and bad people are always princesses dark is in with It skin that both immediate and symbols must awareness and Black stated very dark clear is the childs language may they color and threaten awareness preference the developing are important Racial aspects Phinney 1985 Specifically the color like eral Rotherain 1987 Semaj 1985 Spencer 1989 Phinney when presented colors to select children often do not black in parents our longitudinal nicity istic race Skin color Initial children the it had brown skinned light tan Black color positive skin closer doll e.g identity asked identity Cross of selected to who their of selection to the selected play doll White White the doll found that the White the doll 1974 When Padilla concrete children Black the those Studies during the 1970s the Black and they preferred traits children the and White Black doll light White children Brand Ruin children that and group number of the Black preschoolers eliminated doll category selected as having brown eth of and recognizable character and very very dark them Most like self and awareness more often than sizable to of dition they doll significantly as looking in sense of lam Black called not symbolic 1982 1984 1985 between White Furthermore doll racial absolute is an oven not simply Spencer of studies to choose identified with age is helps the child develop It 1985 Semaj 1985 ft skin color the preschool during refused to be children Sev skin color their that study reported their years mommie At this or in terms of representing especially and early elementary brown 79 Development Identity of perception by doll given their ad light- skin color and not the White one The Role of ShIn Color In American bership quire by knowledge this at of skin color attribute than conceptions 1983 at Spencer which Butlez skin Harter ing are 1988 into groups Morland 1976 person Social comparison begin to They either belongs in salient Asher Tajfel childs world in in early to 1-larter school characteristics years such as 1969 Bums 1979 systematically absolute particular self- reference to others are believed to be not belong their 1981 Wilder 1986 is ac the children experiences the Allen 1985 and Spencer and members or does on focus comparison Because unconditional personal emerges mem children expression of describe themselves Aboud 1988 is their Young American For African more important about 1983 Ramsey 1987 people category be details this making or ethnic heritage an early age 1987 1989 Ruble in skin color may time children color and ethnic categories are immutable and racial culture determined is classify Williams membership in homogeneous category Exhibit 22 - 7 80 RACIAL MESSAGES With regard to Black aspect Coard 1997 1998 as it contrasts factor in Garth 1997 affect members other to their determining the is child the and the ferences of racial to see is an childs skin extremely Jackson awareness differences group later racial Bianchi between that childrens family in in coloi important McCullough immediate family should awareness The greater the variation the racial awareness by the personal emplified their The degree of variation development less likely of contend American the African and everything 1999 We Drapei within considerably from white to coal black population awareness an often overlooked racial childrens varies skin color that is or identity of experience one This develop will dif individual opposed to as of the authors is ex Carolyn Murray In my ent faces mother rainbow and gaits and whom of different hues nese family child is who preschoolers who those live in 1978 Fujioka in their racial identity terms of develop characteristics in Japan is States 1991 Phinney mally think children live the United racial very by dark because my dad skin e.g dark in skin color salient do not develop do McGuire but when them In identity self-awareness for they are environment but but Child do not nor in the through give Japa awareness McGuire and group awareness and the surrounding e.g For instance racial sum but the difference found that White adolescents salient my were People fascinated perhaps to notice the contrast likely dif differ and midnights especially or in and had White variation or exhibits more dark had homogeneous is community was brown light came People weights hundred looked beautiful fault beyond the childs all weight and sizes as Black mine was because or height dark was sister although loved the My father like in different came her surrounding White was color as they just skin perhaps If skin preschool ferent colors minority maturation their meaning personal to what is perceived The Role of the Media The media tion about 1994 Dixon are sociocultural African The media 2000 agents Americans teach African and and Hamilton reinforce Americans are stereotypical informa Stroessner Driscoll Denise source negative of attitudes disproportionately about Blacks portrayed Exhibit 22 - 8 as RaciS criminal 1986 is less aggressive and comic that argue relevant especially 2000 about beliefs American children than competent Dixon on so Blacks to Feshbach to view ucation childs sex or reason for the disproportionate that Black is and families age number important Blacks view television using Greenberg source and socializer as of ed on the by much more than adolescents 1968 and used is television and news Anderson Gerson television mobile 1983 More of Blacks American it entertainment less and baby-sitters the usage example African influencer Whites Williams thnt behavior and cheap an poorer of information 1982 When Atkin of information than of entertainment For 1979 Tan to learn dating television White as level by Black children television use of indicate source as Williams 1983 Thn This African television of parental Anderson television studies from that of Whites differs Whites of Trolier because identity much as independent forms alternative more heavily on rely and and family composition are comparatively able to afford less racial twice 1988 Tangney irresponsible Hamilton from media exposure develop children One 1994 discussions about are reported flashy Whites Oliver 81 Development Identity as report occupations and baby-sitter has powerful of self-esteem as potential Black children Stroman 1991 Research with also numerous 1988 Feshbach have 1978 African ence is cause in it Anderson the and negative value in is harmful of with society 1982 to Black their of the intensity of the the family the major socializing agent effect be 1980 identity cited may suggest to Black universality racial The Role of the Public School Ifter Another heroes. Others and from self-concept Anderson 1982 communicate positive of Blacks childrens 1982 that the influ is absence existence non-Black are cast conclusion the Tangney 1980 Rosse Janis on the self-concept of television out that negatively correlated and Whites on them Barnes places the formation frustrate point which Blacks growing awareness can of effect Williams 1983 Powell overidentification roles tion the the importance television dren Graves studies programming minimizes childrens the Several Blacks and the prevailing children is viewing for writers about speculated prime-time television of adjustment Various American negative that indicates indices For be that children some chil of such denigra Come 1989 Curricultin of Black childrens identity is schools Exhibit 22 - 9 82 RACIAL MESSAGES American African an If four elementary teen or we If years week child at Furthermore the time spent The messages fered are designed school in such for The teacher School performance cans overt receive leave are similar African Americans because of the plethora for instance of segment American hold society seff by limits ize lower 1999 -concept labeling assigning The these of one of racist these authors in in teacher charge of Do what your be successful to to Carolyn pseudo-scientific track beliefs as skin color for Whites their deficit themselves too and many their and so on and by Murray and her curriculum children internal group as illustrated the own expecta where an inadequate Ultimately Murray influence negatively fulfill slow large teachers Consequently than Teachers For and predict African explain 1999 biased eval which chil detrimental extremely and lay Blacks for Teachers to they Ameri parent population is process words such achievement by until African 1989 1994regarding identity ability all the degree to theft Jackson about and stems from ex and Fairchild stereotypes teachers Exhibit 22 - 10 the by those going that they 1989 Murray Jackson 1999 the In are rewarded byparents success expectations children with beliefs liked being of self-esteem cognitive Murray them to the low as Children way youre stereotypesboth and group their scholastic Fairchild of of of the educational Moreovex characteristics Murray behavior Jackson tions uses academic biased Herrnstein significantly childs 1997 Murray deficient this and alert context from the time they enter school children in essential most are policies legitimized and covert messages intellectually are are by-product uate the probability of future dren hours and the society-at-large is Most Black pectations thirty-hour 22800 and domination of minority groups the only is the authority is day of children and Hilliard teachers Education you nine and the type of education communicated lessons indoctrinatingchildren tells sum when there practices in particular the internalizing teacher is grades and intangibly such as six-hour derive of years will total it the sociopolitical-economic to perpetuate and of Blacks tangibly nine preschool college average communicated racism oppression support general the yea we American society the curriculum system and 31 Kunjufu 1984 focused with twelve-hundred-hour of years high-school this multiply two attends each years Murray by the experience husband Racial our daughters All beautiful though grade eighth from the lower made the decision the she year was that she was track Before it because 14 Black not due to the dumb was also because of me reality they are dumb children communicates who God gave them White people teachers cognitive differential the must be smarter must be status White are to in their Blacks domination Racial socialization beliefs about processes ues and race attitudes or the process their children more Blacks in if to jail go environ low in it ability must be Moreover track the Washington freed the world European slaves and conquests and labor manifest destiny must be legitimate and there decisions as Adolescents have and other motivations well or less as the others continue will than for mythology sur significant children somehow are George Lincoln political parents in by design do not overtly say that the slow placement the up Black and Whites to do not assume Whites SCCIaIIZGtICn by which the family shapes child fits within acquire the behaviors an ethnic group groups born land and explains how the of being of the the but by which children of such embers is its are honest countermessages or criminal was see privilege understand between positive dumb right their all were track she Abraham Racial the Whites believed now Black If is to other peoples right maturity communicate that grades average children evaluate if and Christianized civilized she and soon Teachers lie emancipators tell above reason Mother dumb know who her track lower academic circumstance Thus arbitrarily years those all in the moved her were scores she grade the fact that despite upper that first teacher track that the only and her have to Each the to that She said unfortunate must be because not rounding me asked ability test who remained on concrete curriculum Blacks lower they acquire abstract thinking are people track assigned with she shared children they are more criminal Blacks and achievement ment based fore in the to each year from of ability her other and the her put communicated school her upper been dumb could the had When tracks visited and beginning As and Ba and were per the she previous the At ability to to husband my life was smart and 93 Development Identity Phinney and come to Rotheram see attitudes this context perceptions themselves 1987 11 and It is val and other Although Exhibit 22 - 11 84 RACIAL MESSAGES the family the is 1999 Strokes Peacock 1999 receive direct and awareness fluenced the family maintains The African ative received an the the church e.g serves early at two for First in Mandara in of review the do not Marshall of empirical research cial identity 1991 trast It of assumes Nobles 1973 that the maturing tended ple self due that about theft to theoretical differences the Nigrescene or intrapersonal of racism two of and which Murray of African thirds and the remain children and identity identity Sernaj 1985 includes This interpersonal between based Exhibit 22 - 12 in propose sense of of and ra socialization the of ongoing subject the two predominant posits primarily that treatment reaction to terms of definition self-identity Cross racism In con an African-centered self in racial on the individ to racial on the corporate view is model which formed is race link toward or response racial which is dependent 300 identity group and affection consequences indicates the is attitude that childs personal frame al 1999 race-socialize but confusion individualistic uals perception achievement provides comfort on the relationship between The most noted is identity is of and The family American African are systems institutions 1986 Hatchet in the the development it et educational see Murray et al 1999 for review Parham 1983 Whitty 1994 Avoid still remains in terms development theories by neg affected 1995 Williams 1993 Spencec debate There Allen deleterious literature but aL 1997 et indirectly and other value-laden self-worth American parents consciously der and functions Murray press Jackson directly society and often the negative lessen 1982 Quattrone 1986 economic Second society group stereo political fosters self-identity other behaviors Miller of in are Murray curriculum notions racial Thornton 1997 Messages White Jesus it As children mature and internalize racial of other races people their role is that children overhear of Blacks the media important development reference family American within least 1989 and treatment through subsystems and see Murray other races and school as peers interpretive American conceptions even such and prejudices Devine types to 1997 identity howeve suggests reactions developed learn to they begin racial from them regarding are being identity of many forms When their observe race instructions by external agents 1999 et literature Recent McAdoo awareness in studies ignored the family takes parents talking about or the childs often it is within socialization of origin Stevenson we of necessitates view or the ex ones peo an inves RaciS of key tigation and/or of understanding and development be can that children interactions in experience such agencies socializing more Burke 1980 confirmed either shape damage to likely proposes supported and/or buttressed agency the fmily and that are surrounding situations This theory identity racial development messages or identity peoples protect identity institutions socializing as $5 Idatity Development the interactive Specifically alienated or disconfirmed clergy peers by first socializing the by other and media teachers Because in of historical perceptions of opportunity Thornton 1997 Thus ety nificant differences in factors variations Jackson in racial about 1992 Greene African sive American that world with To mately prepares in which parents Either leave and versa vice however that is in must sig social mainstream norms Spencer evidence that indicates 1983 Spence status and geo 1997 1983 Thornton socialization find extreme the relate Chatters voiced was strategies child will the facilitate by about their children them development prepared inadequately to or being of defen the negotiate 64 function American by African socialization to of warning ways without overwhelming perspective racial children either or effectively parents ineffectively ulti in the they live Ideally parental those of other and argues realistic great extent world reflect economic available Spencer and disappointments protective styles soci should identity al 1997 Tatum 1987 Thornton socialization variations who racial dangers overly et expe group and of the broader group to The and with parents 1990 Allen Concern 293 in life backgrounds family age gende socioeconomic marital status Taylor of the experiences in variability their racial measures 1990 Markstrom-Adams graphic the and degree of acculturation situations to of amongAfricanAmericans differences Moreove influences perceptions riences variance within-group States there are individual United major socialization socializing Thornton socialization frequently et values al 1990 occurs incompatible within with should teachers For African broader attaining and complement reflect e.g agents clergy and police American societal positive families environment mental health Exhibit 22 - 13 MESSAGES RACAL $6 Thornton 401 al 1990 et means by which The process and Types Black communicate parents e.g we-ness ethnic can group be ence and/or activities Toms 1985 tend dren e.g behaviors identified to be and overtly parents communicate an literature openly on discuss issues Howard 1985 Parham latter is sumption acquired American Black ica 1998 open receive stand believe racial to all within to majority Porter Kardiner Ye is documented has been Bowman that in to designed messages group American to Howard parents about 1983 active issues socialization Spence and higher and responsibility across consistently Clearly without self-esteem studies unit is as logical will be toward African at least and that opportunities knowledge rearing press racial regarding 1983 self-concept of unity in 1994 1995 The Stevenson discussion stance Bowman Mandara 1985 Murray actively defensive take racial behave may deal with race issues reactively talk not important the primary of the race third in chil messages the family one cannot of Amer under development many from poorer pared positive race identity For years fered racial African no for recognition communities parents are dren more that through or little provides it socialization Williams 1993 Spencer strategy certain chil strategies Toms Boykin experi suggests that press never passively American their and discrimination or see Stevenson sues children their race racial that indicates teach in system respect no matter what with Furthermore Jacobs also in displayed and taught to Black of childrens understanding The African evidence consistently specific 1985 Smith Fogle proactively no monolithic racial or and others These review everyone Toms 1985 Boykin still treat mainstream institutions for Empirical their or ethnic group blame perspective or group is to messages individualism in aL 1999 et identified There readily Boykin race e.g participation blame perspective see Murray problem socialization of race range one is Messages mainstream prescriptions children values this of Race Effects SocIalIzation socialization racial parents address American African of researchers maintained self-concepts group Washington Oversey members African from no Americans suf lower self-esteem com 1967 Gordon 1980 Coopersmith 1979 Aside 1951 howeve Exhibit 22 - 14 that and consequently easily significant biased clinical self-concept studies studies Racial wereconducted were 1976 ing that both the negative siders how Recent who studies in who deal with higher negative et 1990 those also It who are not con self-esteem of socialized to be cognizant of if in society Sanders sense of common fate Rasheed 1981 and difficult to oughly certain dictable behavioral This preference and so on Thornton racial study by and proactive investigated the strategy to or whether are often messages thor in counter pre outcomes given education who youth resulting media and findings investigate disconcerting e.g pride self-esteem inconsistent those especially that for institution to those that both of the al 1990 Murray and Mandara strategies of Black did not effi 1983 Spence relate to attain Rotheram problems These youth strategies messages grades and/or psychological societal socialization et is and more personal negatively communicated e.g In particula strong inculcation internalized situation youth have racial studies American who do not to those behavior that the given outcomes American 1995 race 1985 in identity along ethnic pride 1995 about Howard farther fewer Marshall socialization self-esteem i.e other Blacks of the messages received parent grades interpret the content to be 1998 Whitty 1994 and with behavioral positive that African reported contrast Murray protocol are taught nothing Marshall few researchers reported that pride one and Bowman appear in-group messages the broader are who has been socialized racially Howard 1985 Bowman 1990 and higher in-group African understood interracial messages Borus e.g em between al 1990 show more in-group are proactive grades about outcomes than youth than development receive cautioned Thornton press receive children are research on myth not identity group who that youth indicate and Rotberam-Borus cacy the Porter earlier inconsistency apparent more dearly be affects 1995 from were based identity Cross 1991 The socialization race and psychological who Spence Holmes The conclusions indicat Americans of African self-images self-concepts 1999 and current findings can barriers Mandara or period Banks Americans JAfrican racial Duringthis orientation racial racial nature of personal documentation earlier their especially 1989 Washington the and the the personal are often positive pirical on almost entirely group number of recent works provide evidence to the contrary findings about 1991 1939 and 1960 Cross between based 87 Development Identity to deal with are necessary socialization in press the broader The suggests societys messages longitudinal/cross-sectional and personality development ethnic i.e study among 116 Afri Exhibit 22 - 15 SB RACLAJ American can years The ment reflects change things teaching children teaches dislike is of the defensive whereas in strategy Eu Whites Race na e.g issues racism thing is fectively with The nities racism and racial racial These identity as whether why some research cialization and There children are are of parents about also ef commu not found to predicted content message not The study as is impor helps explain between race so relationship positive American the African about racism positive racial the needed most identity 1985 In in strategy sum as chil group iden the absence understand as well in their from the delete substantial to how Moreove all of constructive the need lack of effective at if protection agendas underscores including the Semaj socialization about community and race instill to children health families strategies or hamper the development racial American of various their mental positive ineffectiveness African give that influences and in educated ill-equipped do not dren They fmd not views many be that emphasize ac outcomes child should some parents does were is deal to and they only moderately race-socializes race- self-esteem strategies and race naivete approaches findings and to exposed positive race identity toward African American of self-esteem parent that achievements responsibility awareness predictors significant is of Black racial those for to exposed in higher found was conclusion logical recognition Americans African significantly the reverse strategy through cate like act to power usefulness of imitating to race the active Race-defensiveness group the best it is modem that were strategies quired tity but think an empower and the abil e.g barriers 16 to empowerment Racial identity reflects racial groups e.g revealed findings self-concept rious their from 14 age past The tant racial that minimizes strategy racial awareness of proud other for empowerment be be to racial stresses despite life Racial American behavior ropean ivete in in racial and race naivete approach that school were investigated defensiveness obstacles at them female ranging of strategies race proactive overcome to 54.3% youth socialization awareness racial ity MESSAGES or number the the need of effects to edu approach CondSon An can examination society of is like racial identity studying Exhibit 22 - 16 development plant out of context growth without i.e Ameri considering carbon Racial dioxide Clearly childrens which knowledge searchers conclude phenomenon racial stereotypes values rocentric to racial the 1988 Mien and Blacks Contact The than socializa implications its racial proactive children to American MA Cambridge media and social in ethnic that Blackwell Basil reality effects 131 Research relations so face 13 rule the Communications hypothesis and of Eu exposure the Whiny 1994 notes howeve prejudice 1986 of African rather exception Children orientations 1969 Anilr the unchallenged Thus issues and prepares childrens Therefore context social Some re knowledge Instead reflect 1999 Europeanized discrimination racial to appear Spence their sociobiological as structures cognition are important Hatchett tem in buffers is strategy Aboud race Americans of social to or stereotypes agenda challenges such concerning of race cognitive to group status minority awareness developing related development identity cialization their tied intimately is identity by although to not is epithets of African tion for that related is racial influenced is 89 Development Identity Self and sys 97-113 ii PsychologicalBulletin 319-342 1972 Amsterdam Mirror Anderson 1983 TV Williams children reactions self-image before two Developmental age 5297-305 Psycholo about say shows the they and Black child the What Black 92 watch Journal of Black Psychology 27-42 Asher 1986 Bandura Social 1976 Banks nomenon Barnes E.J ogy Social Englewuod theory Black 1969 Allen Journal of cesses White pp Bertenthal The self-esteem Black Fisher 1978 1998 Psychology The in and Blacks of comparison pro social action cognitive paradigm in search phe of 1179-1186 as the source In Harper Development of positive Jones Ed self-concept for Black psychol Row of self recognition in the infant 1444-50 relationships awareness 836 perspective New York social Hall community 106-130 and preference 157-165 Prentice Bulletin theoretical Developmental Bianchi NJ preference Psychological 1980 25 foundation of thought Cliffs children Racial Issues racism among individual racial identity self-esteem attitudes collective and optimism among Exhibit 22 - 17 90 RACIAL MESSAGES males Afro-Brazilian ence Howard ademic 1985 study Journal of the work In ED 1985 Black young children pp 1986 33-51 Racial attitude Ruiz review 1980 The Social spective 1979 Burns The 1989 drens Measurement Psychology of among and longitudinal and preferences from an interactionist per 18-29 measurement In work and development 1947 color among developmental Child Development Racial identification Hall Wilson Russell skin of ability appraisal peers Clark tics educa Sage development identification 43 Theory versus Mastery observations Clark dren CA Hills 712-721 requirements Quarterly self-concept frame Social be New York Longman havior Butle self Ethnic children attitudes 573 134-141 860-890 81 Bulletin Psychological Burke P.J of parental 1974 Padilla Black ac families Aconceptual Beverly function as 24 Psychology socialization study Child Development cross-sectional Brand Child of and motivation in three-generational Eds Newcombe Branch The Sci Section socialization youth Blackchild envirotunents parental Black McAdoo H.P McAdoo and tional Race-related of Academy American Toms Boykin International 588-B 4437 achievement Bowman Abstracts Dissertation and Engineering Eds of The study of chil 1350-1361 preschool Negro color complex New York Americans African 60 chil The poli Harcourt Brace ovanovich 1997 Coard tity and national Psychology The lege Cook and 352-3 1967 The Black iden Inter 1523 583-B in childrens racial Abstracts peer cultures Social 160-177 the education of the children young Col Teachers 61 self looking-glass 123 Journal of Family Psychology Coopersmith coloi Dissertation Engineering reproduction 1998 Douglas analysis for skin Americans and Science 552 Racism 903 Record preferences African Interpretive Quarterly 1989 Comer among Section 1992 Coarse and of Perceptions self-esteem antecedents in family context social 299-309 San Francisco of self-esteem Free man 1985 Cross sonal identity Allen children Cross Black and Eds identity reference group Beginnings The pp 155-171 Hillsdale 1991 Shades of Blacks adelphia Temple University Exhibit 22 - 18 the Rediscovering orientation social NJ on Spence affective Lawrence Diversity Press and distinction In Afri between per Brookins development of Black Erlbaum can Amen can identity Phil Racial Damon 1982 Hart Damon 1988 Hart New York Cambridge 1989 Devine 2000 Dixon the and psychological Social color The Section racial and Science 60-68 attitude identity women American in African well-being in stereotyping 61 Perspectives socialization com controlled 5-18 racial to studying Research skin and 56 Psychology approach American International stracts and automatic Their prejudice Intrafamilial and adolescence Press cognitive African 1999 Drape and 841-864 on childhood Self-understanding Personality social media mass 52 Development in from of self-understanding development Child University Stereotypes Journal of ponents The adolescence through fancy 91 Development Identity Ab Dissertation 601-B Engineering 0363 Mass media 1968 Gerson Social ences 1980 Gordon Press sity The and vision of Black Americans self-concept The impact of on television of minoritychildren.In opment behavior socialization differ Negro-White 40-50 MD Univer Lanham America of 1982 Graves 45 Forces the socialization of the and the cognitive child minority devel affective Eds Kernan Mitchell Berry Tele New York Aca pp.37-67 demic Press Atkin Greenberg research the socialization 1982 In agenda the of Eds Mitchell-Kernan pp child minority from aboutminorities Learning Berry television New York 215-243 and Thlevision Academic Press 1992 Greene American culture Racial children socialization L.A In pp Hamilton S.J Stroessne nition and Social cognition Impact Academic the study approach discrimination and 1983 Hetberington personality 1988 Yawkey to with African with Working children minority 1994 Denise Devine psychology social Eds ad and Jossey-Bass In pp Stereotypes and 1986 Trolie of the cognitive Harte ethnic Driscoll of stereotyping on psychotherapy Social San Diego 291-321 cog Eds 1-larnilton CA Press HamiltonD Harte with San Francisco 63-81 in Koss-Chioino intervention Psychotherapeutic olescents tool as Vargas Eds social of development Development Johnson middle childhood perspectives Handbook pp processes Eds Academic 275-3 Integrative 45-78 Hillsdale In Vol psychology in the 85 New construction processes NJ An overview Eds Prejudice Press the self-system on child pp stereotyping Gaertner FL racism Orlando Development and Dovidio Inj and Lawrence Mussen Socialization York John of the Wiley self In socialization Early Erlbaum Exhibit 22 - 19 92 RACIAL MESSAGES Murray 1994 The bell curve New York Free Press Herrnstein ture in America 1997 SBA Hilliard The reawakening of and mind can theAfri class struc Gainesville Intelligence FL Makare and group oppression HydeJ MA Lexington bases Cultural racism of Rider Press Health ronment and Ed Black 1980 Thousand families pp children 1998 Journal of television Eds Abeles Withey Television 161-189 544 Issues on NJ and MeAdoo In Sage behavior social Lawrence Beyond violence Erlbaum new American the In decision-making personal and Hillsdale knowledge Psychological Social CA Oaks of influence envi socialization Family Black Americans in development identity The 1997 Gurin McCullough Jackson and Two Vol tions Jones CA Berkeley 1995 How young children perceive race Race and Ethnic Rela 12 Thousand Oaks CA Sage 1983 Half the human experience The psychology of women 4th ed. Holmes Janis 1975 Trost Struckmarm 1-lodge dilemma of race 641-662 Oversey 1951 The mark of oppression New York Norton 1975 Toward the elimination of racism Elmsford NY Pergamon Black chil 1984 Developing positive self-images and discipline Kardiner Katz Kunjufu in dren African American Brooks-Gunn 1979 Chicago Lewis Images Social and cognition the of acquisition self New York Plenum 1983 Marcia Some directions adolescence Journal of Kunda early 1986 Markus Journal of 1995 Marshall tions for and Personality Ethnic parenting 1985 overtime Racial McAdoo 1997 McAdoo In The their children 244 of the malleability 514 in ego development 215-223 self-concept 85 8-866 American children Implica achievement and academic Journal 377-396 attitudes and Ed Black of self-concept young families Thousand American fathers Ed McAdoo 33 of African development roles of African In and Psychology socialization identity of investigation Adolescence Stability Social of Youth and Adolescence McAdoo for the E.arly Black families Black Oaks children CA Sage in the socialization Thousand of CA Oaks Sage McGuireWj McGuire in the spontaneous social environment Child self concept as Journal of 511-529 Exhibit 22 - 20 1978 Fujioka function Personality of ones and ethnic Social Salence of ethnicity distinctions Psychology in the 365 Racial Mule 1982 In the New York Praeger Murray of sity at Jones Ed VA Cobb 1999 The American African 2001 MandaraJ as predictors identity Murray of Strokes can American conditioned Berkeley model failure Univer revisited and parenting youth children 1988 An assessment self-esteem 1999 Five In pp parenting kinds of of racial Unpublished Peacock review children and youth Neisse academic adolescent adolescents In Hampton Henry Murray dren Black of Black Berkeley JacksonJ L.Jones Models Ed is stereotyping issues Contemporary 1989 In California Murray ft beholder Fairchild underachievement nic the of eye 93 Development Identity 209-229 self Racial Ed Jones knowledge socialization of Afri American African VA Hampton and eth socialization manuscript Cobb chil Henry Psychology Philosophical 3S-S9 1973 Nobles review Journal 1994 Olive shows lice 382 291 Issues Portrayals content and research Psychological Social of crime the Black and race in aggression Journal of Broad analysis critical self-concept 11-3 casting po reality-based and Media Electronic 179-192 ParhamT P.11993 Williams factors ground to racial identity The of relationship attitudes back and demographic 191 Journal of Black Psychology 7-24 McCabe Peterson decontextualized 1989 PhinneyJ lescents 1994 narrativeskill Stages of social ethnic 1991 Ethnic CA PorteJ B. The childs Washington studies PorteJ B. and 23 937-948 group ado 13 reviewand integration His 208 193 Childrens ethnic Newbury socialization conception of the world London Routledge Paul Kegan tity in minority Sage 1952 Piaget of 1987 Rotheram Phinney of developing 306 34-49 self-esteem identityand panic Journal of Behavioral Science account Psychology development identity Journal of Early Adolescence PhinneyJ Park interactionist Developmental of Black 1979 B. self-concept 1989 Washington self-esteem 1979-198 Black Annual identity Review of Developments Revue Internationale and self-esteem in research de review 53-74 Sociology on Black Psychologie iden Sociale 339-353 Powell minority 1982 group The impact children In of television Berry on the self-concept development Mitchell-Kernan Eds of Tele Exhibit 22 - 21 94 RACIAL MESSAGES and vision ademic of the the socialization 105-131 New YorkAc pp child minority Press 1986 Quattrone On Eds Austin the of perception Psychology of InS Worchel variability groups pp relations intergroup 25-48 Chicago Nelson-Hall 1987 Ramsey CA Sage 1981 Self-esteem Ncwbury children Abstracts ethic ethnic ethnic difference In pp socialization 56-72 The to gifted child challenge Michigan of third Dissertation 2604 Young American in African identity University 426B International health and dissertation Doctoral 1978 Rosser about thinking Childrens Park Rasheed grade Eds Rotheram Phinney and children Young Black the and Black In Ed Gary pp community 95-113 Mental Philadelphia Dorrance 1990 Rotheram-Borus and adjustment Adolescents of Journal choices reference-group and Personality Social self-esteem 595 Psychology 1075-1081 1987 Ruble In The New York Wilson Hall Russell color among 1998 Sanders racism and Spencer Afrikananity pp development Smith tion Issues 59-72 Hampton VA Cobb 1982 Spencer synthesis Genetic gies An self-concept 25 In achievement Assessing social to response 83-93 self-identity The and In affective Erlbaum ethnic parental Ed Johnson as 661 external Lawrence of skin Racial socializa socialization cultural 34 Review Black values 183 and An children alternative 59-84 child parental rearing strate 351-370 childrens interpretation Black identityof Monographs race awareness racial Journal of Child Psychology attitudes and and Psychiatry 433-441 1985 Spencer Black childrens Eds pp NJ and group Childrens 1984 Spencer and politics Brace Jovanovich Education Beginnings in press Psychology Developmental process psychology Henry Personal 1983 Spencer Eds implementation complex The Harcourt Academic Hillsdale Jacobs and color cognition Allen Fogle The New York Journal of Negro Brookin developmental Wiley obstacles Overcoming in topics 1992 discrimination 1985 Semaj John Americans African self-socialization self-knowledge Contemporary 243-270 pp of acquisition Ed Eisenberg Cultural personal Beginnings 215-230 The Hillsdale Exhibit 22 - 22 cognition growth social NJ and and In social cognition Spencer affective Lawrence as identity Brookins development Erlbaum of Black factors in Allen children Racial 1988 Spence New development Self-concept 95 Devdop.nent Identity Directions Devel for Child opment 42 S9-72 1999 Spence of an plication cultural and ethnic school ecological The adjustment ap Educational perspective 43-57 1990 Markstrom-Adams Spence on influences cultural identity-focused 341 Psychologist and Social children minority Identity America in racial among processes 612 Review Developmental 290-310 1994 Stevenson American 204 Psychology tion to racial and socialization and Theoretical socialization self and Televisions 1979 Tan 29 Communication TangneyJ socialization Education and social Television 1988 Bulletin and differences chology 1987 141 1997 Mainstream African 603 Henry American 314-327 Cambridge Uni Eds CA Oaks Childrens of racial cultural Family life Journal of frequency and Personality CT Social In Psy Greenwood socialization In it messages in and among Black parents Taylo pp Black America Taylo environmental Jackson 16-248 Thousand 1962 Thought and 1992 Supporting biracial of children 1994 At The 152 speech of racial MIT Cambridge children socialization by in the school Press setting Education and 163-172 Ethnicsocialization significance 1990 Allen correlates 61 401409 Black parents Child Development males Blacks television-viewing correlates blues Westport Strategies Chatters Sociodemographic WhittyJ of Sage Thornton Treatment self-esteem 145-158 minority and Chatters and use demographic Assimilation Thornton fi of African Cobb New York categories Ed Jones identity 129-135 Feshbach dividual Wardle In HamptonVA Henry racial measuring Journal of Negro adolescents role African Press Tan Vygotsky further identity Ed VM Cobb Hampton 217-255 racial Jones in socializa 49-70 measuring In in the 1981 Human groups versity Tatum self of racial 211 in further considerations the Extending 1991 children Tajfel for African Journal of Black perceptions 217-255 Theoretical developmentpp identity Stroman Socialization Psycholo considerations the Extending 1999 American of Racial multidimensionality Journal of Black Americanidentitydevelopnentpp Stevenson Scale of adolescent Relationship identity H.C 1998 Stevenson the toward Steps 445-468 1995 Stevenson of Validation adolescents of ethnic The case identity and socialization for African Exhibit 22 - 23 96 RACIAL MESSAGES American ducted youth at the from Findings Fifth Biennial adolescence pre-to-Iate Meeting of the Society of symposium Research con on Adolescence California Wilde 1986 intergroup chology Social bias In University Berkowitz Vol 19 pp 293-255 Morland Williams categorization of North 1976 Carolina Exhibit 22 - 24 Advances New York Race Press color and for creation Implications Ed on experimental Academic and the reduction of social psy Press young child Chapel Hill

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