Cambridge University Press et al v. Patton et al

Filing 319

DEPOSITION of Patricia Dixon, Ph.D. taken on April 20, 2011 by Cambridge University Press, Oxford University Press, Inc., Sage Publications, Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit Defendant Ex. 20, # 2 Exhibit Defendant Ex. 21, # 3 Exhibit Defendant Ex. 22, # 4 Exhibit 20, # 5 Exhibit 21, # 6 Exhibit 22 -part 1, # 7 Exhibit 22- part2, # 8 Exhibit Plaintiff Ex. 18, # 9 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 1, # 10 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 2, # 11 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 4, # 12 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 8, # 13 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 10, # 14 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 11, # 15 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 12, # 16 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 14, # 17 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 15, # 18 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 16, # 19 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 17, # 20 Exhibit Previously Marked Plaintiff Ex. 17 - Seamans)(Rains, John)

Download PDF
E X H I B I T 21 -s American Children in African Single-Mother Families Suzanne whole takes It Randolph child to raise village African proverb 1990 more than As of of these since is data have been African all sounded 7.1 Thble this over maintained lifestyles have as that similar social greater children instances the head to households in the for or headed of these households is cries tolerance of by groups American wide percentage of woman single the childs time form of alarm have racial/ethnic African increased first family the in problems the Thus other 18 years the is single-parent Americans statistics acceptance contributed American mother This their Increasing as well community and American children under usually most prevalent among African the of of half one parent with lived age mother range African In most biological female relative or nonrelative adoptive in other instances either for the care of the child This range of household may have responsibility or and family types facilitates painted are at results childrens by research great risk for in an intriguing development and the cultural However media suggests detrimental outcomes matrix the that picture children although that in supports and that these is often families some are many do well 117 _________ Exhibit 21 - 1 AMERICAN SINGLE AFRICAN 118 Table 7.1 of Percentage Under Children for Race/Ethnicity 1960 Age 1970 18 MOTHERS One Parent With Living by 1980 and 1990 Year of Ce nato Data Race/Ethnicity 1960 1970 1980 1990 Black 21.9 31.8 45.8 54.8 White 7.1 8.7 N/A N/A Ladno SOURCE U.S Bureau The problems in this mother and An chaptet families made Census the 1991 19.2 30.0 21.1 fl of children strengths of overview presented is 15.1 the with along and their problems children children and strengths that have are presented and in to the untangle cultural that these single- attempt protects is cloaks in An findings race-specific matrix are discussed families facing them from poor developmental outcomes Adaptive sustained African American families and communities discussed as ensuring optimal Nobles 1974 role flexibility can such used single-mother are as to highlight families adaptive in fostering the of African communalism spirituality of children development families Specifically dimensions single-mother view for strategies world- Ameri of African strengths in development and positivity young children EFFECTS OF SINGLE-PARENT STATUS ON CHILDREN GENERAL FINDINGS Research as has shown that children many successful as children in two-parent and school achievement of mother-only mary mother of status from school at ages younger in rates and rates acts and at 1991 review school earlier out of marriage delinquent Booth adjustment recent review sum present effects of single- these children have more so than girls higher absentee boys of poverty in their deleterious to their According higher dropout higher and several suggests achievement adulthood of committing that on children poorer academic ism McLanahan families literature families are on emotional 1982 However Cashion mother in single families ages lower earnings at first higher divorce higher rates marriage rates of drug and in young children higher rates alcohol use Exhibit 21 - 2 Children in Single-Mother common these that be due status children than stigma and also is lower has been this associated expectations There factors have families families but two-parent been the household in alternative to point has effects male of from single-mother family structure to deleterious the absence other scholars in the negative to rather these explain to children some example self-esteem than to to are due 1990 However Davidson For theory used problems 119 Families found with their variation within-group based on the reason for the among children in single-mother families mothers single status family income level age of mother or the familys life e.g cycle These Most notable among in male that likely from fathers poverty and the housing Over poverty awarded or second These earner the impact of poverty adolescents on view of McLoyd McLoyd on socioemotional et indirectly in found through turn economic affect to their impact parenting behavior ment predicted quent No families depressive maternal punishment and families in in families are Another live in will be cases of household with Waldman Johnson representation only suggestive line of inquiry of maternal behavior relationship provides mother-only Borquez live the added alimony in 1982 functioning have mothers single live more complex family structures 1994 of relationship functioning stressors in African work adolescents economic hardship American and interruption single- unem socioemotional functioning on mothers psychological functioning and Unemploy mother-child symptomatology and families disproportionate of As others have who American outcomes the examined the socioemotional ployment were and 1994 al the implications Ceballo Jayaratne adolescent mother of the employment or decent gainful will that of not the lack of 81 of color support or is single-parent American on childrens developmental absence single-mother economic hardship and xamining the Hayghe accounts among of all child level some time aspect from African income for African Grossman descriptive family has argued for families support decrees Americans of African of third mothers that sections the is by women male income single-parent likely paternal wage 1981 support or receive child divorce 1983 less keeps of factors headed worsens that half one children or adolescents following detrimental families volume of racism the explanatory most the figure burden is in but the lack of in this It the one-parent presence explained of preschool further families Cherlin single-mother it seems or absence presence are discussed points was mediated relations which predicted more fre by mothers negative per- -- Exhibit 21 - 3 of ception associated maternal the with of quality associated who their perceived hardship reported families higher McLoyd self-esteem as economic hardship Thus there were predicted Adolescents more severe more cognitive at 1994 et perception of stressors strain which experiencing anxiety symp depressive both Moreover was punishment and financial of the family perceptions MOTHERS by the adolescents with maternal perceptions of adolescents distress relationship parent-child maternal frequent cognitive were mediated relations the More role adolescents the toms and these the AMERICAN SINGLE AFRICAN 120 economic distress and to appear be lower complex family among family structure maternal functioning economic experience and adolescent in African American functioning interrelationships families single-mother and perceived duced Also as in earlier studies McLoyd young children et at that Another decision children are is children Because confidants whom the 1990 found psychological mother 1990 but in be contact associated with lower psychological distress outcomes in Thcker general African Lewis the kin American lose children Mends network and social from detrimental tasks and making Weiss major Mends and and problems example it psy McLoyd this in the should families be families networks that social members were to that have buffer Thylor noted childs to study child Others help to mothers to related in that provides some of these support related with family single-mother 1990 However poverty or near poverty status may its their her childrens positively noted satisfying in and compared with serve as For positively was turn should was which that terms of as having also may undermine networks found included management in economic hardship per se was unrelated that It as her worries Wilson functioning problems psychological they punish single-mother mothers single mother the it with do more household shares This distress which psychological by the and decision functioning McLoyd well-being Wilson seen are of household households management the household with chological childs household support maternal understood of infants social maternal role the best generally of less status in functioning single-parent economic hardships including and in children the in responsibility in is relationship households two-parent more involved 1979 This about economic of children the psychological for That in the form was associated support positivity to the involvement making implications more related with families of one of depression symptoms and explanation family centers on children of reports ment of adolescents and of instrumental availability maternal found also poor Chatters because of move more and thus could help protect outcomes Exhibit 21 - 4 Children In Single-Mother Families 121 ARE BOYS AT GREATER THAN GIRLS RISK The increasing problems of African American boys and men have be due to family structures such those we have to as presumed discussing male presumably results in in outcome and tobacco use and on based are examining due outcomes in empirical evidence would differ father absence can The gender tied closely ment in around to function achieve origin and makes this That lies specific provider role African their in take on adult behavior as These findings with mothers of research and relationships Thus there of same-sex pattern However is no findings other than factors outcomes differential for familial mothers to responsibilities 1983 American is for of is if of males risk expected to families of United the the States American fami and gender- African Ameri- jobs placed for are are African have about in unskilled chronic joblessness Bowman 1988 estrangement that expectations their of men task alarming adage That roles they public schools gender-based role is develop Lloyd 1985 However or career at children accomplishment require adult displacement in male of masculine independent challenging fathers refers and Lynch function African problems American Gender-related puberty an occupation against failure and This such school families complex problem designated identity American sons computers paucity is explain Hill tasks particularly One well-known of of of post-industrial academic the families to generally time an exceptionally is men can choose racism gendered that among Outcomes parent-child of African and States the successfully sense suggest American difficult developmental specific only no effects single-mother socialization the United the intensify to in versus that male children role to for popularity there general examined be American African date to African for In differences American African found found White middle-class sample divorce to gender-related that African among mother-only children showed involvement parental thus control parental behavior been and fathers college education achievement predominantly status single were effects locus of control self-concept lack of to same-sex their childs for saving of receat study examining on same-sex variables home the led self-destructive even effects family father-only 35 and males However American has models role aggressive the absence that is major presumption been the they raise child-rearing their circumstances in which at earlier ages than girls boys are and practices and love socialized to daughters are expected Exhibit 21 - 5 AFRICAN AMERICAN SINGLE 122 with household to assist be responsible while boys socially as early expectations that example mothers to have have attacks racist this families to way out of the was child-rearing American while families but the jobless society rate that Also the divorced with primary zation in American of nit may industrial male children resulted for involvement growing as boys compared than girls and the of consequences intense ences among in youths different chronic the for in gap to girls African have Harrison economic and the added challenge as educational effects and numbers children the sociali and males preparation flexibil role differential weights 1988 Sannders that the emotional to despite American such displace on African American appear that of the has African among levels of gender still African be especially similar experi and female male difficulties quite are Bowman 19841990 Bowman Bowman of married female attainment provider men implications social increasing expanded although educational acceptance roles among American this African information never are Thus and at all success American joblessness or girls loving sons may have been adaptive now be less adaptive for African American caretaker and and male and both performance developmental Saunders 1988 harsher failure African era has been provide carry among men and women Bowman 1988 Bowman Bowman and his colleagues found for example ity for leaving increasing fathers despite increasing and whereas for adaptive men prone male children industrial stabilized ment of unskilled jobs has had more adverse boys as women who raising gender poorer educational has increasing their less strength high-technology women been of the old adage strategy during the viewed American have the sons their dual-earner two-parent physical at earlier White households American African responsibility regular been of thus era because During current the for of African rates with children without in American African for have in in education may to self-help skills and aggressive their employment through strategy less on the 1991 industrial based get jobs develop these For in compared as develop to even the in so shown mothers overprotection traditionally been of daughters Randolph Rosser period domestic be to thought them expect making them Also may have be expected could which they should at way their been mothers of sons at have the age for aimed have to and study harder rearing differences gender of daughters been child are allowed American the postslavery During may infancy do mothers than ages as African of sons mothers skills and maintenance MOTRERS Beale realities African socializing boys 1985 Thus American in ways that in the face of now families may protect Exhibit 21 - 6 in Children from them situations that and other aggressive found leagues in this Another is contemporary American being parental mothers view sons sons are not yet may become boundaries and instances overloads women Wilson 199O situation Acting to out to other adequately adolescent McLoyd the childrens American though related may in about to have the sex Moreover noted families 1989 1988 is maternal her children distress economic in the needed talked to interaction no to with higher notion male youths understand child in their differences child parental to fully behavior Al hardship were working and African matters predicted there for the associa tested to which mothers while Thus in parent-child being psychological implications may be about Boyd-Franklin role financial peers interactions behavior empirically children the mothers with usually of problems more research linking differences the outcomes African or American families recent research of family above and in address their feelings Saunders with in emotional McLoyd to and boys the mother and child home experiencing distress clinical processes single-mother families the frequency of the children important gender-based of predictors sons mother and mothers overwhelming 1990 Wilson is fathers Moreover task self-destructive Bowman personal problems single-mother influence that psychological intervening ii as mother-only of levels sex they found children and of That absent age-appropriate the parental child roles and for younger position for parental their is or have mothers communication between tion hostility fulfill normative it the the single place the of boys 1974 responsibilities to role reverse generational may outside the or of of being than behavior aggressive of pent-up the these roles and emotions in roles role girls for relationships Relatedly or adult into transfer or nonviolently their places Minuchin mother may easier express manifestations unable then be seek boys whom with that may It violently Therefore the the by working single on behavior assume spousal or parental 1989 Mao the demands Boyd-Franklin many acting-out 1989 socialized overwhelmed chronic 1990 adult males the fulfilling and with such the adolescent particularly as col later Saunders the for American gangs his those discussed as of coping Boyd-Franklin child their surrogates who male such Bowman explanation of African African or models adaptive alcohol Bowman behavior resources Howard 1985 the absence that to cultural facilitates chapter Bowman strain them vulnerable to drugs render self-destructive or access that 123 Families Single-Mother support McLoyd and reveals for mixed children Wilson found findings in on single-mother that satisfying the protective families contact As with -4 Exhibit 21 - 7 members family Hunter and i.e effects for these these than ence with 1977 that 1990 Wilson whom were African Jacksons 1993 poverty found that mothers for and male American child however factor predicted sive symptomatology least favorable willingness/preference for sociated with higher attainment meet the about how who response to perceived demanding the for children That paid employment than those effects In of general single-mother for childrens dren girls of maternal survive is Jackson existing families contends On one outcomes and and thrive even were that this high more these Also their of school positively Another finding supports for picture the family notion that the diverse populations picture is in spent more negative less on the other many African in in regardless significantly mixed the to on samples of middle-class different paints hand abilities strain beyond significantly as- edu knowledge amount of time mothers may be literature education the was were higher coping sons However based of boys employment and factor were more energetic girls of the regardless descriptions with beyond high school with previous research inconsistent White wives and boys depres- strain that their role with with no education of levels postulated moderate raising mothers working their of when greater including that in stressful particularly young boys employed rote mothers mediating mothers prepare raising be to preferred did mothers was of examined satisfaction life higher Jackson access support networks to mothers than better demands special the reason may employment 70% beyond high school strain role overall not especially poverty of children employment cational in be ado graders working may be education no of ratings maternal perceptions reluctant roles Having significantly lower were single work and family Kellam should It American fourth effects for The McLoyd findings American found children was influ greater sample race boys al speculated effects of African solely preschool parenting also is influenced as aggressive et have in their study sample study of African balancing low education 1994 less male not found may have al at as peers elementary-aged not protective are the protective was composed sample Pearson the for Pearson families children were methodologies lescents and fourth- families were not reported young Thrner low-income that elementary-aged in lalongo however mother-alone distress psychological study by Pearson extended families in older Ensminger and found lower found grandmothers and therefore grandmothers noted not mother-grandmother in boys compared with boys that with were 1994 Kellam boys grade associated was sex-of-child children of AMERICAN SINGLE MOTHERS AFRICAN 124 situations of than children in optimistic American chil number of Exhibit 21 - 8 Children in factors need attempt to be to considered intervene to American children of African American U.S families to pointed of blaming them and the children single-mother families due tively low is status of abilities to for amplified context on children the can American single double whainmy what factors directly The authors or examines would of use raised ways standing of the the in single FAMILY structure of the and sexism easier or of the to and positive the that strategies ex after what family and more this within discussed difficult family single-parent or factors relationships may and about situation due effectively The failing the rela environ The are their this larger single-mother status factors are i.e families interactions parenting stress raise etc families function range single families expectations within type of member strengths American up the parent-child these which COMPOSITION Family that family realities by African organization agree affect to in in contrib that MIen 1991 The illuminated fully type encompasses in negative viewed racism and be to composition resulted headed more mothers context indirectly notion household that be Caplan children factors elitism American African make parenting and growing Many and of single-mother strengths means it and When see the victim- to environmental educational sexism society of racism effects ploring in review akin which these alone Kissman single-mother mental African of other processes in to largely women parent effects confounding wide range systems political economic Other mothers the commonly MIen 1991 and disadvantaged and ecological contexts cultural mother-only factors families and single-mother outcomesfamily child the are perspectives devalued is neglected family and ute to view that in Living mother failings for These deviant pathological What has been to 1985 perspectives as 18 years of age African for mother blaming Kinsman problems families or type with 51.2% family Census 1991 Many of the these because particularly the predominant now literature are HalI-McCorquodale examine further them children under childrens crattilbute we as strengthen this is Bureau in the 125 Families Single-Mother family and the to structure events life discussion following contribute may outcomes child under better problems of children in families mothers STRUCTURE HOUSEHOLD AND FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS household family as typically composition discussed combine in traditional to refer to the sociological Exhibit 21 - 9 AMERICAN SINGLE MOTHERS AFRICAN 126 termsthat include the is nuclear biological in the nuclear family with the and at adopted An family augmented family one relate referred their to reside one as The together on childrens impact which the children reside may the An family nuclear family and the family among relationships families her nuclear family the with resides in among chapter partner comprises who this and mothers the situation types of single-mother in these to is of mother the relationships relationships purposes of relative Family non-kin the situations family adult nonrelative adult members some In For primarily extended other one least composed is augmented or kin and family or household members biological or or extended adoptive discussed are as they outcomes developmental Nuclear Families nuclear In networks kin may have detrimental offset outcomes care transportation However have it has Extended childrens their family mother Related events from teenaged remain in the same household sets of situation parents increasing in On is more are child maintenance these family types in or have widowed are more positive are the positive available to assist facilitative alone to single in role of her good child less Youth for families are be grand binuclear the both the Another statistics and more experienced family younger interaction two in that e.g out developmental extended for This two-single-sisters- positive An than Furstenberg Brooks-Gunn to likely children national is mcre families grandmother raising childrens is usually stressful parent-child to as are recent years of to likely mothers referred potential older is of single-mother childrens parents with parenting tasks make the parenting more an mother properly extended side adult Adolescent Survey The household other proportion their evident Longitudinal binuclear and raise as both configuration with-children in mothers levels same finding family household outcomes large pregnancy that usually the National comes when the situations life to results creates and and the by Families extended In that educational higher male partner regular work to resources social burdened extremely balancing shown been also are from extended support personal and care parenting health more income lack may fewer and families of two-parent tasks mothers the families fictive or negative mother situation is may mother and thus she were left if Morgan 1987 Exhibit 21 - 10 Children in 1988 By Stevens sources advice focused way than key Also the well function the negative motor generation provides and practices birth guidance Chase-Lansdale recent study found that those where confused the to as resources may children For that the provides vouchers Women for food These or sharing mothers around child families are substitute rearing likely adolescent Among includes to care child three grandmother the children in be those but do in single 1991 generational that role for the parenting an older generations i.e is may serve less opportunity such own these and the great- families adolescent the mother adolescents assumes between parent-child the child has the for parent two closer and the conflict in difficult while function protective in adult-adult result type grandmother grandmothers This reduction could conflicts extended family or grandmothers that when raise to extended grandmothers stress shared or the other and lessening for that provide support and caregiver for conflict be to effective their for caregiver more experienced mothers in her qualify assistance for most mother parents found the chief in that of families household raise by one more prevalent families of such potential non- program may have which grandmothers not have the may be mothers may WIC for the did effectively toddlers equitable the sharing parenting there role resource the and ing and and eligible of becomes grandmother This skip not than other the to commodities is with children or sharing of Children Because result Burton assumes and as generations great-grandmother that and ability not perceived is can conflicts mothers infants Infants with the other nuclear family distribution with provide to reside young mothers co-residing Distribution the parents first at example likely did not aL 1994 Also et their mothers For quality of parenting higher perform limit also example like programs roles or aunts grandmothers most families older beliefs of the mother 1994 older mothers ones Chase-Lansdale co-residing as the mothers younger Zamsky with very when parenting the age to multigenerational showed with grandmothers related in families whereas grandmother contrary in the to Brooks-Gunn parenting were positive arise may may be effect This serve may socialization development conflicts side terms of in may on children the other family from children younger Hunter of resources of poverty the impact and direct Pearson exchange reciprocal children older for the and as cognitive On of presence more in re share also generations support households different in offsetting factor protective protective in they were if the and emotional guidance Kellam 1990 This Ensminger be household sharing and 127 Families Single-Mother great- potential for interactions Exhibit 21 - 11 AMERICAN SINGLE in Relatedly with tionships Those own their be to shown relate to and poor ment research ments to is to their difficult ple attachments with mother attachment be Randolph 1989 serves protective spects the the that parenting sources paying resource Such rent though they show secure emphasis on is regard to their multiple attachments where children are informally which other mother extent use an insecure attachment intervention to the tantamount our developing to to assist strategies single-mother framework intergenerational that re American family African issues research has been the of roles these that adult assist caregivers conducted by played and 1973 nonrelatives the single usually buttress the impact fictive assume parent in utility of poverty augmented family who However kin Martin contribute food or helping with on nonrelatives adult families kin Ascheabrenner buying may roles of single-mother on families 1974 shows ing such parenting research American this later families grandmothers show even cases in The or nuclear to their form at Families same households graphic An of multi children performance households of the single-mother integrity contemporary types and in that address to Augmented the studies cultural are needed Little role appropriate More families of optimal and figure adopted culturally attach attach bow explicate may form attachments by other mothers more fully extended in more important even achievement an examination families to mother they may their to grandmother may attachment principal fot been childrens on largely has of current limitation focuses predictive children dysfunctional as the it necessary relationships ages For example The single-mother be may that attachment lower school peer interactions has been outcomes developmental Insecure one at mothers biological socioemotional children rela attachment classified are mothers Secure attachment more optimal however difficult who report of of mother-infant predictive infants adolescence in American African In their school-aged relationships have retrospective been who adults to of predictive and preschool- have mothers year as insecurely attached shown mother to their of attachment quality accounts attachment recent mothers attachment MOTHERS research AFRICAN 128 for in poor Martin significant 1978 the family who African Stack limited re income by payments This those in ethno roles includ managing on to reside earlier are additional chronicaljy Exhibit 21 - 12 economic other This is more to families is mothers the and strain of 1994 As has been shown indirectly related is viewed the as offsetting of perceived financial childrens hardship of instrumental additional this may children distress anxiety the financial et at can factors be family member result in and lower the levels thus reduce and depressive augmented family type may provide an nuclear type when an extended family arrangement tology of consider to McLoyd these and strain mothers in absence perceived If the for due be may factor support 1994 financial widowed the to Another et strain of cognitive Levels Thus than 1981 distress by formerly or families McLoyd childrens to income economic the to availability single poorer outcomes the two-parent 1991 Cherlin adaptation perceived newly separated earlier to fathers the for divorced mentioned as Adams se per result compared as absence the father/male those because important single-mother may who are that hardship women i.e married symptotua alternative is not the to available or desirable possible LIFE EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH SINGLE-PARENT STATUS CHOICE OR CIRCUMSTANCE Almost of being writer every with relationship Throughout search their on children older fathers roles they more although Burton born mothers to is that However of children born do value Johnson 1993 Other the role to of at 1994 although may adolescents companion factors protective mothers are maternal co-residence mothers Chase-Lansdale et with with for to It largest of the have should in not function their the studies adolescent children for child intelligence re and been be noted the lives in of and fathers provider Staples children of adolescent the grandmother al 1994 the well adolescents are absent or uninvolved fathers adolescents et for Much literature multigeneration Chase-Lansdale 1990 in the 41 on research based recently the in to points factor accounted pregnancy studied mothers single 1991 Allen parents has been the assumption children Kissman by us determining environment 1980s teenage single single conducted that the of headed families on larger families those 5oportion the very child single young self- Exhibit 21 - 13 esteem ment the of quality range of be important by mothers which any of or remain unresolved and of sense Another child more is that suggests many status members control adults household the meaning of some For to that argued is in case this to has not been the than or her in his disapproval tested if envi among evidence an other issue for of varying or sharing information that factor is their over her childs childs own of needed is aged of sense his to or her examine and children childrens family of interpretation precipitating influencing formation identity or near age arise the community the family know to of among children Life cycle about how the work history influence children at the research status provide information example Again members determinant important changes from family or disapproval stigma and or absence difficulties major to It communities Anecdotal single-parent with the need or her father be such single-mother important withholding may their parent-child response their is structural adolescents preoccupied school transition As with the mother to presence and Another social event the presumed by some American childrens is African or situation Developmental would help of the parent for with face also age-related adjustments approaches to resolved self-perceptions meaning of divorce successful and self-perceptions to the adjustment extent or children were the is in church makers educators Allen 1991 and influence the face policy Kissman or negative that phenomenon may not be viewed as normative and that of their family peers who stigmatize them because the children many positive factors childrens of normativeness children American African in including experience viewed is The presumption ronment factored make to likely status single-parent be neighborhood their and mother what seems available resources some status Allen 1991 status normative be to in others as Other mothers and the must that Single-parent i.e worlds and event that the father Kissinan control issue the child of are the attain adults caring single-parent than and children families between issues to outcomes interpretation the support from contribute or positive or surrogate mothers the well-being scholars events life the is and 1994 Pleck more negative in MOTHERS maternal educational environment1 achievement for Nettles community resulting home the family support Although to AMERICAN SINGLE AFRICAN 130 father issues children 12 will enable event for the should It related the to the the child especially may become be noted mother that either to locate single-parent mothers cooperation his status with request Exhibit 21 - 14 or Children in Single-Mother Finally the and the child it Families meaning of the event community larger presumed by some is is not as in that single-parent undocumented presumption sumes death divorce choice planned extended providing status is of partner family or community and has typically of and child and institutions and the mother educational and recreational surrogate fathers tance with nance family daily child care for 1993 Also 1989 These communities and father once other for the lematic single-mother family situations follows about families discussion at greater some factors in basic needs the child mosques provide models and mentors job and training and his acknowledges some that put child Boyd- families of reality of these his child American elucidation assis mainte health single-mother family poorer maternal and risk for or the of the children from the harsh An parent adopting of African strengths children many protect role families and transportation becomes an important resource Franklin and needs male scholarships an as pregnancy for the informally churches is oftentimes or separation value the single- this adolescent by providing as activities support parental Billingsley such normative that these assist divorce some instances organizations although is i.e unplanned acknowledges responded in to circumstance to mother-initiated pregnancy status community support due Again families never-marrieds this situation Formal families majority culture the and successful parenting in family in the as Nonetheless for responsibility Whether single-mother ing1 factors single-mother stigmatizing American community the African to also be among African American experience status parent may outcomes developmental acceptable 131 prob strengths single-mother outcomes DYSFUNCTIONAL SINGLE-MOTHER TYPES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDRENS DEVELOPMENT FAMILY many children Although those in African academic two-parent American children outcomes dysfunctional children are being single-mother at That Among drens problematic in families there are is the on family structure there is are successful as put some emotional and circumstances for that poor some family types which may help to composition and the that may explain these the type of dysfunctional Thia discussion builds on household areas families risk particular factors behavior raised special family earlier family in be chil which discussions relationships Exhibit 21 - 15 AFRICAN 132 1989 Boyd-Franklin African and American discusses the implications for these types outcomes interactive parent-child MOTHERS types of dysfunctional five and families AMERICAN SINGLE single-mother child development based are clinical on samples The are cut off and of rules from The but young very at inconsistent mental health home and because mental childs need usually The extreme the confused play ships are The multi well imbalance ance more roles by and in the is unable older than family it is of to cope family the on parental devel will families clear to all in mother and members In the of case may become childrea and overload family concerned is boy mothers the may resuk dis children Young mother-child is relation family the of her is be is or kin insur is providing about factor loss of an That is mother single or another parent-child the associated older- associated the as perceived confusion critical family given mourning 1985 in turn affect there family families unresolved Dukes death Another extended the also may is support 1989 single-mother members may but extended the that is loop There in where types Boyd-Franklin loop receiving this in these their Includes That mothers with intellectual The normative or her men reciprocity member and and or problem reliance performance Lindblad-Goldberg generation of behavior who may run child with single-mother 1981 with dysfunctional that loss in reciprocity boundaries generation style accused for adolescents family the his that support with school especially McAdoo support mothers the mental children includes family relationships participate received as in out their relationship generational may and may also not be e.g when discipline and lower out low role transient difficult network one children oppositional abuse Younger acting His children about acting when adolescents parental illness neglected and emotional part mothers their is amity-member his when or displayed or substance affected for financial especially mothers the problem negatively on with community be functional with includes family of health display burnout Involvement overconcentrated power may present away run for nurtursnce hld4en-f friend family This for adolescents families dysfunctional-mother ability has no is families settings or in the school at there school in family is home mother who have the opment at These The -t have in dysfunctional and lying stealing or present overburdened may be challenged and vague members These families -mother family overcentralized that are of the family often in trouble anoverwhehned are boundaries extended families children more has responsibilities their them These with or family underorganized clarity adult with mother from an relations Exhibit 21 - 16 Families Single-Mother in 133 hileren McLoyd when which predicts ship turn in self-esteem there samples be considered in on childrens is with evidence economic hard familys higher strain more cognitive anxiety Thus both in complex of that the impact examining financial their of adolescents in may be dysfunc families of perceived Levels perceptions associated is lower some that suggest has higher adolescents and empirical also the mother which distress 1994 at et tional of single-mother and clinical variables need to structure family outcomes developmental STRENGTHS OF AFRICAN AMERICAN SINGLE-MOTHER FAMILIES the Despite and lies of list long These in positivity Afrocentric strengths to help are role viewing the worldview mothers confronting number of communities children adversities families single-mother These children and in fanil for many and community with an consistent are strengths these emphasizes and American outcomes sense of spirituality situation that detrimental offset flexibility African in other values Nobles 1974 Role FlexibilIty American African rearing children models for ced on their in this men and of women is as based child sibilities for there the child hidden protective discussed flexibility care and as be to for this can and parenting household in housework that additional models in African rearing have States have been mothers In single-mother surrogate role mothers child father role manage their own family members the United not Respon shared still carry families may even by the where function caregiver of multigenerational chapter to maintenance suggests of Single mothers consult these working and working in families management beneficial of families research tradition organize and to tradition substitute benefits brief them member the family and overload White rearing and throughout In in as although househusband The way long families expectatios as gender brunt with such of American and resource women of history long is financial experiences because Also long there family and resurces limited been household with emotional rely have families Therefore the role most models households have benefit may significant and substitute been be role caregivers are Exhibit 21 - 17 for provided can ers children benefit front and overloaded mental has been it support be should noted with or interfere Frazier and adults offer key clarity mentally in building optimal and child-adult child assumes the familial support it may maternal well-being 1988 For child-rearing instance or practices flexibility as these the family that adultlike while roles roles of be so managed maintaining normative accomplishing for In the case difficulty important is strength high is potential interactive it and roles appropriate role on Without consistency parental the child that and conflict families with than less et intrusive is ingredient in roles adult-adult such Stevens development may model that support Thus child McLoyd al 1993 However et Thylor are contact satising some children conditions some or figure who of instru availability impede optimal family functioning 19g9 additional under 1990 present mothers to families for protective Wilson that perceived of extended be may McLoyd 1994 that is own moth their attachment key available is MOTHERS surrogate with as grandmother found availability father relationships by older generations family members with difficult their having care provided respite have when boys particularly who mothers adolescent is AMERICAN SINGLE AFRICAN 134 develop- developmental expectations Spirituality The belief the nature of that underlying the and practices social refers spirituality that is affiliated on inner wide range more than not limited with for strength with to inner strength give them when used These positive also way to outings and as reunions directly or inner to to to to the people reliance contrasted be visits and and to and field life with instill relatives baptisms trips and her to events find This mothers love the Social outings it unity enables stressful her children express christenings picnics of the range that refers Thus interacting or only as strength potentially family may worth of ways assumes Spirituality and spirituality maintain church and religious 1987 existence meaning rituals also principle American George rites It denomination birthday parties tions funerals rituals self-definition communicates she cannot Africentric an is African Cavil religiosity material mothers sense of ways of spirit and the Christian experience to religious preoccupation is things Nobles Goddard to encompasses practices all of African development pride or and rituals and fictive for are tradition kin family graduation celebra other family-focused Exhibit 21 - 18 Children in activities other In these become informally to opportunity age Although may also include saying bedtime serve fulfilled through the vacation This congregation her in that the mother for children other for provide Also peer missing ritual family ease of opened Americans proverb in them sense family programs It is best who to to opportunity events and of accomplishment appropriate as perform speaking child etc activities be present may mentioned such from the separate plays situation girls clubs community kin single-mother of the fathers family and to relate sense the and and recreation be may the in institu religious care the only to families in ways or and empirical surrogate or other evidence fathers are as known well as facts about the maternal extended family rarely mens to as kin as well times of need more well which among of blood that African which other women provide support in families Discussion family the in child raise community families support contributes to village of by the involvement illustrated rally whole takes In single-mother fictive snecdotal It connotes chapter kin fictive prosperity to the Community this or time only function socializing 1993 Billingsley The African sense of for provided example mothers that important has alreidy been scouts activities are or to An developmentally in the as provide family support nonreligious kin in run by churches of have give interaction setting Finally worship as that models role tions events special is role children have to participate and of places on committees and on boards this Boyd-Franklin and choir members to services domain roles For only opportunity may be her 1989 Children that the as eating The educational Opportunities capacity as servers and the such worship schools schools in auxiliaries may be the same- within activity religious agents school have with times in diversified engage to going regular beyond the Sunday leadership is at their family routines socializing Bible to roles leadership observe or Saturday and children in extends as restricted prayers outings role major and mosques serve planned spirituality worship mothers have mothers and having and activities appropriate Rituals together gether developmentally to namesakes their aunt uncle or cousin an by connectedness their i.e female if their neighborhood meals adopted about learn male and both pursue even peers children settings members family 135 Families Single-Mother focuses support suggest important that and on the However the roles contribution there of the is both fathers valued Exhibit 21 - 19 man If has acknowledged and relatives the the range expanded Also as of the and or separated Play daddies for children theft older brothers of their mothers others and have noted mothers as from Stack boyfriends 1974 the fathers always doing out and thats what in the in source African ing literature of support is conditions is that also in the implied of eye of public parenting An play important for dysfunctional nature of abdicate undermined whelmed American their their or that the that for target and the Boyd-Franklin involved are take We with single passage is themthey to other help each 45 mothers that is often overlooked the neighborhood in tradition somewhat eroding due child parenting chang to mothers in shared is should effective ensure be nor even way that used to made should if she build decision with clear the is on of making strength for the should be the not the mother overburdened this would flexibility Mothers role rearing maternal use role this sort networks available unless such as child kin fictive If to aspect care and consistency be However family roles positive in child using kin and can do was under did or did not mothers children to discipline parent mother mothers compromised is to as them the neighbor parents involvement more Indeed really neighbor families parenting families in often uncles are godfathers about single in effectively neighbor extended families people about these surrogate element and daddies and paternal than children as well theft fuss Also what was never-married is at work or away from home any other would keep an eye on her children There permission mothers absence the watchful of assist nature the play daddies include those from these all for on mother the neighborhood in with of other parents that absence That is whiLe was are families be forthcoming to 1989 men who making kinfolks have which they in extent grandfathers daddys American communities social parent that kids and things Another involved My however Americans mother In single-mother the often inheritance large likely By blood his example or father illustrates family to front kinan African Boyd-Franklin are child which in-law to and father for in mother of partners the may be more families the of the neighborhoods depends absent help out. to two decades past as MOTHERS physically kin the childs changing rendered between is offers the the extent earlier assistance families divorced as In composition assistance relationship mother wives may be suggested and the types of and he if father pp 51-52 of conununity sense the parent 1974 Stack even the fathers expects as husbands their speak reside claim his validating to child the community home the so AMERICAN SINGLE AFRICAN 136 and of be over African family resides Exhibit 21 - 20 137 with the mother of but is supported American situation be Way Out Making African bad able Even poverty African American children because Therefore many toddlers enroll expense to and but status children also have it sense of reflective of the the viewed been as However Looney and Lewis 1983 punishment adolescents their mother American the as mothers 1982 McGoldrick them as negative life easier for if Jnecessary that child of at these mothers children in the in is and enhance pressure optimal the that that in these streets in because this may be thrive pursue to literature single-mother their children from greatly enhance the protect would by would make or is pp.216-217 the key element those particularly poverty level Further examination the 1989 not seen my love equated with school Peters 1981 single-mother African by is it her in and regard seen necessaiy way strict is Boyd-Franklin but families area of strengths strength is obedience way out of no It mothers in the adaptive mother from the their mothers are Strictness as for own self.wozlh those source of family viewed economic many American single when that educators oppcrtunities particularly and to great go familys their family achieve to did for infants or of straits influences of African emphasize it is making children or below living identified instead they life the given provide wider to protection Parents than better my child means respect is my These ways ensure as their providers this as of center for service point out see provide or fad clothing authcrs note several discipline to dire image lb children than the sacrifices frivolous appear in schools practices less others might private peer group child-rearing to may be parochial or attempts in their pride making the best out of what have to may seem mothers is instill Many this officials they expensive in middle-class preseat agency purchase in make them their children good though mothers they want will of legacy see the to situation to this Way No of have families being or an adverse is and others significant community Positirity to these by of the the risks quality of strategies so often life for all families CONCLUSION The tj existing literature families presents on African varied picture American with children respect to in their single-mother outcomes The Exhibit 21 - 21 of effects absence father mother-child the outcomes nomic and in families the cents and societal amazing in limited adults Scholars not translates lies and daily needed living individuals that families single-mother perpetuate mothers prophecy More ways if substantial has superb show mothers single children Nettles is such respect the cultural that to be is of strengths such articulated in policy makers and integrity faith- structure family the adaptive need about lack of male the childrens less can Ameri of the African are devalued translates on the development to the of should others sought African associated the impact children mothers in this be for volume self-fulfilling and give of in understanding American their individual will are require single These up on children women no for varied mothers the the sexism how with racism and This who also for thus children way Thus that and themselves why to points society outcomes poor singlehood stress their sourcesingle and blame into approaches and by involve overstated and answers when the evidence createdmothers this been father or presence have lives mother-blaming well they buffer these stressors and chapter research providers families they respond in this some examining factors the single-mother service fare responsive to the some of adversity research communities of motherhood straight put face family these self-help and realities are one there even the the Qualitative to Moynihan-like families in from American African of in and that strategies these outcomes American adoles for their planners program the others adjustments The presumptions in that life resilience how risk or than data the Using in into in the well as put the children so some understanding at better ment Even increase to African suggests eco doubt it from poverty relief developmental for of make likely as poor quality resources others families survive can males better need families and develop families The level Americans see women American poverty are structure improved that the will for male income and the of problems risk greater than recently 1994 Pleck way social opportunity familial resilience families their attention African for African for MOTHERS economic hardship on child below or single-mother an to and at particularly barriers individual and even at sexism realities Mounting Less of the absence and families children numbers of children Moreover of political future these the impact of racism live these the near and c6nsequence social that ful As children many per se has received relations whammy double in AMERICAN SINGLE AFRICAN 138 development less than going reasons noted have children Exhibit 21 - 22 of Children in different Single-Mother and have data dispel ability our limit to of needs and family tional role and of is of study if we to child household status of the single-mother childrens outcomes and characteristics singlehood direct which function characteristics and that or interrela the whether predict indirect effect family processes child-rearing of availability structure has and of maternal for reason age char personal socioemotional Models are needed structure family developmental environment opportunity risk socioemo processes environment singlethe e.g child support support network variables these and caregiving and composition the strain perceptions relationship and emotional among tionships life in single-mother relationship parent-child perceived in of characteristics birth cognitive characteristics instrumental needed develop understand fully of parent-child childs and the outcomes child are with being individual perception of mother the perceptions ing ing the associated factors status at first age needed we must examine acteristics cur that provide needs their birth strategy families and status perception of family status cognitive health the is protective to That approach families needs meet to approach research this single-mother their suburban childs children their transactional mother to rural at first age of purposes myths about respond more responsive for mental the to urban age factors The immediate etc. adults come from varied adolescence types of communities varied other demographic be rently and locations family history would preschool infancy ages gcographic 139 Families on caregiv function practices as mediating variables Inherent in this transactional approach that uses risk wocesses and socialization mother African and of members family mother empirical families Pleck 1985 Sorely needed in variables developmentally Finally pounded needed to fully are intervening families Previous 1994 et are studies that physical and appropriate theory explicate linked examine the diversity work family in single- in this area provides adjustments American African McLoyd Spencer mental the the varied health that single- Wilson Brookins include an expanded range are 1990 Allen of child investigated ways ethnography factors to in difference individual to viewing al 1994 1988 Slaughter e.g processes for children Chase-Lansdale an is model underlying arguments especially Nettles outcome resilience practices American theoretical approach and that and other may provide developmental approaches qualitative better outcomes insight for into children the in _- Exhibit 21 - 23 these families This Since is especially American of African theoretical male Black performance among Black and develop as to attempt Regarding parenting assist could with young children very assistance lems with their also sample or there kind account affect this role need Is for in of research of an to provide not may general an as process of children for solutions In developing mothers or this mothers should When families not be be have mothers grams should be family with the possible for example interfere found American mothers to well-being and Single flexibility to mothers levels need on capitalize community to lower be children that supports closing have critical it is to in occurring ensure to kin that of the of kin scores receipt of of self-esteem and to and to to their support do networks child the that care support suggested pro not Frazier group and detriment financial/material support mastery negotiate and continue chance and the help by related support receipt apiritunlity in could worries understand networks life satisfaction mothers 1990 group and decisions all enhancements the and and prob Wilson support or supplanted involved assistance best and problems naturally that and These job search coping in Single mothers the their mothers communication the is undermined focused African related for network support should That roles support for of sharing worries by McLoyd discuss to these management in parent-child noted strategies of the mother network as varied care child children effect Americans African outlet with Schmiege their household or their reframing roles provide adolescent deleterious in Richards adultlike for from family off mothers performing to services their cut strengths care respite or community-level groups assist assume to mothers assist younger generate and can family trade the possible to an provide include mothers could them their also for alert that failed children successfully children networks appear has on behalf 1989 Myers this support groups in taxing of in to pursue and identifying mothers without wan by may descriptive mothers Support and situation 1994 To their Blacks implications for needed networks friendship 1989 or scientists complete practical are supports role socialization intervene to are MOTHERS 177 possible groups we literature in the past women behavioral social if As suggested role gender early crucial youths or empirical how of account to AMERICAN SINGLE AFRICAN 140 the complexities inner strengths take way out when see of role advantage the walls our best resource Foster care and other out-of-home are to ensure Exhibit 21 - 24 Children in Families Single-Mother placements should children presumed to be more viable dysfunctional in and theasiag also not be mother economic to the Governmental needs families Relief will support of of the high school beyond job ment child care assistance and family-centered housing That problems maternal for quence education GEl lege general with those those just Thus of the the the larger has to boys preschool especially that could education mentor also be viewed by children experienced each providing at other for support as preventive ages particu later 1993 context considered for the to American ensure these of numbers families increase which in we move as African resources as health conse favorable programs program could cultural be outcomes Undoubtedly mother problems Jackson we mobilize of college Such place provisions of mental has Single mothers start experience beginning boys existing with to approach larly would be mothers for go beyond training Financial support for col diploma equivalency education treatment intervention developing instrumental to structure school perceptions of children for provides support accommo single-mother search assistance job for programs beyond high in assistance to subsidies or noncash financial of history for access opportunity single- flexibility American and strain financial widening long role family supports African in the experienced must be reformulated children maternal require education including and programs Moreover women not have will support or newly managing for are problems Therefore divorced may role or use of extended policies the varied mother alternatives these of these children with increased coping result they single household binuclear in As hardship adjustment date result may status mothers women e.g American some African for already overloaded is the nonbiological for families single-mother the system be needed 141 we better children in childrens these families families optimal children whole still and as development takes fmd It are understanding American African will single-mother toward in singleto village child raise NOTE Mothers mothers major who in serve responsibility this as context head for refers of households parenting an to and biological or African live ia American formal family or informal situations where adoptive they have child ______--- fl- Exhibit 21 - 25 AMERICAN SINGLE AFRICAN 142 MOTHERS REFERENCES Adams 1991 1. Effects of adolescents of poverty and and Understanding affluence pp 118-138 San Francisco 1973 Llfelines Blackfwnilles development Aschenbrenner Ed Hendee In biological facilitating The health and behavioral social Jossey-Bass Ncw York Holt Chicago in Rinehart Winston 1993 Billingsley 1984 Bowman Black among national Journal of Mental Post-industrial Newbury CA Park of role 1988 rweWh on conference DC ton and strain National Inter strains Challenges roles Edt and Families economic youth in among Discouragement jobless 4649-69 Race-related Black aocialization and motivation families three-generation unmarried of Mental Blackfamllies Teenage childbearing in fathers Journal the cycle across In Black psychology In life Ed MCAdOO well-being research empirical Institutes distress Sage psychological 1989 Boyd-Franklin unemployment studying att 24 134-141 Psych Saunders Provider American African psychological family transition study of Black of Child Academy the Bowman and Development 1985 Howard achievement and Majka \bydanoff Bowman P.1 1990 The adolescent-to-adult Black youth New Directions for Child academic to approach displacement In Bowman gacyof le enduring 13 68-91 Health 75-96 pp distress The attributions Hopelessness family Black the ladder Schuster discouragement-centered youth Bowman P.1 1988 to Jacobs ClImbing New York Simon families pp 9-15 The Washing Health therapy New York approach mulrLsystems Guilford 1990 Burton eration Black and grandparents the Caplan Society LI for as an 1982 Cashion Journal cafl parents Child In Female-headed of Marital and families Family The can multigenerational ing Child 1981 Chcrlin United 65 Development Marriage States in Black of in clinical major journals on children Effecta ra 82 and 1994 Young of mothering Quality clinical Implica 77-86 African-Ameri and grandmother 373-393 divorce Cambridge poverty to the biennial meeting at 345-353 Zamaky families multigen Seattle Mother-blaming 55 lj Brooka-Gunn Chase-Lanadale presented Development 1985 in strategy cost of rearing grandchildren Paper of Orthopsychiatry life-course 123-143 The great-grandparents Research Journal alternative Naturel2 Hall-McCorquodale American tions Human April When 1991 Burton families MA 1990 Life without No 540-44 S.C 1989 Psychological Davidson remarriage Harvard father Changing Americas patterns in the posrwar Press University greatest social catastrophe Policy 1tevlen Frazier social aupport and well-being sex-role attitudes of Black single-parent Dissertation Abstracts women Child care InternationaL 50 ll53B Jr Brooks-Gunn Furstenberg later life Cambridge UK Cambridge Morgan University 1987 Adolescent mothers Press Exhibit 21 - 26 in Children in Grossman 1982 Hayghe or alimony support psychological of Mental tutu during women of activity child receiving 105 39-41 1985 1. Black Role pp strain coping snotlnrs working psychology 1983 adolescence early puberty Black In force 21-28 resources and Boykln Ed. National Insti In DC WashIngton Health Mt Lynch Hill Beale among well-being research Empirical Labor Labor Review Monthly Bowman Harrison 143 Families Single-Mother and Biological The of gender-related intensification In Brooks-Gunn psychological role pp perspectIves expectations Eds Petersen Girls New 201-228 at York Plenum 1993 Jackson ment Black mothers single working and well-being of perception in Preferences poverty children preschool-age employ for Social Work 38 26-34 market labor Kellam 1983 Waldmaa Johason 8.0 health returns Mt Ensminger of children Kisaman parent Normative and ethnic hi 982 sn.hsn Family The Onhop from socioeco different 11 64-74 enendrd American African An pp family Chicago Sage ethnic perspective New York 379-424 families back looking In Ed Guilford Mother-only fonvart CA Hills Beverly families 1991 Looking adolescent McLoyd Ceballo among Walsh Ed Booth In Minneapolis Contempo National conditions 46 American as predictors of Maternal distress in mothers single Child functioning 1990 1994 Borquez African socioemotional Wilson Council on Development social behavior New children and Unemployment Effects on parenting 562-589 65 and economic for Child Develop support Directions 49-69 1974 Families 1989 Minuchin adolescents psycholojn Blackfamilles Nonual processes interruption ment single- Journal Harpercollins Competent Adolescent Jayaratns and Sage low-inca Black American patterns the mental CA Past Newbury In support and 1012-1022 34 Relations McLoyd work poor Press Booth rary families New York 1978 of Chicago Normal family Mc suuctum Painily families Social dysfunctional 1983 contexts Ed. 1981 Mcooldrick and hi Martin University McAdoo 1985 Adolescence Lewis Looney Martin Psychiatry SIngle-parent families receive 5542-58 1985 nomic Li 1977 Dukes families sychlatry Lloyd Turner l.A 1993 Allen maintain 30-34 106 of General Archives Lincthlad-Ooldberg women who Most Labor RevIew Monthly Early and thera Cambridge family MA Harvard University Press Myers consequential gender Western 1994 fleck Nettles ecologies of Black adolescents Sherrod Butter role Joernal Eds cents Processes University Africanity 13 resilience and the United Stress among StudIes risk States and Nobles Its role interventIon In Affective The development Li resilience pp women Black or 173-178 In children multiple Garmezy Haggerty and 147-181 New York The Scholar adoles Press 1974 RIsk in and mechanisms bridge socialization of Block in Black families Black Cain- 10-17 Exhibit 21 - 27 AMERICAN SINGLE MOTHERS AFRICAN 144 Nobles I. Goddard Issues families Pearson ing involvement Woodlawn in the lalongo and behavior Unpublished 1994 Ed Infant families attachment grand and structure patent 61 434-442 Development urban Institute Black Family structure school elementary children correspondence Black McAdoo In perspective of AfrIcan-American Family family Kellam population in Parenting Child Community Black S.D 1990 in Diversity via personal manuscript 1981 Peters In CA Keilam Hunter aggressive 1987 George Oakland directions households multlgenerational In Pearson and Ensminger Hunter mothers Cavil 1. insights Black with familIes children young pp 211-224 historical Beverly CA Hills Sage 1989 Randolph In Ed Harrison pp Psychology 133-165 families Rosser 1991 context pp of Infancy New Directions Spencer development affective 1974 Stack kin All our Boulin Staples Stevens for 1993 Francisco 1988 Jr low-income groeps of Eds University The cultural developmental San Francisco perspective Joasey-Basa The social Eds. 1985 Beginnings Hilladale NJ Lawrence Erlbaum survival in Black New York cornmunlty on Black SocIal at families locus support mothers Chatters research Black crossroads the Challenges Jossey-Bass Black of control Black teenagers and parenting and adults three In White adults 59635-642 Development ft Taylor The Howard children Strategies Johnson San prospects Child of Black single-parent 42 277-285 Row Harper and No 42 Allen Brookins and Health NJ Abler antipoverty Development of strengths RelatIons Infants on Black of Mental Brazelton Norwood children Black in Child American Lester 133-165 Ed. 1988 Slaughter and Family interim report Research Empirical Institutes Problems An families XII National polIcy Black Nugent In Study and practice Randolph Normative DC 1994 for Implications American of Conference Washington Schmiege Richards Black in Proceedings 1990 Lewis Tucker families decade review Journal of Marriage in DeveLopments and the Famil 52 993-1014 U.S Bureau of Current ment ft Weiss the 1991 Census Population Reports Marital arrangements living DO Washington March1990 U.S Govern Printing Office 1979 single-parent Growing household up Journal little Milner The experience Issues 97-111 faster of Social SUGGESTED Adams and status P40 No.450 Series growing up in READINGS 1984 Schrepf of Fatherless children New Yort Wiley Interscience Billlngsley 1968 Black families In White America Englewood Cliffs NJ Prentice Hall Exhibit 21 - 28 in Woinble Brisbane 7yatment Quanerl Demo 19854986 23-4 1-16 1991 Acock Ed Coniemporaryfamilies National neapolis Downey Hunt Social of the girl Hunt African ICinard in on Alcoholism children In pp 162-191 back single-parent and of Marriage father-son and and orientation Sooth Min the households The connection of identities fare better 55-71 55 Family conditional adolescent boya Ed. 1988 in 1993 1984 in Child children Slack the Family loss MarItal and support of financial FamIly Journal children Development father Does make absence 25 90-102 provision and of Marriage functioning Directions The and daughters Problems Taylor mothers Reinhers emotional New 1. Journal Race Social stronger American assistance Slaughter the looking alcoholics Relations children Race in 1977 I. grow Chatters Jayakody forward Family 1975 of divorce impact Journal absence father of Black Problems 23 35-52 1.0 Hunt on parents Hunt relevance The 1993 Do same-sex Treatment Looking Council Powell with living 145 Families Single-Mother Children 55 poverty Special Issue and married single and child care 261-276 disruption of Family to emotional Effects on behavioral developmental No.42 sod 90-115 Issues San perspective Fransisco Jossey Bass Exhibit 21 - 29

Disclaimer: Justia Dockets & Filings provides public litigation records from the federal appellate and district courts. These filings and docket sheets should not be considered findings of fact or liability, nor do they necessarily reflect the view of Justia.

Why Is My Information Online?