Overture Services, Inc. v. Google Inc.
Declaration of Ravind S. Grewal in Support of 115 Google's Responsive Claim Construction Brief filed by Google Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit 1# 2 Exhibit 2# 3 Exhibit 3# 4 Exhibit 4# 5 Exhibit 5# 6 Exhibit 6# 7 Exhibit 7# 8 Exhibit 8# 9 Exhibit 9# 10 Exhibit 10# 11 Exhibit 11# 12 Exhibit 12# 13 Exhibit 13# 14 Exhibit 14# 15 Exhibit 15# 16 Exhibit 16# 17 Exhibit 17# 18 Exhibit 18# 19 Exhibit 19# 20 Exhibit 20# 21 Exhibit 21# 22 Exhibit 22# 23 Exhibit 23# 24 Exhibit 24# 25 Exhibit 25# 26 Exhibit 26# 27 Exhibit 27# 28 Exhibit 28# 29 Exhibit 29# 30 Exhibit 30)(Related document(s) 115 ) (Grewal, Ravind) (Filed on 1/30/2004)
Overture Services, Inc. v. Google Inc.
Doc. 116 Att. 25
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C. J. DATE
London. Amsterdam. Don
ADDISON- WESLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY Reading, Massachusetts. Menlo Park , California
Mills, Ontario. Sydney
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Sponsoring Editor: William B. Gruener Production Editor: Martha K. Morong
Designer: Herbert E. Caswell
IlJustrator: Robert Gallison
Cover Design: Richard Hannus
This book is in the Addison- Wesley Systems Programming Series
Consulting editors: IBM Editorial Board
Library of Congress Calaloging in Publication Data
Date , C. J. An introduction to database systems.
(The systems programming series)
Includes bibliographies and index.
1. Data base management.
QA76. ISBN 0-201- 14471-
D3D37 1981 I. Title. 001.64
Reprinted with corrections,
copyright 1981 , 1977 ,
1975 by Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced , stored in a retrieval system or transmitted , in any form or by any means , electronic , mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise
, without the prior written permission of the pubJisher. Printed in the United
Copyright ~ 1981, 1977 , 1975 by Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. Philippines
States of America. Published simultaneously in Canada. Library of Congress Catalog Card
ISBN ()'20I- J4471BCDEFGHU- HA- 898765432
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WHAT IS A DATABASE SYSTEM?
Database technology has been described as " one of the most rapidly growing areas of computer and information science 14). As a field, it is still
" r 1,
offer database management system products until wel1 into the 19605 (although it is true that certain earlier software packages did include some of the func-
comparatively young; manufacturers and vendors did not begin to
tions now associated with such ~ystems (1.13, 1.15)). D~spite its youth however , the field has quickly become one of considerable importance both practical and theoretical. The total amount of data now committed to
databases can be measured , conservatively, in the billions of bytes; the financial investment involved is represented by a correspondingly enormous figure; and it is no exaggeration to say that many thousands of organizations have become critically dependent on the continued and successful
operation of a database system.
a computer- based
So what exactly is a database system? Basicaily, it is nothing more than
purpose is to record and maintain information. I The information concerned can be anything that is deemed to be of significance to the organization the
1. The terms " data " and " information "
recordkeeping system: that is, a system whose overall
those values as understood by some user. The distinction is clearly meaning important that it seems preferable to make it explicit , where relevant important-so , instead of relying on a somewhat arbitrary differentiation between two essentially similar terms.
Some writers distinguish between the two , using " data " to refer physically recorded in the database and " information " to refer to the
are treated as synonymous in this book.
to the values
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, Database management system (DBMS)
unification of se
among those fiI~s
base might con~ partment, salary, rollment of empl
out the process 0: ment for each en formation , redun
be discovered by
may be shared an
users may have al
purposes). Such s is integrated; in .
the department the personnel del
consequence of t
Ag. 1. 1
given user will nl
Simplified picturB of a database
ways. In other WI
in a variety of diJ
system is serving-anything, in other words, that may be necessary to the decision-making processes involved in the management of that orgarization. Figure 1.1 shows a greatly simplified view of a qatabase system. Figure 1. 1 is intended to show that a database system involves four major components: data, hardware , software , and users. We consider each of these briefly below. Later in the chapter we shall discuss each one in
rather more detail.
of the database , 1
taiied ievei. This
The term "
just described ,
different users t(
same piece of daJ form of sharing i
The hardware co
For databases. tutorial purposes it is usually convenient to assume that there is just one databas , containing the totality of all stored data in the system, and we will generally make this simplifying assumption , since it does not substantially invalidate any of the subsequent discussion. There are good reasons why
The data stored in the system is partitioned into one or more
etc. -on which tl
control units, ch~
such a restriction should not be enforced in practice, however , as will be seen later. A database, then , is a repository for stored data. In general , it is both integrated and shared.
large to be held ij book does not c~
tern, for the foll~
their own right;
culiar to databas oughly investigat
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What Is a Database System?
By " integrated" we mean that the database may be thought of as a unification of several otherwise distinct data files with any among those files partially or wholly eliminated. For, example redundancy , address base might contain both EMPLOYEE records, giving name, a given data, department , salary, etc. , and ENROLLMENT records ,that in order to carry representing the enrollment of employees in training courses. Suppose
out the process of Course administration , it is necessary to know the department for each enrolled student. There is clearly no need to include this information , redundantly, in ENROLLMENT records , because records, be discovered by referring to the corresponding EMPLOYEEit can always
By " shared" we mean that individual pieces of data in the database may be shared among several different users , in the sense that each of those users may have access to the same piece of data (and may use it for different
purposes). Such sharing is really a consequence of the fact that the database
uy to the
organizastem. lIves four ;ider each
:h one in
total database; moreover , different users ' subsets will overlap in many different ways. In other words , a given database wi1l be perceived by different users in a variety of different ways, (Even when two users share the same subset of the database , their views of that Subsei may differ considerably at a detailed level. This topic is discussed more fully in Section 1.4.
just described ,
same piece of
given user wi1l normally be concerned only with some subset of the
is integrated; in the EMPLOYEEIENROLLMENT the department information in EMPLOYEE records example cited above is shared by users in the personnel department and users in the education department. Another consequence of the same fact (that the database is integrated) is that any
possibly even the (A database system supporting this form of sharing is sometimes referred to as a multiuser system,
data-at the same
, not only sharing as concurrent sharing: that is , the different users to be actually accessing the database- ability for several
The term " shared"
is frequently extended to cover
ld we will
The hardware consists of the secondary storage volumes-
disks drums -on which the database resides , together with the associated , devices
is wiIJ be
control units , channels , and so forth. (We assume that the database is too large to be held in its entirety within the computer s primary storage. ) sysbook does not concern itself very greatly with hardware aspects of the This
it is both
, for the fOllowing reasons: First , these aspects form a major topic in their own right; second , the problems encountered in this area are not peculiar to database systems; and third , those problems have been very thoroughly investigated and documented elsewhere.
, :"'";): ;)', ;: / ' " :~
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Between the physical database itself (Le., the data as actually stored) and the users of the system is a layer of software , usually called the database management system or DBMS. All requests from users for access to the database are handled by the DBMS. One general function provided by the DBMS is thus the shielding of database users from hardware- level detail (in much the same way that programmillg- Ianguage systems for languages such as COBOL shield programming users from bardware-Ievel detail). In other words , the DBMS provides a view of the database that is elevated somewhat
above the hardware level , and supports user operations (such as " get
In one of the e.':
in a database aj
put data , and j Engles s origi~
. A databasl
EMPLOYEE record for employee Smith" ) that are expressed in terms of that higher-level view. We shall discuss this function , and other functions of the DBMS, in considerably more detail later.
Bank Hospital University,
We consicler three broad classes of user. First, there is the application programmer responsible for writing application programs that use the database, typically in a language such as COBOL or PLiI. These application programs operate on the data in all the usual ways: retrieving information , creating new information, deleting or changing existing information. (All these functions are performed by issuing the appropriate request to the DBMS. ) The programs themselves may be conventional
batch applications , or they may be " on-line " programs that are designed
to support an end-user
Any enter tion. This is its
listed above w
(see below) interacting with the system from an
on- line terminal.
The second class of user , then , is the end-user accessing the database from a terminal. An end-user may employ a query language provided as an integral pan of the system, or (as mentioned above) he or she may invoke a user-written application program that accepts commands from the terminal and in turn issues requests to the DBMS on the end-user s behalf. Either way the user may again , in general, perform all the functions of retrieval, creation , deletion, and modification , although
it is probably true to say that retrieval i~ the most common function for
this class of user.
As already me data , work que data " refers to (typically on c.
change to be ml
database administrator or DBA (not shown in Fig, 1.1), Discussion of the DBA function is deferred to Section
The tbjrd class of user is the
from the system report contains;
self part .of the i
As an iJlus~
This completes our preliminary description of the major aspects of a database system. The rest of this chapter will consider these topics in somewhat more detail.
case of a manu~ will wish to reta
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