Overture Services, Inc. v. Google Inc.
Declaration of Ravind S. Grewal in Support of 115 Google's Responsive Claim Construction Brief filed by Google Inc.. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit 1# 2 Exhibit 2# 3 Exhibit 3# 4 Exhibit 4# 5 Exhibit 5# 6 Exhibit 6# 7 Exhibit 7# 8 Exhibit 8# 9 Exhibit 9# 10 Exhibit 10# 11 Exhibit 11# 12 Exhibit 12# 13 Exhibit 13# 14 Exhibit 14# 15 Exhibit 15# 16 Exhibit 16# 17 Exhibit 17# 18 Exhibit 18# 19 Exhibit 19# 20 Exhibit 20# 21 Exhibit 21# 22 Exhibit 22# 23 Exhibit 23# 24 Exhibit 24# 25 Exhibit 25# 26 Exhibit 26# 27 Exhibit 27# 28 Exhibit 28# 29 Exhibit 29# 30 Exhibit 30)(Related document(s) 115 ) (Grewal, Ravind) (Filed on 1/30/2004)
Overture Services, Inc. v. Google Inc.
Doc. 116 Att. 8
Page 1 of 7
Case 3:02-cv-01991-JSW Document 116-9 Filed 01/30/2004 Page 2 of 7
DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAG'E
Second Ed itian
Page 3 of 7
Dedicated w the memor)' of Jess Stein
COPYRIGHT 19 1987 . BY RANDOM HOUSE. INc.
fIrst Edition: Copyright 19 1983 1981 1979 1973. 1971.1970. 1969 1967, 1966 , by Random House. Inc.
AU rights reserved under International and Pan. American Copyright Conventions. No part oCthis book may be reproducd in any Corm or by any means. electronic or mechanical . including photocoPYing, without permission in "Titing from the pubsher. A II inquiries should be addressed to Reference Department, Random House, Inc.. 201 E. 50th Street , New York. N. Y 1002
Published in the United Slates by Random House. Inc., and simultaneously in Canada by Random House oCCanada LimIted. oronto
The RoncWm House Die/inner)' O(lhe EnglJ..Sh Languat!e
and its abbrevIations. RHD, RHDEL, RHD- l. and RHD- II. are trademarks oC Radom House. I nc
Library of Congress Cataloging. in. Publication Data The Random House dictionary of the English language. (Random House dictionaries) 1. English language- Dictionaries. I. flexner, Stuart Berg. II. Series. 423 87.4500 PE1625. R3
ISBN 0- 394. 50050-4;
0-394. 56500. 2
A number of entered words which we have reason to believe constitute trademarks have been designaled as such. proprJetary rights my However , no attempt has been made to designate as trademarks or service marks all words or terms in Yo'hich The inclusion , exclusion, or definition or a word or lerm is not intended to affect, or to express a judgment on , the validit)' a legal status oCthe word or term as a trademark , service mark , or other proprietary term
The Concise French
Diclwnary, edited by francesea L. V. Langbaum, CopYrJght
19 1983 ,
1954 , b~' Random House , Inc
The Conc..e German Dictwnory,
edited by Jenni Karding Moulton , Copyright 1&' 1963 1959 , by Random House, lnc.
edited by Robert A. Hall , Jr , Copyright
191983 1957 , by' Random House lnc.
The ConcJ..Se IlalLan Dlclwnory,
The ConrCs' SpanJ..Sh DiclinnaI)' edited by Donald f. Sola, Copyrighll9 1983, 1954 , by Random House , Ine
Entire contents oC the
Atlo.s Copyright (f) 1967 . by C. S. Hammond & Company
courtesy intern"tiona! Phonelic AssociallOn
InU!rna1wnal Phonelic Alphabet
ManuCaclW'ed In the United States oC Amenca
used chiefly for ammo'nium car'bamate.
Page 4 of 7
water- soluble , poisonous solid , C,
NO..H, remov:ing ink staiTls from fabrics.
, a colorless
Chem. a white , crystalline , water-soluble, extremely volatile powder, CH, O,. used as a fertilizer.
bamate , occurring either as a white powder or in color. less , hard, crystalline masses: used chiefly in the manufacture of smelling salts and baking powder. (1880-85J
mixture of ammoruum bicarbonate and ammonium car-
used chiefly in .the manufacture of dry cells, in electrnplating, and in medicine as an expectorant. Also called sal ammoniac.
water- soluble powder, NH, duces a cooling sensation on the tongue ,
Pharm. a white
, which pro.
I, an independent world- - smor n. -a.mo.ral-j-ty (alma ral/i te, am /a- I, ". wide organization working against human- rights viola. -a.mn./al-Iy. ado. Sy See immoral. tions and for the release of persons imprisoned for politicaJ or religious dissent; Nobel peace prize 1977. Abbr. A'mor as'teroid , Astron. one of a small group of asteroids whose orbits approach but do not cross that of the earth, named after the first such asteroid discovered pl. -ses am.ni.o-cen.te-sis (amIne a sen te/sis), (1932). Cf. Apollo asteroid. sez). a surgical procedure for obtaining a sample of amniotic fluid from the amniotic sac in the uterus of a AMORC. Ancient Mystic Order Rosae Crucis. See pregnant woman by inserting a hollow needle through under Rosicrucian (def, 2). the abdominal wall . used in diagnosing certain genetic am.o.ret-to (am/a ma ReVL6), n. pl. -ret-ti reV 0; II.
-Syn. 1. See pardon.
1. 4. to getting or overlooking of any past offense. amreeshe) grant amnesty to; pardon. (1570-80; ('" MF '" Gk amreestia obliv:ion , equiv. to amnest(os) forgetting tos verbal adj. suffix) + mnesremember + (0- Aia -
a-mor-al (a mar/ai , a mar , a mor/- , a mor/-
L not involving
moral standards. restraints, or principles; unaware of or indifferent to questions of right or wrong: a completely ' + MORALJ -armorIal. amoral person. (1880-85;
quality; neither moral nor immoral. 2. having no
questions of right or WTong; without
ammo'nium chrome' ai'
alum (def. II.
ammo'nium chro'mic sul'fate,
defects or possible obstetric complications. (1955-80; amreio- (as comb. form of AMNION) + CENTESIS)
of the umbilical cord and the placenta. (1965-70; amnio. (1855-80; '" It . equiv. to amor(e) love (see AMORETTO) + a white, crystalline (as comb. form of AMNlnN) + - GRAPHV) Chern. ammo'nium cy'anate, ino dim. suffix ('" L . ireus adj. suffix)J solid, CH, O, soluble in alcohol, that is converted into am'ni'on (am/ne an), n.. pi, -nl.ons, -ni.a (-ne a). 1. am-aorist (am/er ist), n. 1. a person who is devoted to urea when heated. Anal., Zoo 1. the innermost of the embryonic or fetal love and lovemaking. 2. a person who writes about love. a basic compound ammo'nium hydrox'ide. Chern. membranea of reptiles, birds, and mammala; the sac in (1575-85; '" L amor love + - 1ST) -am'o-rls/tic , adj. NH, , existing only in solution, formed by dissolving which the embryo is suspended. 2. Zool. a aimilar mem- Am.o-rite (am/a riV), re. 1. a member of one of the ammonia gas in water. Cf. ammonia. (1900-D5J brane of insects and other invertebrates. (1660-70; ~~i a colorless to yellow, '" Gk , equiv. to amn("s) Iamb (see YEAN) + - ion dim. b~i ri~~~~it \IaJ~~s, 1 ~3tan 2 f~~e ~;:;i~ic l:;~ ammo'nium lac' tate, Chem. water-soluble, syrupy liquid, C, NO" used chiefly in suffixJ emor(;) Amoguage of the Amorites, (1600-10; '" Heb electroplating. amIni-ate (am /ne at/), n. any vertebrate of the group rites + - ITE
chrome alum (def. 1).
of an opaque aolution. performed to permit visualization
ray examination of the aITUliotic sac after the injection a-mo.ri-no (am /a
(am'ne og/ra fe), n.
(-reVe; It. equiv. to amor(e) love etto E'r; cf, AMOUR)
ReVte). a little cupid.
(1590-1600; '" It ('" L amorem , acc. of amor) +
re/no; It. a'ma Re/na), n. pl. -n; ne), Fine Arts. a putto represented as an infant cupid.
water- soluble powder, NH, NO" usually produced by reacting nitric acid with vaporous ammonia: used chiefly
, in explosives, fertilizerafreezing
manufacture of nitrous mode. (1880-85)
a white, crystalline,
Amniota, comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals characterized by hav:ing an amnion during the embry-
mixtures, and in the
onic stage. Cf. anamniote. ('" NL
NION, - OTE)
amniota; see AM-
dium dry sherry of Spain. (1610-20;
ammo'nium pur'pu-rate (pw-/ pyar it
monium phosphate. 2. (loosely) diammonium phosmurexide. (PURPUR(ICI
L See monoam-
ot/ik), adj. Anal. , Zoo 1. of, per. taining to, or having an aITUlion. Also, am-nl-on.lc (amIne on/ikl, am.nic (am/nik), (1815-25; AMNI(ON) +
1. inclined or disposed to am-o-rous (am/ar as), adj. an love , esp. sexual love: amorous disposition. 2. show-
3. of or perletter. ing or expressing lov.. an amorous taining to \ov..amorous poetry. 4. being in love; enam. ored: She smiled ared at once he became amorous o( her.
droxide by an acid. ammo'nium sel'enate,
N'H. + ion, formed by the neutralization of ammonium hy-
the amnion, in which the embryo is suspended. any aalt containing the amn t (ant, am/ant), am not.
-Usage. See ain
am-o-bar.bi.tal (amID bar/bi taJl
riitl). am'niot'ic flu'id. Anal. , Zoo!. the watery fluid in
-iSynfond loving; amatory. 2. passionate . 1. s oned;
, tender. 3. erotic. pa.tri-ae a.mar tre e/), Latin.
(1275-1325; ME '" MF '" L amorosus, equiv. to amor love + -osus - OSE ousJ -am/o.rou..ly, ado. -am/' o.rous-ness - am.o.ros.j.ty (am/a ros'i te), n.
love of one s country; patnotism.
, a colorless crystalChem. line , water-soluble solid, (NH. SeO" used as a moth-
used crystalline barbiturate , C" H.. chiefly as a sedative. (1945-50; AM(VL) + -0. + aARalTAL)
, pl. bas, -bae
tall), n. Pharm. a
(a/maR pa/tRe ;/; EnlJ. a/mar pal.
a-mor-phism (a mar/fiz
ity of being amorphous. 2. ismos
ter- insoluble solid, C..
facture of cosmetics, ammo'nium sul'fate, lizer. (1800-85J ammo'nium thiocy'anate,
NO" used chiefly in the manu- am-oe- bae-an (am/a
tan , waxlike , wa-
a-moe- ba (a me/be),
Dbs. nihilism (def. 3). (185055; '" G Amorphismus '" Gk amorph(os) AMORPHOUS +
L the state or qual-
water-soluble solid, (NH. SO.. used chiefly as a fertiChern.
a white, crystalline
be/an), adj. Pros. alternatelyresponsive , as verses in dialogue. Also , am/oe. be/an. (165CkJO; '" L amoebae(usl antiphonal ('" Gk amoibaios interchanging, equiv. to amoib(e) alternation (cf. AMEaA)
+ -aios adj. suffix) + -AN)
minate;having no pattern or
5. Bioi. having
crystalline, deliquescent. water- soluble solid , CH. used chiefly as a herbicide and as a fixative in textile a-moe-bic (a me/bik), adj. amebic. a-moe.bq,.cyte (a me/ba sW), n. amebocyte. printing.
line , water- soluble solid, (NH.
manufacture of deaning compounds Chem.
hi'a sis). n. Pathol. amebiasis.
form; having no specific shape; formless: the amorphous 2. of DO particular kind or character; indeter. clouds. structure; unorganized: 3. Pestyle; an amorphous personality. an amorphous
trag. Mineral. occurring in a mass, as without stratifica-
tion or crystalline structure. 4. Chem.
O" used chiefly in the
a white, crystal-
urge to am-mo-no (am/a no/), adj. Chern. of, containing, or characterized by depression followed by a manic (def. 1), a-mort (a mart/), adj. Archaic. spiritless; lifeless. (1580-90; '" F a mort at (the point of) death. See A2. run or go amok. See amuck -ado. derived from ammonia. (independent use of AMMONO- J murder. -adj, 3. amuck, Also , amuck. (1865-70; '" Malay MORTJ ammono-, a combining form representing ammonia in amuk) amort., amortization. compound words: ammonolysis. mol)e), n. l. Ies (-laz; Sp. o am-mo-noid (am/a noid/), n. any cephalopod mollusk a-m).ria (a mo/la; Sp. a 1. the root pof any of several am-or-ti.za-tion (am/ar ta za/shan, a mar/I, n. 1. an les Southwestern u.S.
of the extinct order Ammonoidea, from the Devonian to
tin or lead base.
alloys hav:ing a
a-mae-bold (a me/bold), adj. ameboid. - a.moe/. bacteria. (1725-35; '" Gk amorphos shapeless. See MORPH ousJ -a-mor/phous.ly, ado. -a.mor/boid- ism, n. phou s n. a-rook (a muk/ , amok/), n. L (among members of -Sys.neI,s-2. shapeleas, undefined; vague, anomalous, n. certain Southeast Asian cultures) a psychic disturbance
structural components that are not clearly differentiated , as the nuclear material in certain
Ammonoidea equiv. to Ammon(ites) name of the order + -oidea - OIDEA; see AMMONITE
(1880-85; '" NL
the Cretaceous periods , having a coiled , chambered shell.
for soap. 2. any such plant itself. ('" MexSp '" Nahuatl
plants, as Mexican species of agaves, used as a substitute
act or instance of amortizing a debt or other obligation. 2. the sums devoted to this purpose. Also , amortize-
ment. (1665-75; '" ML a(d)mortLziihon- (s. of admortizatio).
am-mo-nol.y.sis (am /a nol'e sis), n.
other compounds by being a source of H' and NH,. (1910-15; AMMONO- + - LYSIS) -am.mo-no. lit- ic (a monl!-
A-mon (a/man), n. Egyptian Myth. Amen. decomposition in which ammorua is resolved into a-mong (a mung/), prep. 1. in , into, or
am-or.tize (am /ar
tiz' , a mar/tiz), o.
1. Finance. a- to liquidate or extinguish (a mortgage
midst of; in association or connection with; surrounded
by; He was amoreg missionary influenc..
ratio church mortmain. Also am-mo-no- Iyze (a mon'l lZ/), 0. Iyzed Iyz-ing. with a share for each of: Dioide the cigars among you. cso.rpoBrit n orm/or-tisgroup;(alienate5in ME amortisen a e/ 1375-142 ; That Chern. -O.t 1. to subject to ammonolysis. -o. i. 2. to 4. in the number, class, or group of; of or out of: is e p lit., to kill, die amortiss-, long undergo ammonolysis. (1930-35; AMMONOL(VSIS) + - IZE) among the thiregs we must do. 5. by all or with the ''" AF , .OFd)mortire (deriv.s. of amorlir s. mort- death " VL a( of L mors, the among w le of; many of: am-moph-j-Ious (a mofla las), adj. Bioi. living or phoople. 6.by most or withor reciprocalpopular of: Settle with ad- AD- IZE later r. is(s)- , prob. by assoc. with AL action e by the joint sand + - PHIammo(s) ble, adj.
growing in sand. (1875-80; '" Gk
il'ik, am/a nl-
friends. 2. in the midst of, so the local people. work among
the creditor or to a sinking fund. b. to write off a cost of (an asset) gradually. 2, Old Eng. Law, to convey to a
or other obligation),esp.
by periodic payments to
am-mu.ni.tion (am ya nish/anl, n. 1. the material fired , scattered, dropped. or detonated from any weapon, as bombs or rockets, and esp. shot, shrapnel, bulleta, or shells fired by guns. 2. the means of igniting or exploding such material, as primers , fuzes, and (P'npowder. 3. any material, means, weapons, etc. , used in any conflict:
7. each with the other; mutually: yourselves. among 8. familiar to or themseloes. among They quarreled (bef. characteristic of: a prooerb among lhe Spanish. on geonmareg for on gemareg, 1000; ME; DE amareg,
am'or-tize-ment (am/ar tiz/mant, a mar/tiz-), n, 1.
tization. Also, a-mor.tisse'ment
(0 mar/tiz mant).
-Syn. AMONG and aETWEEN suggest a relationship
(the) group (of); akin to MINGLE)
mange (dat. of gemong crowd , akin to mmgan to mix) in
a sloping top on e buttress, pillar. etc. 2. an architectural feature, as a gable, at the top ofa fa9ade, 3. amor(1610-20; AMORTIZE + - MENT, after MF or AF amortissere), re.
a crude ammunilion o( stones.
4. information , adv:ice or supplies to help defend or attack a v:iewpoint , argu(or the dement , or daim: Gioe me some ammunition bate, 5. Dbs. any military supplies. (1620-30; '" MF amonitions amunitions (pl.) military supplies (0- A-
the crowd; bethat is not necessarily physical: among They don t haDe much sense among tween two pillars; me, I don like arey o( them. and them. Between you
wrongly analyzed as l'amunitionJ
munition'" L; see
MUNITION), or '" F 10 munition
of a place or surrounded by something: to stand amid ruins. -Usage. See between.
a more literary word, implies being in the middle
A.mo.ry (a/ma A.mos (a/mas),
n. a male or female given name.
tury a.c. 2. a book of the Bible bearing his name. 3. a male given nam.. from a Hebrew word mearung "burden
1. a Minor Prophet of the 8th cen-
Amn. Air Force.
a.mongst (a mungst/ ,
AMONG + to amoreg in AGAINST)
of anthophyllite ,
am-ne.sia (am nij/zha), n. loss of a large block of in-
among. (1200-50; earlier amongs.
a mungkst/). prep. Chie(ly Brit. ME amoreges. equiv. es adv. gen. suffix; excrescent
'" NL A.mon- Ra (a/man ra/), re. Egyptian Myth. Amen-Ra. more quantities or sums; aggregate. 2. the sum of the measure: a princ 3. '" Gk amnesia, var. of amnestia obliv:ion; perhaps te a/_ Sp. a man/te. grealipal and interest of a loan,the quantity; , value, or to re- a.mon.til.la. do (a man 't! a/do full effect fine- s. of mimne'skesthai amount o( resistance. 4. learnedly formed from Iya'tha ya/ti\a), n. a pale, dry Spanish sherry. (1815- significance. -o. i. 5. to total;add (usually fol. by to): a -IA. See AMNESTY) smember (cf. MNEMONIC) + near ('" L adl + Montill(a) (see 25; '" Sp, equiv. to a to. 6. to reach, extend. or am-nes.tic (am nes'tik), adj. The repair bill amounts to $300. MONTILLA) + -ado . ATE be equal in number, quantity, effect, etc. ; be equiYalent am-ne-si'ac (am ne/zhe ak' ze- I, n. 1. a person bul (usually fol. byto): It is staled di((ereretly amounts to A.mor (a/mar), re. Cupid. ('" L: love: see AMOROUS) affected by amnesia. -adj. 2. Also , am.ne-sic (amne/sik, -zik). displaying the symptoms of aITUlesia. a.mo.ra (a mar/a, a morIa), n.. pI. a-mo-ra-im (a/ma- the same thing. 7. to develop into; become (usually fol. (1910- 15; AMNESI(A) + . , after such pairs as MANIA, ra'im ma- I. (o(ten cap. ) Judaism. one of a group of
caused by brain injury, shock.
terrelated memories; complete or partial loss of memory
a-mount (a mount'), n. 1. the sum total of two or
S(outh Africa) + -ITE
resistant material. (1915-20; A(sbestos) M(inel
sWI, n. Mineral. an asbesline variety rich in iron , formerly used as a heato(f)
Jewish scholars, active in the rabbinical academies of CONCISE PRONUNCIATION Kgy, acl, cape dare part; set equal; i~
am-nes.ty (am 'n. st;;), n.
-re. 1. a general
offenses, against a government, often granted before any for past trial or conviction. 2. Law. an act of forgiveness
esp. to a class of persons as a whole. 3. a for-
offenses, esp. political
ries A. , whose commentaries on and interpretations of
the Mishnah comprise the Palestinian and Babylonian
Palestine and Babylonia from the 3rd to the 6th centu.
Gemaras. Cf. sabora. tanna: ('" Heb preteI' J
iD aod a caD serve inter. 1 ullan (bulla) Seeas syllabic collsonants, asfroct"adle (krad/l), and cover. b the roll key inside the
Up, urge; child; sinR; shoe; thin ox, ouer order , oil. book, bool, au'; , ',eosure. a ~ a as ia alonee as ia syslem, i as in tJ1al; zh as in circus; . as ia (ire (n' r), hour (nu rJ. cosily, 0 as in gallop, u as io
" " ..
Page 5 of 7big
Bot. a biennial plant.
v.. -cled cling. bi.cy.cle (bVsi kal aik/al, .sVkal), 1. a vehicle with two wheel a in tandem, usually propelled by pedals connected to the rear wheel by a
se. "Ion. 2. an intercessory prayer for persons living and dead , said in English churches up to about the middle of
the 16th century. (1745-55)
mal "- . 1 of life in two years , flowering and frillting the 4. any event second year, as beels or winter wheat. -no
occuning once in two years. 5.
chain, and having handlebars for steering and a saddle- Bid. dle (bid' I), n. L Francis, 188&-1968 , U.S. attorney like seat. -v. i, 2. to ride a bicycle. -V. t. 3. to ship or general 1941-45. 2. John, 161~2 , English theologian:
transport directly by bicycle or other means. (1865-70;
" F; see BI- , CYCLE) -bi'cy.clist, bi'cy.cIBr,
founder of English Unitarianism. 3. Nicholas, 178&1844 , U ,S. financier.
-Usage. See hi-
Also, biyearly (for defs. 1, 2). (1615-25; BIENNI(UM) + bi.en'ni.al.ly, ado.
en'e am), cnn, pI.
equiv. to bi.
Chiefly New England, n.. pI. -dies. 1. a chicken. 2. a South Midland, and Southern u.S. biddy newly hatched chick. (1595-1605; cf. Brit. dial.
(-en'e a). a period of two
years. (1895-1900; " L,
(comb. form of annus
bid.dy 2 (bid' e),
?) with aame aense; uaually as a call to chickens)
fussy old woman. 2. a female domestic servant. esp. a cleaning woman. (1700-10; special use of Biddy, byform of BRIDGET)
dies. 1. a fussbudget, esp. a
(byaN va nv'), adj, French.
come (used when addressing or referring to a woman).
2. a welcome; kindly greeting or reception.
(by aN va nv'), French, -adj.
bide (bid), u. , bid.ed or bode: bid.ed or (Archaic) bid; Obs.
Bien.ville (byaN vel'),
Jean Bap.tiste le Mayne
(SY"'R do), 1680-
. A. 'oeat; 'B;. fum1e; C, band bn.k~; .D, handJebar; .c
to endure; bear. 2. t. 1. Archaic. i. 3. to dwell; abide; wait; remain. 4. encoUnter, bide one s time, to wait for a favorable opportunity: (bef. 900; raise. bul bided his time. to ask for wanted c, OFris bidia OS bidan OHG ME biden OE bidan; beldon L fidere, Gk peitheslhai bilha, Goth bitan ON the meaning appar. develbheidh-; rely" IE
(zhiiN bA teaLl la mwAn'), Sieur de
1768 , French governor of Louisiana.
bier (ber) ,
stand together with the corpse or coffin. (bef. 900; ME Bahre), D, Dan bere. OE ber bair(e); c. OHG baro (G
the coffin containing it is laid before burial. 2. auch a
1. a frame or stand on which a corpse or
oped: have trust"
endure" wait" ABIDE" remain)
or toothlike parts or processes. (175a-60; " L bident- (B. dens tooth) + -ATE equiv. to bi- BIof bidens, e bi'cycle kick/ - 1. an . xerciee performed by lying on bi.den.tic,u'late (bilden tik' ya lit, -laY), adj. Zool. one s back with the hips and legs in the air , supported by Bot. having two Bmall teeth or toothlike processes.
a dramatic kick made by a player throwing both feet in the air as a ball is approaching on the fly, while moving the legs with a pedaling motion to kick the ball in the opposite direction to which the player is fac2. Soccer.
f;, peilf!!; 'I'dlt!iD:d; ,?, ch:itl!;Ii, derailleur ~ear c. ;' :c . ""'c'
adj. bi.den.tate (bi den' tat), Bioi.
-Syn. 3. atay, linger, tarry.
having two teeth
akin to BEAR biere; boar Sw bar; sp. innuenced by F BARROW neVi, n. Ambrose (Gwin.nett) (gwi (bers),
BEER + Ger. Kiise
1842-1914? , U.S. journaliat and short-story writer.
a sern.isoft strong white ,
miJk cheeae that originated in Germany, and is eaten esp. with beer. Also,. Bier'kiVse. (" G , equiv. to
and moving the legs as if pedaling a bicycle.
(aI- ' + nENTICULATE)
bi.det (be dB'! , bi deV),
n. L a low , basinlike bathroom fixture , usual1y with spigota, used for bathing the genital and perineal areas. 2. a small saddle horse. (1620-30; to trot) " MF: pony; akin to OF bider (be'de), , pI. dis. (in India) an inexpensive cigabi(ii " Skt vitika
Bier.stadt (ber'atat; Ger. beR'shtiit),n. ,AI.bert (al', u.S. painter born in Germany.
bier~stu.be (ber'shtoo ba). n" pI. bes, -ben
phere, decor, food, beer, etc, (1905-10; room; aee STOVE Bier BEER + Stube n. (used with (be'atingz),
ing, with the player usually ending up sprawled on the
tavern or cafe offering German or German- style atmos-
" G, eqillv. to
bi'cycle path' . a path, as one alongside a roadway,
for the use ofbicyclials. Also caned bike path. (1970-75)
cycling (def. 2). Also, bi'.
1. conaiBting of or
cycle rac'ing. (1865-70)
leaf, Also , beedi, blri. (" Hindi preparation rol1ed in betel leaf)
rette. locally produced usual1y from cut tobacco roBed in
adj. a lek'lal),
in two whorls, aa having two the stamena of a flower. 3. pertaining to or resembling a bicycle. Also, bi,cY'cli.cal. (1875-80; BI-' + CYCLIC)
adj. ai'klik, -sik'lik), cyclea or circles. 2. Bot.
using two dialects of the same language. (1965-70;
proficient in or
biest.ings bi.fa.cial (bi fa'ahal), adj.
fronts. 2. Archaeol.
See under terpene
lec'tal.ism, bi.di'a.lect- ism. n. bi'dl.a. lec'tal. ly, ado. bi. di.rec-tion.al (bildi rek'sha nl
DIALECTAL, on the model of BILINGUAL) -bi'di.a.
bi'di.a. lec'tal- ist.
bidl (bid), v. , bade or
capable of reacting or functioning in two , usually opposite, direcBI- ' + DIRECTIONAL) (1940-45; bi'di.rec'tion-al. ly, ado. n.
as aome toola. (1880-85; BI- ' + FACIAL) -bi.fa'cial. ly, ado.
having the oppoaite aurfaces alike,
1. having two faces or
bid for 3 , 7 , 10; bid.den or bid for I, 2, 5 , 6, 8 or bid n. -V. t. 1. to command; order; for 3, 4, 7 , 9; bid.ding;
2. to express (a greeting, direct.: tobid them depart. farewell , benediction, or wiah): to bid good night.
They bid $25, 000 and got the contract. 4. Cards. charge; to enter a bid of (a given quantity or Billt); to bid lwo i. 6. no- trump. to command; order; direct: I will do as you bid. 7. to make a bid; She bid 01 the auction for the old chair.
bad for 1, 2, 5. 6, 8 or
Com. to offer (a certain aum) as the price one win payor
be doN veJl), , pl. -villes (Fr. - vel'). (esp. in France and North Africa) an impoverished shantytown on the outskirts of a city. (1950-55; " F equiv. metal drum, can (for oil, etc.) (earlier, five-pirit to bidon comb. form, in -uille, wooden jug; of uncert. orig. placenames , of vWe city" L villa VILLA; metal cans are
(bi far'e as), adj. Bot. biforius twofold, double, deriv. " LL (adv. ) in two parts or places IOUS) of L biforiam (see equiv. to bi- BIforiam (perh. deriv. of r-as utterance , thus orig, "having two expreaaions ; see INFANT); ado. cf. MULTIFARIOUS) - bi.far'i.ous.ly,
in two vertical
hit; punch. (1840-50, Amer. ; perh. imit.
n. a deep-red Britain. (1785-95; var, of beefing
1. a blow; punch.
bitt' (bif), n.
bid-up (bid'up n. 1. the act or an instance of in- bif.fy (bif'e), Can di bid fair. See fair ' (def. 23). 9. bid in, Com. to overbid creasing the price of something by forcing the bidding scuae) an Slang. a toilet or privy. Also, bitt. (orig. ob. r all offers for (property) at an auction in order to retain upward. 2. the amount of auch increase; a bid- up of 100 Com. to increase the market percent in the lastyear. (186~5; n. uae of v. phraae bid bi. fid (bi,rid), adj. separated or cleft i;'to two equal ownership. 10. bid up, parts or lobes. (165~5; " bifidus equiv. to bi- BI11. an act or instance price of by increasing bids. -no up)
, pl. fies. of bidding. 12.
5. to summon by invitation; invite. -v.
often used as building materials in such towna) bid' price/ Slack Exchange. bid' (def. 15).
cooking apple native to (so called from color of
Chiefly Upper Midwest and
a. an offer to make a Bpecified Cards. number of points or to tske a apecified number of tricks.
bid, 13. an invitation; a bid 10 join the club.
bid for attempt to attain some goal or purpose: a Stock Exchange. 15. Alao called bid price. tion.
LE.. Bachelor of Induatrial Engineering.
b. the amount of such an offer. c. the turn of a person to
ing to a style of furnishings common in German-speak-
(be'dar mi/ar), adj.
noting or pertain- bi.fi.
suffix) -bi.fidlj. ty,
the highest price a prospective buyer ia willing to pay for a bidden security at a given moment. (bef. 900; ME bidda OS biddian OHG bitto beg, ask; c. OFria biddan all " Gmc bidON bithja Goth bidjan; tan (G bitten), to perbhidh- command , akin to Gk peithein ja- (" IE suade , inspire with trust, E BIDE) -bid'der
ing areas in the early to middle 19th century. generally
existing aa a simplification of the French Directoire and Empire styles. usual1y execuled in frilltwood with much bi. flag.el.late (bi flaya lat' lit), adj, Zool. having use of matched veneers, and often displaying architec- two flagella, (185~0; BI- ' + FLAGELLATE) tural motifa. (named after Gottlieb Biedermeier imagi- bi.flex (bjlfleks), adj. bent at two places. (BIflex.
adj. (bi fjllar), (1830-40; BI- ' + L filaments or threads. ado. bi.fi'lar-Iy, FILE
(var. 5. of findere n.
to split; akin to BITE) bi'fid. ly, odo.
+ -us adj.
furnished or fitted with two
writers and published in German magazine
nary author of poem a
from 1855 on)
actual1y composed by various Fliegende
-Syn. 1. charge; requireproffer. , propoaal;
proffer. 11. offer
bi.fluor.ide (bi flOor'id
" L flex us;
, enjoin. 3. offer. tender,
v. Archaic. pp. of bide. LD.. Bachelor of Industrial DeBign. b.i. d., (in prescriptions) twice a day. (" L bis in die) bi. dar.ka (bi diir'ka). n. a sealakin boat used by d Aleuts and BOuthero Alaakan Eskimoa. Also , bi. a.ra (bi dar'a), bi. dar- kee (bi dar'ke). baidarka. (1825-,35; .. eqillv. to baldar(a) kind of river craft : " Russ baidarka
bi.fo.cal (bi fa'kal , bVfa'-no
acid salt of hydrofluoric acid . containing the group HF,-, aB ammonium bifluoride , NH.HF,. (BI- ' + FLUORIDE)
see FLEX)flat' flor' adj. 1.
i. n. Chem.
having two foci. 2. (of an eyeglass or contact lens) having two portions , one for near and one for far vision.
(1885-90 Amer. BI- ' + FOCAL)
3. bifocals. bifocal eyeglasses or contact lenses.
Bi.dault French atateaman. bid.da.ble (bid'a bal),adj.
(be dejl), n,
river craft, barge, ORuss (appar. akin to baidak ko dim. suffix) bodakiL of obscure orig.
forms , as a centaur or mermaid. Also , bi'formed' biformis equiv. to bi- BI(1810-20; " L form(a) ap a bid.den (bid'n), v. 1. a pp. of bid. -adj. 2. invited. MeEild(Scots). beld(e), beildaid. pOEr. to be identified with ME FORM + is adj. suffix) - bi. for'mi.ty, boldness; akin to bieldo courage, power , b the rainbow bridge Scand. Myth. bid. ding (bid'ing), n. 1. command; summons; invita- Goth balthei confidence. See BOLn) Bif.rost (biv'rost), n. equiv. tion: I went there at his bidding. 2. bids collectively, or of the gods from Asgard to earth. (" ON Bi(rpst, The Bie. le.feld (be'la feJtl). n. Ii city in N West Germany. to bif- (root of bi(a c. OE bifian to shake) + rpst, c. a period during which bids are made or received:
Bid. de. ford
adequate to bid 1. Cards. suit. 2. willing to do what is asked; upon: a biddable obedient; tractable; docile: biddable child. 3. that may a (1820biddable merchandise. be acquired by bidding: ble.ness. ABLE) -bid/da.billi.ty, 30; BID bid'da.bly, ado.
bi.fo.rate (bi for'at
BI- ' + FORKED)
n. lake. See Bienne, lake
adj. capabJe of being folded into two as with leaves that are hinged together: a bifold FOLD) bi(old shutters. Also, bi'fold'ing. (BIall), adj. having two leaves. bi. ' + FOLIATE) (1830-40; BIJit), adj. Bot. having (bi fa'le a lat' two leaflets. (1825-35; ai-' + FOLIDLATE) , bi'fa raLl, bif'a- adj. (1835-45; BIBioI.
fo.li.ate (bi fa'ie it, -
for'. having two pores or perforations. + L foratus perforated , ptp. of (orare to bore)
bifurcate (def. 2).(1570-80;
a city in SW Maine. Biel (bel),
bi.form (bVform 'L
having or combining two
n. Scot. a shelter; refuge. (1400-50; Jate
derivative; eqwv. , eqwvaJent; irrut. , imitative; obI. placing; s" stem; sp., spelliag, spelled; reap. , respelling. respelled; trans. , translation; ? , origin unknown; " unattested; t, probably
earlier than. Sa.. the full key inside the front cover
bidding, to subrn.it to someone s orders; perform services Bie'ler-see (be'laR za/), n, German name of Lake of bi-func.tion.al (bi fungk'sha nl), adj. 1. having or Bienne. for someone: After he wo.s promoted to vice presidenl at serving two functioas. 2. Chem. having or involving two the bank, he expected eueryone around him to do his bid- Biel.sko- Bia. la (byel'sko bya!)a bya'wa), n. a city functional groups. (1935-40; 81. ' + FUNCTIONAL) ING ding. (1125-75; ME; see aID in S Poland. 116 100. German, Bie.litz (biVlits). kat; adj. also . i bid' ding prayer/ , 1. the formal petitionary prayer bien en.ten.du (bya naN taN dY'), French. natural1y; bb.i'ffur.cate (v. a)d)v. , bi'far kaLl, bi fur'adj. -v. , v. ar kit, bi fUr , -cat-ed, -cat.ing, said esp. in the Anglican Church immediately before the of course. (lit. , weB understood) 2. divided 1. to divide or fork into two branches. -adj. t Bienne (byen), n. lake of, a lake in NW Switzerland: ibnuroartwo branches,+(1605-15; " ML bifurcatus, ptp.hof CONCISE ITYMOLOGY KEYO " , deecended or borrowed from; " i. lus . ATE i( c e (bi- BI- ' furc(a) FORK traces of prehistoric lake dwellings. 16 sq. mi. (41 sq. whence; b., blead of, blended; c" cognate with; cf. , compare; deriv. fur-cate.ly (bilfar kaLlle; bl fUr' kat Ie, - kit- ), ado. , oblique; r. , re- kIn). Also cal1ed lake Biel. German. Bielersee.
bidding began (uriously.
3. a bid. 4. do someone
stretch of road)
bi.en.ni.al (bi en 'e
1. happening every two al), adj. 2. lasting or enduring for two years: biennial games. years: a biennial li(e cycle. 3. Bot. completing its nor-
(big), adj. big. ger, big. gest, large . as in size. height , width , or
amount: a big house; a
modeling Case 3:02-cv-01991-JSW
hypotheses required to describe the system or explain
Document 116-9 1236
Middle Persian stage.
mo Page 6 of 7dify
Persian language since the
the phenomenon , often mathematically. 11.
, moderates. 2. a person who presides over a panel
discussion on radio or television, 3. a presiding officer
,er.a.tor (mod'o ra/t"r),
1. a person or thing
animal that is mimick~d in form or color by another.
model -adj. 12. seI'ving as an example or modelo 0 home open to prospective buyers. 13. worthy to serve as 14. being a small a model; exemplary: a model student. or miniature version of something: He enjoyed building model ships. -v, t. 15. to form or plan according to a
as at a public forum, a legislative body, or an ecc1esiastical body in the Presbyterian Church. 4. Physics. a sub. stance , as graphite or heavy water , used to slow neu-
nlon. rI94~5) Mod'ern Per' sian. the
total score. Also called military pentathlon,
model. 16. to give shape or form to; fashion. 17. to or the like. 19. to simulate (a process , concept, or the operation of a system), commonly with the aid of a computer. 20. to display to other persons or to prospective
make a miniature model of. 18. to fashion in clay, wax,
moderator equiv. causing fission. 11350- 1400; ME " L TOR) tor to modera(ri) to control (see MODERATE) + a!. -tor' - ), od). mod.er.a.to.ri,al (mod/ar
trons to speeds at which they are more efficient in
Bioi. a consolidation of the reo mod'ern syn'thesis, suits of various lines of investigation from ' the 1920' through the 1950's that supported and reconciled the of inheritance in terms of natural selection acting onge-
DarwiniaD theory of evolution and the Mendelian laws
zon bek'aR), n.
or include as an element in a larger constl'Uct, 10model
-v. i. 22. to make models. 23. to produce designs in some plastic material. 24. to
esp. by wearing: tomodel dresses.
21. to use
am). ad). 1. of or pertaining to present and recent time; not ancient or remote: modern city li(e.
Mo.der.sohn- Beck.er (mo'daR
la (pou'la), 1878-1907 ,
2. characteristic of present and recent time; contempo-
mod.est (mod'ist), ad). 1. having or showing a modetc. ; free from vaDi~y, egotism ,
erate or humble estimate of one s merits, importance, boastfulness, or great
gance: a modest house. 3. having or showing regard for the decencies of behavior, speech , dress, etc. ; decent: a 4. limited or moderate in dress. modest neckline on amount. extent, etc, : a modest increase in salary. (155565; " L modest us restrained, decorous, equiv, to modesMODE (s. of modus an s-stem akin to modus . cf. moderuri to MOD. medos, with the vowel of modus; tus adj. suffix) ERATE , from the same n. stem) + -mod'est-ly. adv.
new data into the forecast.
" MF modelle earlier modell (see " VL modellus equiv, to L mod(ulus) modello esp. Brit. mod" ELL E) -mod'el.er; MODULE) + -ellus el. ler. 1. paragon; prototype , archetype , mold , original. See ideal. 16. design.
assume a typical or natural appearance, as the parts of a drawing in progress. 25. to serve. or bo employed aa a
historical period following the 4. of, pertainMiddle Ages: modern European history. ing to, or characteristic of contemporary styles of art, lit, raturemusic, etc. , that reject traditionally accepted or sanctioned forms and emphasize individual experimenof or pertaining to the
tation and sonsibility. 5.(cap. new (def. 12), 6. Typography. noting or descriptive of a font of numerals in Cf. old style (def.3). -no 7. a person
rary; not antiquated or obsolete: modern viewpoints.
pretensions. 2. free from ostentation or showy extrava-
which the body aligns on the baseline, as 1234567890.
, perh. "
1. the act,
sion of a person who models. 2. the process of producing
sculptured form with some plastic material , as clay. 3. the technique of rendering the illusion of volume on a
Print. a type atyle differentiated from old style by heavy vertical strokes and straight serifs. (1490- 1500; " MF mode me " LL modem us equiv. to L mod(o), mod(o)
8. a person whose views and
tastea are modern. 9.
of modern times.
unpretentious -nSbyrns.iv1..retiring, unassuming. 1. 2.. DEMURE, PRUDuotu e 3. pure, virtuous. MODEST
distaste for anything coarse or loud, MODEST
r sel(- especting person,
mod'el. ling. 11575--85; MODEL + -ING mod.el.ist (mod'l ist), n. a person who makes models
as of airplanes. (1670-80;
cept , or operation of a system, often implemented by a Psychol. computer program. 6. Also called imitation. therapy in which a particular behavior is elicited by the observation of similar behavior in others. Also esp. Brit.
MODEL + - 1ST)
surface by ahading. 4. the treatment of volume, as the turning of a form representation, often mathematical, of a process, con.
, in sculpture. 5. the
lalely, just now (orig.' abl. sing. of modus MODE mnd', adv. adj. suffix of time) -mod'ern.ly. -emus
ern. ness, -Syn. 1. MODERN , RECENT, LATE apply to that which
ISH imply conformity to propriety and decorum, and a implies becoming shyness, sobriety, and proper behavior: amodDEMURE implies a bashful
decorum; uiet is near to or characteristic of the present as contrasted qicatesimplicity, staldness. andmodesty' a but can also indemure young an assumed or affected with any other time. MODERN is applied to those things d chorus girl. PRUDISH suggests an exaggeratedly aelf-conthat exist in the present age, esp. in contrast to thoae of scious modesty or propriety in behavior or conversation a former age or an age long past; hence the. word sometimes has the connotation of up- to- date
ana. thus, good: modern ideas.
Model T. an automobile with a 2. liter , 4-cylinder ensuccessfully mass-produced on an assembly line.
gine , produced by the Ford Motor Company from 1909
through 1927 , considered to be the first motor vehicle
dem), Compulers. -no 1. an elec-
it is new . fresh , and novel, recenl deoelopmenls. LATE the 10 Ie remay mean nearest to the present moment: ports on the battle.
separated from the present or the time of action by only a short interval;
That which is RECENT is
of one who wishes to be thought of as easily shocked and rudish objection to harmless who often is intolerant: 3. b01 , coarse. remark. Mo.des.to (ma des' to) , n. a city in central California.
mod' ern cut/
mo. dem (mo'dam
tronic device that makes possible the transmission of
data to or from a computer via telephone or other communication lines. -V. t. 2. to send or receive (informa(mo(dulator)-de. tion , data. or the like) via a modem.
or combinations of the brilliant cut, step cut, or table cut having the girdle outline often in some novel form. Also
any of several modifications
being modest; freedom from vanity, boastfulness, etc. 2.
ties. 1. the quality of
regard for decency of behavior. speech . dress, etc. 3.
across the front of mod'ern dance' . a form of contemporary theatrical mod'esty pan tel. a panel to coDceal the legs ofaadesk per. and concert dance employing a special technique for de. esp. an office desk, designed
simplicity; moderation. (152~35;'"
son seated at it.
pressive of abstract ideas. (1910-15) modulation-doped MODFET (mod'feU), n. Electronics. a city in N Italy, mo.derne (mo darn' , ma- adj. pretentiously modern; field effect transistor. NW of Bologna. 178 959. striving to appear modern but lacking style or convic- ModGk, Modern Greek. Also, Mod. Gk.. Mod. Gr. v. mod'a r;W), (adj. , n. mod'ar it , mod'rit; mod.er.ate tion. (" F, MODERN) ModHeb. Modern Hebrew. Also, Mod. Heb. 1. kept or keeping , adj. . n. V. -at-ad , -at.ing. -adj. Mod'ern Eng/lish , the English language since cl475. mod. i.cum (mod'i kam), n. a moderate or small within reasonable or proper limits; not extreme, exces- Also called New English. He hasn t even a modicum o( common sense. amount, sive , or intense: a moderate price. 2. of medium quanmodicus moder. tity, extent, or amount a moderate income. 3. mediocre Mod'ern French' , the French language si';ce cl600. (1425-75; late ME " L, n. use ofneut. of (189~1900J 4. calm or mild, as of the ate, equiv. to modi- comb. form of modus Jimit (see or fair: moderate talent. -cus adj. suffix) MODE weather. 5. of or pertaining to moderates. as in politics Mod'ern Greek' . the Greek language since cl500. 6. a perSOD who is moderate in opinion or reJigion. -no Abbr. ModGk Also called New Greek. (1740- 50) modif.. modification. or opposed to extreme views and actions, esp. in pDJitics Mod'ern He/brew , the living language of modern Ismod.j.fj.cand (mod' a fi kand/).n. Gram. a word that or religiDn. 7. (usually cap. a member of a poJitical red books, books is modified, or qualified, by another. In rael, a revived form of ancient Hebrew. Abbr. ModHeb -o. t. 8. to reduce party advocating moderate reform. (a thing) is a modificand. (1825-35; " L modificandum the excessiveness of; make less violent, severe, intense. Also called New Hebrew. (1970-75) to be measured or limited, ger. of modi(icare to MODIFY) s words. or rigorous: to moderate the sharpness o( Mod/ern Icelan'dic. the Icelandic language since mod.j.fj.ca.tjon (mod' a fi ka'shan), n. 1. an act or to preside over or at (a public forum, meeting, discus- cl550. (192~30) sion , etc. -v. i. 10. to become less violent, severe, in- mod.ern.ism (mod'ar niz'am), n. 1. modern charac- instance of modifying. 2. the state of being modified; tense , or rigorous. 11. to act as moderator; preside. ter , tendencies , or values; adherence to or sympathy partial alteration. 3. a modified form; variety. 4. Bioi. (v. ) " L (adj. moderaten moderate a change in a living organism Bcquired from its own ac11350-1400; ME h what is modern. to restrain, control), equiv. wit. 3. (cap. ) Thea/. a.2. a modern usage or characteris- tivity or environment and not transmitted to its descend(ptp. of moderari moderatus the movement in Roman Catholic tic
veloping the use of the entire body in
a; It. mo'de na), n.
-tSyyncalm. MODERATE, TEMPERATE, JUDICIOUS , REASON. s ead ,
temperate, judicious , just, cool
AaLE all stress the avoidance of exces8---motional. physintellectual or otherwise. ,
v. s. (see MODEST)
adv. 1. reasonable ,
thought that sought to interpret the teachings of the
Church in the light of philosophic and scientific concep. tions prevalent in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, condemned by Pope Pius X in 1907. b. the liberal theoestrangement or divergence from the past in the
ants. 5. limitation or qualification. 6. Gram. a. the use of a modifier in a construction, or of modifiers in a class of constl'Uctions or in a language. b. the meaning of a
modifier . esp. as it affects the meaning of the word or other form modified, Limitation is one kind o( modificac
MDDERATE implies reof
sponse or behavior that is by nature not excessive: a
logical tendency in Protestantism in the 20th century. 4. (sometimes cap. a deliberate philosophical and practical
TEMPERATE. interchangeable with MODERATE in some
and literature 'occurring
movements and styles. (1730-40; MODERN + - ISM) angry challenge. JUDICIOUS emphasizes prudence and mod.ern. ist (mod'ar nist), n. 1. a person who follows or favors modern ways, tendencies, etc. 2. a person who the exercise of careful judgment: a judicious balance becore to o((end lween freedom and restraint; judicious neither side, REASONABLE suggests the imposition or
general uses, usually stresses the idea of caution, control surprisingly lemperate response to the or sclf.restraint: a
century and taking form in any of various innovative
advocates the study of modern subjects in preference to ancient c1assics. 3. an adherent of modernism in theo4. of modernists or modernism. logical questions. -adj.
11580-90; MODERN + - 1ST)
(mod/ar nis'tik), adj.
esp. in the course of the 20th
ment in a construction, as the change of not to doesn t. d. an adjustment in the form of a word as it
passes from one language to another. (1495-1505; " L
(s. of modification(ptp. ofmodificare; modificatio), equlv. to
pheme, word , or other form when it functions as an ele-
c. a change in the phonological shape of a mor-
paying a single fixed rate that covers room . breakfast MAP Cf. of or pertaining to modernism or modernists. (190~10; American plan, demi-pension, European plan. MODERN + - ISTlC) -mod'ern- is'ti.cal. ly, adv. mod. fj.er (mod'a fi'ar). n. 1. a person or thing that -Ant. 5, 6. radical. ties. 1. the . pI. mo.der.nj.ty (mo diir'ni te , med ies 2. Gram. a. a word, mod'erate breeze' . a wind of 13-18 mph (5. 8-8 quality of being modern. 2. something modern. 11620- montifthat. limits or qualifies thephrase,ofor sentence ele" me senae another word, (1795-1805) m/sec). 30; MODERN + - ITV) phrase. or element in the same construction, b. the immod'erate gale' . a wind of 32--38mph (14- 17 m/sec). mod.ern.ize (mod'ar niz/), v. ized, -iz.ing. -V. I. mediate constituent of an endocentric construction that (169~1705) to make modern; give a new or modern character or ap- is not the head. (1575--85; MODIFY + -Usage. See dangling participle misplaced n. 1. the quality of pearance to, 10 modernize one s, ideas; to modernize (mod/a r;"shan), mod.er.a.tion
adoption of limits derived from the application of reason reasonable amount or good sense: a reasonable price; 2, average. 8. o( damages allot led to each claimant. meliorate, pacify. calm, mitigate, soften, mollify. ~emper quaJify. appease, abate, lessen , diminish. See allay.
see MODIFY) + - ion. -ION) mod.j. fi.ca.to.ry (mod'a fi ka tar le, - tor'e), ad). modifying. Also. mod'i.fi.ca'tive. (181~25; " L (see MODIFICATION) + - ORy modificat(us)
mod'ified Amer'ican plan/
. (in hotels!a
1. modem. 2.
and one other meal , usually dinner. Abbr.
being moderate; restraint; avoidance of extremes or ex-
cesses; temperance. 2. the act of moderating. 3. moderations. the first pubJic examinations at Oxford Brit
University for the B.A. degree in mathematics or in c1as.
ways , views. etc. Also esp. Brit. mod'em. ise' .
50; MODERN(ISM) + - IZE) -mod'ern.
kitchen. -v. i.
2. to become modern; adopt modern
sics. 4. in moderation. without excess; moderately;
to drink in moderalion, temperately: (s. of ME moderaeion " L moderation-
1. renovate , refurbish, update. . (1375- 1425; late mod' ern jazz/ , any of various styles of jazz that have See evolved since the early 1940's and are marked generally moderalio).
-V. t. 1. to (mod'a fV), 0. tied. -fy.ing. change somewhat the form or qualities of; alter partially;
with descriptive, limiting, or particularizing mearung; be 3. to be a modifier. In a good man good modifies man,
the modifier or attribute of. 4. to change (a vowel)
2. Gram. (of a word, conlract. to modi(y phrase , or clause) to stand in a syntactically subordinate
relation to (another word, phrase , or clause), usually
by harmonic and rhythmic
complexity, emphasis on
who favors, supports, or promotes moderation. (184050; MODERATION + - 1ST)
ra"sha nist), n.
chord progressions rather than melody, a tendency to
ra'to), ad). Music. moderate; in
draw on c1assical forms and styles, and eclectic, allusive melodic tags in improvisation. Also called progressive jazz. Cf. bop , cool jazz, hard bop. (1950-55)
mod' ern lan'guage, one of the literary languages currently in use in Europe, as French, Spanish, or Ger-
to erate; softeIl:
become modified. (1350-1400; ME
regulate, restrain. See MODE
umlaut. 5. to reduce or lessen in degree or extent; modmodi(y on. s demands. -v. i. 6. to be or " MF modi(ien
moderate time. (1715-25; " It " L moderotus MODER.
dedvat;ve; equiv. , equivalent: imit. , imitative; obI. , oblique; r.. reo plac;ng: s , stem: sp. , spelling, spelled: resp. , respelling, respelled:
CONCISE ETYMOLOGY K"YO ~ , descended or borrowed from; " whence: b. , blend of, blended; c., cognate with: cf.. compare; deriv.
school , college . or university. mod' ern pentath'lon, an
man . treated as a departmental course of study iD a
to impose a rule or pattern " L modificare IFY) -mod'i. fVa. ble -mod/j.fVa.bWi.ty. mod'i.fi'a. ble.ness,
1. vary, adjust, shape , reform. 5. MODIFY, QUALIFY , TEMPER suggest altering an original statement;
\';~~ :h~~sI S~~n ;' f
f~y i~~~~~~~ fro
~~;ed; +. probably
ing five different events, a 300- meter freestyle swim. a 4000- meter cross-country run, a 5000- meter equestrian steeplechase , epee fencing, and pistol target-shooting at
25 meters , the winner being the contestant with the
athletic contest compris.
condition , or the like, so as to avoid anything excessive
or extreme. To MODIFY is
lars, generally in the direction of leniency or moderation,
to alter in one or more particu-
rates, To QUALIFY is to restrict or limit by exceptions or conditions: to quali(y one s praise
to modi(y demands,
hopes. To TEMPEa is to alter the quality of something, to generally so as to diminish its force or harshneas: temper one criticism with humor.
Page 7 of 7
sembly into units of differing size, complexi~y,
Mo-di.glia.ni (m6 de'le a'ne, mi:Vdel ya'-; It.
de' II), n. A-me.de.o (a/me Iya'ne), painter and sculptor in France.
stspdard or unit for measuring, 4. a
ofbwlding materials, 5. Math,
or func, tion. 2. any of the individual self-contained segments of a spacecraft , designed to perfonn a particular taak: the 3. a module; Lunar module. spacecraft command selected unit of
a patch of thickly grown brush or dense shrubbery,
(1925-30; " AmerSp, Sp: knoll, stack of aheaves)
mo.gul (mo' gal),
n. a bwnp or mound of hard SDOW on a ski alope. (1960.-.;5; " dial. G; cf, Austrian dial. Mugel adj. small hill) -mo'guled,
n. 1. a residual hillock of limego'te), honeycombed with cavitiea. 2. Southwestern U.s.
measure, ranging in size from a few inchea to several
feet, used aa a basia for the planning and atandardization
an Abelian group with a
mo.dil.lion (mo diJlyan, ma-
n. Archit. an ornamental cantilever beneath the corona or similar member of a cornice , atringcourse, etc. (1555-65; " It modiglione " VL . mutilionem var. of' miUulionem ace, of' mutulio,
set of left or right operatora forming a ring auch that for Mo.gul (m6' gal, - gul, mo guI'), n. 1. any of the Monany two operators and any group element the result of gol conquerors of India who established an empire that laBted from 1526 to 1857 , but held only nominal power having the first operator act on the element, giving a second element, and the second operator act on the sec- after 1803. Cf. Great Mogul. 2. any of their descendond element is equal to the reault of having a single op- ants, 3. (L. ) an important, powerful, or influential pererator, fonned by adding or multiplying the two opera- son: a mogul of the movie industry. 4. a Mongol or a steam locomotive having a tors , act on the first element. Cf. ring ' (def. 23). 6. Mongolian. 5. Railroads. a. part of a program that performB a distinct two- wheeled front truck, six driving wheels, and DO rear Computers. truck. See table under Whyte classification. -adj. 6. function. b; an interchangeable , plug-in hardware unit.
(1555-65; " L modulus;
adv. . Math.
with respect to a
to 11, modulo 5. (1895-1900; " modulus: 6 is congruent MODULUS) NL modulo abl. of L modulus a coPhysics. (moj'a laa), n., pl. II (Ii). 1. efficient pertaining . to a phyaical prop~rty. 2. Math.
of or pertain.ing to the Moguls or their empire. Alao Moghul , Mughal (for defa. 1, 2, 6). (1580-90; " Pers mughul MONGOL)
a plain weave for. draperies and in a pile weave for up-
n. 1. the coat or fleece of an Angora goat. 2. a fabric made of yarn from trus fleece, in
95; " NL,
modi(us) a dry measure (perh. deriv. of modus -oLus -OLE ) -mo.di'o.lar,
choose) Ii iii). Anat. yield the aame remaindera. c. See abso!ute value. , pI. di'a Jas, maMoham.. Mohammedan. conical axis of the cochJea of the ear. (1685- (1555-65;" L: a uwt of measure; see MODE, -ULE) drinking veasel, mod'ulus of elastic'ity, Physics. any of several co- Mo.ham.med (moo ham'id L: nave of a wheel bucket,
multiplied to yield the logarithms in another. b. a quantity by which two giveD quantities can be divided to
that nwnber by whIch the loganthma In ' one
holatery. 3. a gannent made of this fabric.
var. (by folk etym,)
" Ar mukhayyar
lit. , chosen,
(1560-70; of earliermocayare " It moccaiaro khayyara choice, ptp. of
-Syn. smart, cruc, fasruonable, mo-diste (mo deaV; Fr. mil deaV),
dests-'; Fr, deaV). Older Use.
deale ~ iD womeD s fasruonab!e attire. (1830-40; " F; see mo- dus op.e-ran-di (mo/das opla ran' de
moMo.ham.med.an.jze (moo ham'i dn to the vi-ven.dl (mo'de vi ven'de , mo'di vi ven'di). 1. manized, -iz-ing. Islamize. Also esp. Brit. Mo. ham'medo Lutuamian group and ranging from aouthern Oregon to ner of living; way of life; lifestyle. 2. a temporary aranoise/ . (1820-30; MOHAMMEDAN + - IZE) rangement between persons or parties pending a settlemodus vivendi Moham'med ibn'- Ka'sim (moo ham'id ib'an ka'mo'dock wool' (mo'dok). See territory wool. (spe- ment of matters in debate. (1875-80 " L mode of liVIng) sim, -ha'mid), fl. early 8th century A. , Muslim concial use of a male given name, fonn of Morris or queror of the Sind region in India. Also, Moham'med (mo), n. mod. praesc., (in prescriptions) in the manner pre- Moe Moses ibn/-Qa'sim. scribed; aa directed. "(" L modo praescripto) ,.u (':':lop'be aa, ma' , m~'- n - din) d the Mo.dred (mo'drid), n. Arthurian Romance. Mor- Moe- bSeesMobIUS, August Ferdinand.. August Ferdi- Meoham'meuslof Ghor' (gllr . gar), (Mu iu- adestab-, im Sultan of Ghazn.i 1173-1206: di d 1206 M nand. nephew and treacherous killer of Arthur. Also, lished Muslim power in India. Also, Muhammed Ghori. p (me're), n, l. Class. Myth. the Fates. Moe.rae mod.u.lar (mojla lar), adj. 1. of or pertain.ing to a Moe.si.a (me'she a), n, an ancient country in S Eu- Moham'med Za.hir' Shah' (zii her'), born 1914
module or a modulus, 2. composed of standardized units rope, S
(esp. collectively) , pI. -docs, Mo- doc (mo'dok), a member of an Americsn Indian peopJe belonging
Modrzejewska), 1840-1909, ena Opid S. after 1876.
I6H ) -mod'ish.ly,
, pl. (mil jealka), n.
in the current fashion; adv.
efficients of elasticity of a body, expreasing the ratio be- hammad (def. 1). tween a streas or force per unit area that acts to defonn Mohammed . 11, the Conqueror 1430.-.;1, aultan of body and the corresponding fracti o~al defonnati?n stylish. the conqueror of Constantinople 1453. 1451-S1, of caused by. the stress. Also called coeffICIent elaStlc- Turkey mod" Ity, elastic modulus. (1800-10) Moham'med A.Ii' (a I." , al\e), 1. Mau-Ia.na (moPhysics. See shear modulus. la'na), 1873-1931 , Indian journalist and political leader: mod'ulus of rigid'ity,
advocate of Indian nationalization. 2. See Mehemet
a female maker of or mod'ulus of tor'sion,
See shear modulus.
op la ran' de . mo'di op/a ran'di; Lat.
-doc. mo.dus vi.ven.di (mljldas vi ven'de
mo.di op.e.ran-di (mo'de mo'de pe of operating or working. (1645-55; " L
Riin'de), di), pl.
- ed.an, (moo ham'i dn, mo. adj. di; Lat. Mo.hamnmto Muhsmmad or Ialam; Islamic; 1. of or Mualim. pertain.i g
2. an adherent of Islam; Muslim, (1675-85; Mo-
HAMMED + -AN)
Mo-ham-med.an.ism (moo ham'i dn iz/am , moo
Muharnmadaniam; Ialam. (MOHAMMEDAN + - ISM)
of the Danube and N of ancient Thrace and Mac- king of Afghan.istan 1933-73. Mo. har.ram (moo har'am, moo n. the first month of or sections for eaay construction or flexible arrangement: edon.ia: later a Roman province. (of a lattice) Moe-so.gQth (me'sO gothl sa- n. one of the Chris- the Muslim calendar. Also, Muharram. Cf. Muslim calmodular sofa. 3. Math. modular home; haV1ng the property that for , any two elements Wlth one tianized G01hs who settled in Moesia in the 4th century endar. (1605-15; " Ar mul;1arram Jit" forbidden) leas than the other, .the uwon of the smaller element A n , pl. -ves, (esp. collectively) Mo.ha.ve (mo ha've), with the intersection of the larger element and any trurd
to the Moesogoths or theIr language. (MOESOcomposed of software GOTH + the trurd element, 4. Computers. or hardware modulea that can be altered or replaceq mo.fette (mo feV; Fr, mil feV), n. 1. a noxious ema5. nation , conaiating chiefly of carbon dioxide , escaping without affecting the remainder of the aystem. -D.
(1790-1800; " NL
larger element with the union of the amaller element snd lalDlDg
lement of the lattice is equal to the intersection of the
M/?e.so-goth-Ic (me/so goth',k" -sa-
of or per-
tribe belonging to the Yuman linguistic family, fonnerly located in the Colorado River valley of ArizoDa and California. -adj. 2. of or pertain.ing to the Mohave tribe. Alao, Mojave.
-ve , adj.
L a member of s North Americsn Indian
Mohawk River, New York, 2. the Iroquoian language of the Mohawk Indians. 3. a river flowing E from central New York to the Hudson, 148 mi, (240 kIn) long. 4. (often l. Also caned Mo'hawk hairlcut. a hairstyle in which the head is shaved bare except for a strip of hair -V. 3. to cause to go from one usually with blunt , brushlike ends, down the center of the scalp from the forehead to the nape of the neck. 5. mod,u'lar.j.ty (mojla lar'i te mod/ ya-), n. the use of (1665-75; M(OVE) + (J)OG Mil, a twin turboprop, two-seat U.S. Army aircraft fitted , as in assembling an mag' (mog), n. moggy. (by shorten.ing) individually diatinct functional units electron.ic or mechanical system. (1935-40; MODULAa + Mo-ga. di.shu (mll/ gii de' shoo), n. a seaport in and with cameras, radar, and infrared sensors and designed the capital of Somalia, in the S part. 400 000. Italian, Mo. to mon.itor enemy operationa. gans (eSp. colLectiveLy) . pl. Mo. he.gan (mo he' gan), ga-dl.scio (miYgii de'shll). mod.u.lar'lze (mojla Ja riz/), v. Ized. -Iz,ong. to Mog.a.dor gan. a member of a group of Pequot Indians that broke form or organ.i~e . ~ modulea, ss for flexibility. Also, (mog/a dor' , o dor' Fr. mo gA dOR'), n. MODULAa + - IZE) fonner name of Essaoulra. 2. esp. Bnt. mod u lar Is"'. (1955-60, (L. Also, mog/a-dore'. with the Pequot and then fought against them in the Pen. mod/u-lar. l.za'tlon. a ribbed fabric of silk or rayon warp and cotton or linen filling, used for neckties. mo.hel (Seph. mil hel'; Ashk. mo'hal , mo'al, moi'-; mod.u.late (moj'a latl), Iat.ed, -Iat-ing. -V. t. . pl. mo.hal.jm (Seph.. Ashk. mo/hato regulate by or adjust to a certain measure or propor- Mo.gen Da.vid (mejlgan dii'vid; Beph. Heb. ma gen' Eng. mo'hal), the person who perfonns Hebrew. tlOn; "?ften; toDe d?WD. 2. to alter ~r adapt (the voIce) da ved' Ashk. Heb. mo' gan d6'vid), Judaism. See lem'), Eng, mo.hels.
mora) mould (" Langobardic; cf. G Muff mould, late ETI'A) to give off a foul smell) + etta MHG muffeln mooed, mog-glng. Dial. -v. i. 1. to mod'ular arith'metic, arithmetic in wruch numbers mag' (mog), that are coDgruent modulo a given nwnber are treBted move on , depart, or decamp (usually fol. by of( or on). as the same. Cf. congruence (def. 2), modulo. modulus 2. to walk or move along gently, slowly, and steadily. place to another. t. (def. 2b). (1955-60) shapea or deaigns. moduLaris. See It
somethiDg, as a house or piece of furniture , bwlt or or- from the earth in regiona of nearly extinct volcanic acgan.ized in self- contained units or sections. 6. a self-con- tivity. 2. one ofthe open.ings or fiasureB from which trua tained unit or item, as of furniture, that can be combined emanation iasuea. Nso, mof. fette' . (1815-25; " F " It (Upper mufeta), eqwv. to muff(a) (Neapolitan moffetta or interchanged with othera like it to create different
Moha've Deslert. See Mojave Desert.
hawk. 1. a member
of a tribe of the moBt easterly of
. pL. hawks.
the Iroquoia Five Nations, fonnerly reaident slODg the
acco~diDg to the CIrcumstanc~s, one a listener, etc. 3, Star
Telecommunications, the volume of (tone). 4. the amplitude. frequency, phase, or intensity of (a car-
Also, mog. (1815-25; Bald to be ong, Cockney; supposed Mo-hen.jo-Da.ro (me henljo diir/o), n, an archaeoMICllands) Moggy pet ,:,ame for, logica! site in Pakistan, near the Indua River: six succesrier wave) to vary in accordance with a sound wave or denvatlons from dial, (W sive ancient citiea were bwlt here. other signal, the frequency of the signal wave uaually a calf. or from personal name MAGGIE , are dublOus)
being very much lower than that of the carrier.
of Muslc, a. to attune to a certam pItch or key, b. to David. - . pl. ogles. vary (1900-05) to cause mog-gy (mog'e),
the circumcision in the Jewish rite of circumcising a
male child on the eighth day after hia birth.
5. Mo-ghul (mo' gal
gul, m6 guI'), n" adj.
Mogul (defs. Mo.hi.can (mo
to modulate a carrier wave. b. 1, 2, 6).
-Syn. 2. temper, control.
(mojla la'shan , mod/yan.
Enjoyed modulattOg wl!h to talk; V1B1t: CB Slang. as ROO Zla , a CI y ~ s ru.z e- moo h6. Music. lD SE, Bra~ll , E of Sao Paulo. 111 554. to regulate (sounda), set L moduliitus (ptp. of moduLari lal' ya), n. any speech deATE ) mog-I.la.h.a (mojla Hi'le a to music, plsy an instrument). See MODULE , as atuttering or stammering. Also, mollialia. (1875mod-u. la.bll- l-ty (mojla la bWi te), n, hardJy talking (mogi(s) with cliffi' 8IT; " Gk mogilal(os) tlva. mod.u.la.to.ry (mojla la rorIe, -tOr/e), adj. culty + lalos babbling) + - in -IA)
to pass from one key to another. (1550-60;"
you. .M . as. o.gl d
z ed" k '
Moh.ism (mo'iz am),
n. the doctrine of Mo. Tze, streasing universal Jove, not limited by speciaJ affections , or obligations and opposition to Confucianism and tradiSM) hfilling tionalism. (Mo(-TzE) MoWist, , adj.
n. one of a group of
a city in of modulating, 2, the state of being modulated. 3. E Byeloruasia, in the W Soviet Un.ion in Europe, on the
left; Russ. ma gyi lyM'), n.
London in the early part of the 18th century. lI705-15; var. of MOHAWK) -Mo'hock. jsm a. Dmeper. 290 000. trsnaition from one key to another. 4. Gram. Music. (mo/hol'), n. a hole bored through the earth' a stone Mo- hole AuslraLian. the use of a particular distribution of streas or .pitch in a mo- go (mo' go), n,. pI. -gos. conatruction , as the use ofnsmg pItch on here In John," hatchet used by the Aborigines. (1815-25; " Dharuk crust into the region below the Mohorovicic discontinuity, for ~eological research. lMo(horovicic) (see here b. the feature of a constructIon resulting from mu.gu)
ME " L modulation- (s. of such use, (1350-1400;
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